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Encyclopedia > Vaulted ceiling
The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482.
The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482.

A Vault (French. voute, Italian. volta, German. Gewolbe), in architecture is the term given to the covering over of a space with stone or brick in arched form, the component parts of which exert a thrust and necessitate a counter resistance. In the case of vaults built under the level of the ground, the latter gave all that was required, but, when raised aloft, various expedients had to be employed, such as great thickness of walls in the case of barrel or continuous vaults, and cross walls or buttresses when intersecting vaults were employed. The simplest kind of vault is that known as the barrel, wagon or Tunnel Vault, which is generally semicircular in section, and may be regarded as a continuous arch, the length of which is in excess of its diameter; like the arch, the same provision is required as regards its temporary support whilst the voussoirs constituting one of its rings are being placed in position, for until the upper voussoir, or keystone, is introduced it is not self-supporting. At the present day, when timber of all kinds is easily procurable, this temporary support is given by centering, consisting of a framed truss with semicircular or segmental head, which carries the voussoirs until the ring of the whole arch is completed and is then, with a barrel vault, shifted on to support other rings; in early times, and particularly in Chaldaea and Egypt, where timber was scarce, other means of support had to be contrived, and it would seem that it was only in Roman times that centering was regularly employed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4561x3004, 3398 KB) Beschreibung: Maschennetzgewölbe im Chor der Liebfrauenkirche in Lienzingen (Mühlacker) Photograph: SteveK Datum: 26. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4561x3004, 3398 KB) Beschreibung: Maschennetzgewölbe im Chor der Liebfrauenkirche in Lienzingen (Mühlacker) Photograph: SteveK Datum: 26. ... Plan of lierne vault - Ely Choir, (liernes are shaded black). ... Mühlacker Mühlacker is a town with ca. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Barrel vault In architecture, a barrel vault is an extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. ... Isometric view of a typical arch An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e. ... An element in an arch. ... Keystone could mean: Keystone (train) Keystone (architecture) Keystone Aircraft Corporation Keystone (software) - A parser and front-end for ISO C++ Keystone, Colorado - a town and ski resort Keystone Resort - ski resort in Keystone, Colorado Keystone Studios - movie studio, also see Keystone Kops Keystone (beer) - a Coors product This is a... Model of centering for a ribbed dome structure at Albrechtsburg. ... In architecture and structural engineering, a truss is a static structure consisting of straight slender members inter-connected at joints into triangular units. ... Chaldea was a nation in the southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used to refer to the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. ...

Contents

Dome

Main article: Dome
Cross section of the Treasury of Atreus tholoi.
Cross section of the Treasury of Atreus tholoi.

Amongst the earliest known examples of any form of vaulting is to be found in the neolithic village of Khirokitia on Cyprus. Dating from ca. 6000BCE the circular buildings supported beehive shaped corbel domed vaults of unfired mud-bricks and also represent the first evidence for settlements with an upper floor. Similar beehive buildings, called tholoi, exist in Crete and Northern Iraq and were used as tombs. Their construction differs from that at Kirokitia in that most appear partially buried and make provision for a dromos entry. This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x938, 699 KB) Schatzhaus des Atreus, Querschnitt. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x938, 699 KB) Schatzhaus des Atreus, Querschnitt. ... Treasure of Atreus in 2004 The Treasure of Atreus or Treasury of Atreus is an impressive tholos tomb at Mycenae, Greece (on the Panagitsa Hill) constructed around 1250 BCE. The lintel stone above the doorway weighs 120 tons. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Choirokoitia is an archaeological site on the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea, dating from the Neolithic age. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... Elaborately decorated classical-style stone corbels support balconies on a building in Indianapolis. ... Cross section of a beehive tomb (Treasury of Atreus) Dromos entrance to the Treasury of Atreus Beehive tombs, also known as Tholos tombs (plural tholoi), are a monumental Late Bronze Age development of either the Mycenaean chamber tombs or tumulus burials dating to the Middle Bronze Age. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... off portions of the courts of law. ...


Domes however, represent a wider sense of the word vault. The distinction between the two is usually that a vault is essentially an arch which is extruded into the third dimension, whereas a dome is an arch revolved around its vertical axis.


