FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Vector (biology)

In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


A classic example is the anopheles mosquito which acts as a vector for the disease malaria by transmitting the malarial parasite plasmodium to humans. In this case plasmodium is harmless to the mosquito (its intermediate host) but causes the disease malaria in humans (its definitive host). Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis Anopheles pampanae Anopheles peytoni... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... Species Plasmodium achiotense Plasmodium achromaticum Plasmodium acuminatum Plasmodium adunyinkai Plasmodium aegyptensis Plasmodium aeuminatum Plasmodium agamae Plasmodium anasum Plasmodium anomaluri Plasmodium arachniformis Plasmodium ashfordi Plasmodium atheruri Plasmodium aurulentum Plasmodium australis Plasmodium attenuatum Plasmodium azurophilum Plasmodium balli Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium basilisci Plasmodium beebei Plasmodium beltrani Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium bertii Plasmodium bigueti Plasmodium... Species Plasmodium achiotense Plasmodium achromaticum Plasmodium acuminatum Plasmodium adunyinkai Plasmodium aegyptensis Plasmodium aeuminatum Plasmodium agamae Plasmodium anasum Plasmodium anomaluri Plasmodium arachniformis Plasmodium ashfordi Plasmodium atheruri Plasmodium aurulentum Plasmodium australis Plasmodium attenuatum Plasmodium azurophilum Plasmodium balli Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium basilisci Plasmodium beebei Plasmodium beltrani Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium bertii Plasmodium bigueti Plasmodium... In parasitology, an intermediate host is an organism within which a parasite does not sexually reproduce. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... In parasitology, an intermediate host is an organism that is infected with a parasite that will not reproduce sexually within it, while a definitive host is one in which the parasite reproduces. ...


In molecular biology and genetic engineering a vector is a vehicle for transferring genetic material into a cell. Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... An iconic image of genetic engineering; this autoluminograph from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering. ...


A viral vector is a virus which has been modified to transduct specific genetic material into a cell, e.g. for gene therapy. Viral vectors are a tool commonly used by biologists to deliver genetic material into cells inside a living organism or cultured in vitro. ... Transduction is the process by which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ...


A plasmid vector is made by splicing a DNA construct into a plasmid. Various techniques are then used to transfect the plasmid into the cell. Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... A DNA construct is an artificially constructed segment of nucleic acid that is going to be transplanted into a target tissue or cell. ... Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, is called transfection. ...

Contents

Epidemiology

There are two types of vector that convey infectious organisms to a host. Microbes do not multiply within mechanical vectors - mechanical vectors only physically transport microbes from host to host. In contrast, microbes must propagate within a biological vector before the biological vector can transmit the microbes.

Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... St. ... Dengue fever (IPA: ) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Families Tungidae â€“ sticktight and chigoe fleas (chiggers) Pulicidae â€“ common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae â€“ carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae â€“ marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae â€“ rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae â€“ mouse and rat fleas Ischnopsyllidae â€“ bat fleas Ceratophyllidae:-fleas mainly associated with rodents Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae â€“ rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Lyme disease (Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes, or black-legged, tick, also known as a deer tick. ... Binomial name Rickettsia rickettsii Wolbach, 1919 Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodidae Wikispecies has information related to: Rickettsia Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus...

Cell transformation and gene therapy

Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the smallest of known human viruses. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Viral vectors are a tool commonly used by biologists to deliver genetic material into cells inside a living organism or cultured in vitro. ...

DNA

SV40 is an abbreviation for Simian vacuolating virus 40 or Simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. ... Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... A yeast artificial chromosome (short YAC) is a vector used to clone large DNA fragments (larger than 100 kb and up to 3000 kb). ... Chromosome walking is a method in genetics for identifying and sequencing long parts of a DNA strand, e. ... A genetic screen (or simply screen) is a procedure or test to identify and select individuals which possess a phenotype of interest. ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli. ... Shotgun sequencing is a method used in genetics for sequencing long DNA strands. ...

See also

A Vector DNA is a small piece of DNA containing regulatory and coding sequences of interest. ...

References

  • "Vector Control", World Health Organization, Global Malaria Programme. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (427 words)
Vector (spatial): In physics and engineering, vector most often refers specifically to an object that has a special relationship to the spatial coordinates/directions, that is, an element of a tangent bundle.
In physics vector (field) theory refers to a quantum field theory in which both chiralities of a Dirac field are present.
A biological vector is a mechanism that transmits genes or organisms.
Vector (biology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (364 words)
Species of mosquito, for example, serve as vectors for the disease-causing West Nile Virus; which the insects may ingest by feeding from an infected bird and regurgitate into a human, infecting him or her.
This sense of "biological vector" is the primary one in epidemiology and in common speech.
A vector in this sense is a DNA construct, such as a plasmid or a bacterial artificial chromosome, that contains an origin of replication.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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