Barrel vault

Main article: Barrel vault
View of the interior of the Cloaca Maxima sewer in Rome. Construction started ca. 600 BC
View of the interior of the Cloaca Maxima sewer in Rome. Construction started ca. 600 BC

The earliest known examples of Tunnel vaults were built by the Sumerians, possibly under the ziggurat at Nippur in Babylonia,[1] which was built of fired bricks cemented with clay mortar.[2] The earliest tunnel vaults in Egypt are thought to be those in the granaries built by Ramesses II, still in part existing behind the Ramesseum, at Thebes.[2][3][4][5] The span was 12 ft (3.6m). and the lower part of the arch was built in horizontal courses, up to about one-third of the height, and the rings above were inclined back at a slight angle, so that the bricks of each ring, laid flatwise, adhered till the ring was completed, no centering of any kind being required; the vault thus formed was elliptic in section, arising from the method of its construction. A similar system of construction was employed for the vault over the great hall at Ctesiphon, where the' material employed was fired bricks or tiles of great dimensions, cemented with mortar; but the span was close upon 83 ft. (25m), and the thickness of the vault was nearly 5 ft. (1.5m) at the top, there being four rings of brickwork.[2] Barrel vault In architecture, a barrel vault is an extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Cloaca_Maxima_2. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Cloaca_Maxima_2. ... The Cloaca Maxima was one of the worlds earliest sewage systems. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. ... Sumer (or Šumer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and Brick is an artificial stone made by forming clay into rectangular blocks which are hardened, either by burning in a kiln or sometimes, in warm countries, by sun-drying. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings Ramesseum: Hypostyle hall The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern... Two important places in antiquity were called Thebes: Thebes, Greece – Thebes of the Seven Gates; one-time capital of Boeotia. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Masonry. ...

Assyrian bas-relief from Nimrud showing domed structures in the background
Assyrian bas-relief from Nimrud showing domed structures in the background

It is probable that the great vaults of the Assyrian palaces were constructed in the same way, but with unburnt bricks dried only in the sun: one of the drains discovered by Sir Austen Henry Layard at Nimrud was built in rings sloping backwards. From the fact that each Assyrian monarch on his accession to the throne commenced his reign by the erection of a palace, it is probable that, owing to the ephemeral construction of these great vaults, half a century was the term of their existence. This may also account for the fact that no domed structures exist of the type shown in one of the bas-reliefs from Nimrud; the tradition of their erection, however, would seem to have been handed down to their successors in Mesopotamia, viz. to the Sassanians, who in their palaces in Serbia and Firouzabad built domes of similar form to those shown in the Nimrud sculptures, the chief difference being that, constructed in rubble stone and cemented with mortar, they still exist, though probably abandoned on the Islamic invasion in the 7th century. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (834x932, 47 KB) http://en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (834x932, 47 KB) http://en. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Right Honourable Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 1817–5 July 1894) was a British author and diplomatist, best known as the excavator of Nineveh. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ... Rubble is broken stone, of irregular size and shape. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...

Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces.
Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces.

In all the instances above quoted in Sumeria and Egypt the bricks, whether burnt or sun-dried, were of the description to which the term "tile" would now be given; the dimensions varied from 18 or 20 in. to 10 in., being generally square and about 4 to 2 in. thick, and they were not shaped as voussoirs, the connecting medium being thicker at the top than at the bottom. The earliest Egyptian examples of regular voussoirs in stone belong to the XXVIth Dynasty (ca. 650 B.C.) in the additions made then to the temple of Medinet Habu, and here it is probable that centering of some kind was provided, as the vaults are built in rings, so that the same centering could be shifted on after the completion of each ring. The earliest example of regularly shaped voussoirs, and of about the same date, is found in the cloaca at Graviscae in Etruria, with a span of about 14 ft., the voussoirs of which are from 5 to 6 ft. long. The cloaca maxima in Rome, built by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (603 B.C.) to drain the marshy ground between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills, was according to Commendatore Boni vaulted over in the 1st century B.C., the vault being over 8oo ft. long, 10 ft. in span, with three concentric rings of voussoirs. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (719x735, 170 KB) View of a barrel vault from above showing forces File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Barrel vault Talk:Barrel vault Vault (architecture) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (719x735, 170 KB) View of a barrel vault from above showing forces File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Barrel vault Talk:Barrel vault Vault (architecture) ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III, from the air. ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... The Cloaca Maxima was one of the worlds earliest sewage systems. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Lucius Tarquinius Priscus was the legendary fifth King of Rome, said to have reigned from 616 BC to 579 BC. Tarquinius Priscus came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii and was actually named Lucumo. ... See Palatine Hill for geography of Rome. ...




Groin vaults

Main article: Groin vault
A groin vault viewed from the underside, showing the arris or 'groin'.
A groin vault viewed from the underside, showing the arris or 'groin'.
Plan of the vault from above showing resultant outward thrust.
Plan of the vault from above showing resultant outward thrust.
Vault from above.
Vault from above.

So far, all the vaults mentioned have been barrel vaults, which, when not built underground, required continuous walls of great thickness to resist their thrust; the earliest example of the next variety, the intersecting barrel vault, is said to be over a small hall at Pergamum, in Asia Minor, but its first employment over halls of great dimensions is due to the Romans. When two semicircular barrel vaults of the same diameter cross one another their intersection (a true ellipse) is known as a groin, down which the thrust of the vault is carried to the cross walls; if a series of two or more barrel vaults intersect one another, the weight is carried on to the piers at their intersection and the thrust is transmitted to the outer cross walls; thus in the Roman reservoir at Baiae, known as the Piscina Mirabilis, a series of five aisles with semicircular barrel vaults are intersected by twelve cross aisles, the vaults being carried on 48 piers and thick external walls. The width of these aisles being only about 13 ft. there was no great difficulty in the construction of these vaults, but in the Roman Baths of Caracalla the tepidarium had a span of 80 ft., more than twice that of an English cathedral, so that its construction both from the statical and economical point of view was of the greatest importance.[2][6] The researches of M. Choisy (L'Art de bâtir chez les Romains), based on a minute examination of those portions of the vaults which still remain in situ, have shown that, on a comparatively slight centering, consisting of trusses placed about 10 ft. apart and covered with planks laid from truss to truss, were laid - to begin with - two layers of the Roman brick (measuring nearly 2 ft. square and 2 in. thick); on these and on the trusses transverse rings of brick were built with longitudinal ties at intervals; on the brick layers and embedding the rings and cross ties concrete was thrown in horizontal layers, the haunches being filled in solid, and the surface sloped on either side and covered over with a tile roof of low pitch laid direct on the concrete. The rings relieved the centering from the weight imposed, and the two layers of bricks carried the concrete till it had set. As the walls carrying these vaults were also built in concrete with occasional bond courses of brick, the whole structure was homogeneous. One of the important ingredients of the mortar was a volcanic deposit found near Rome, known as pozzolana, which, when the concrete had set, not only made the concrete as solid as the rock itself, but to a certain extent neutralized the thrust of the vaults, which formed shells equivalent to that of a metal lid; the Romans, however, do not seem to have recognized the extraordinary value of this pozzolana mixture, for they otherwise provided amply for the counteracting of any thrust which might exist by the erection of cross walls and buttresses. In the tepidaria of the Thermae and in the basilica of Constantine, in order to bring the thrust well within the walls, the main barrel vault of the hall was brought forward on each side and rested on detached columns, which constituted the principal architectural decoration. In cases where the cross vaults intersecting were not of the same span as those of the main vault, the arches were either stilted so that their soffits might be of the same height, or they formed smaller intersections in the lower part of the vault; in both of these cases, however, the intersections or groins were twisted, for which it was very difficult to form a centering, and, moreover, they were of disagreeable effect: though every attempt was made to mask this in the decoration of the vault by panels and reliefs modelled in stucco. GÃ¥rdslösa Church, Öland, Sweden A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is a vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1294x757, 276 KB) underside of groin vault showing arris File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arris Groin vault User talk:Anlace Talk:Vault (architecture) Vault (architecture) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1294x757, 276 KB) underside of groin vault showing arris File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arris Groin vault User talk:Anlace Talk:Vault (architecture) Vault (architecture) ... An arris is an architectural term that describes the intersection between two outside planes such as the corner of a masonry unit or the intersection of divergent architectural details. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1374x757, 202 KB) Own work - groin vault plan with forces File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Groin vault User talk:Anlace Talk:Vault (architecture) Vault (architecture) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1374x757, 202 KB) Own work - groin vault plan with forces File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Groin vault User talk:Anlace Talk:Vault (architecture) Vault (architecture) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1374x780, 186 KB) groin vault from above File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Groin vault User talk:Anlace Talk:Vault (architecture) Vault (architecture) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1374x780, 186 KB) groin vault from above File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Groin vault User talk:Anlace Talk:Vault (architecture) Vault (architecture) ... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... GÃ¥rdslösa Church, Öland, Sweden A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is a vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. ... Baiae (Italian: Baia), in the Campania region of Italy on the Bay of Naples, today a frazione of the comune of Bacoli, was for several hundred years a fashionable and luxurious coastal resort, especially towards the end of the period of the Roman Republic. ... The Piscina Mirabilis was the largest freshwater cistern ever built by the ancient Romans. ... The Baths of Caracalla, in 2003 The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between 212 and 216 AD, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla. ... The tepidarium was the warm (tepidus) bathroom of the Roman baths. ... A cathedral is a religious building for worship, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran churches, which serves as a bishops seat, and thus as the central church of a diocese. ... Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Deposit may refer to: Finance A deposit is a specific sum of money taken and held on account, by a bank as a service provided for its clients. ... Pozzolana is a fine sandy volcanic ash, originally discovered and dug at Pozzuoli in the region around Vesuvius, but later at a number of other sites. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... The tepidarium was the warm (tepidus) bathroom of the Roman baths heated by a hypocaust or underfloor heating system. ... St. ... // Constantine is a common name derived from the Latin word constans, meaning constant or steadfast. ... Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ...


The widest hall vaulted by the Romans was that of the throne room in the palace of Diocletian on the Palatine Hill, and this had the enormous span of 1oo ft., its thrust being counteracted by other halls on either side with buttresses outside. In provincial towns and in other parts of the Roman Empire, where the material pozzolana was not procurable, the Romans had to trust to their mortar as a cementing medium, but this, though excellent of its kind, was not of sufficient cohesive strength to allow of the erection of vaults of more than about 40 ft. span, which were generally built in rubble masonry. There still exist in Asia Minor and Syria some vaulted halls, generally attached to thermae, which are carried on walls of great thickness. There were many varieties of the Roman vault, whether continuous or intersected, such as those employed over the corridors on the Colosseum and the theatre of Marcellus, but in these cases the springing of the vault was above the summit of the arches of the main front, so that there was no intersection; on the other hand, over the corridors were either elliptical or semicircular, or over the staircases rising vaults, all of which were more difficult to construct; there were also numerous solutions of vault over circular halls, of which that of the Pantheon was the most important example, having a diameter of 142 ft., and over the hemicycles, which were sometimes of great size; that known as Canopus in Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli had a diameter of 75 ft., and was vaulted over with a series of ribs, between which were alternating rampant flat and semicircular webs and cells; in the same villa and in Rome were octagonal halls with various other combinations of vault. Another type of vault not yet referred to is that of the Tabularium arcade where the Cloister vault was employed. Fig. 3 compared with fig. 2 will show the difference; in the former the angles of intersection are inset, and in the latter they are groins with projecting angles at the base, which die away at the summit. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( 245– 312), born Diocles (Greek Διοκλής) and known in English as Diocletian,[1] was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... Theater of Marcellus in the Via del Teatro di Marcello, Rome Theater of Marcellus by night. ... Pantheon may refer to: Buildings: Pantheon, Rome, a temple built in 125 AD to all Roman gods, now a Christian church. ... Canopus (α Car / α Carinae / Alpha Carinae) is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, and the second brightest star in the sky, with a visual magnitude of −0. ... The villas recreation of Canopus, a resort near Alexandria, as seen from the temple of Serapis Theatrical masks of Tragedy and Comedy in refined mosaic, from the villa (Capitoline Museum, Rome) The Villa of the Emperor Hadrian at Tivoli, Italy, even in ruined condition is one of the most... Tivoli usually refers to: Tivoli, Italy, an ancient Roman (now Italian) town, the first bearer of the name Tivoli Tivoli Systems, Inc. ... The Tabularium, on the right, with the medioeval Senate palace built upon. ... Arcade can mean several things: Arcade (architecture) - A passage or walkway, often including retailers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into vault (architecture). ...


Eastern vaults and domes

Section through the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.
Section through the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.

The vault of the Basilica of Maxentius, completed by Constantine, was the last great work carried out by the Romans, and two centuries pass before the next important development is found in the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) at Constantinople. It is probable that the realization of the great advance in the science of vaulting shown in this church owed something to the eastern tradition of dome vaulting seen in the Assyrian domes, which are known to us only by the representations in the bas-relief from Nimrud (fig. 1), because in the great water cisterns in Istanbul, known as the Yeri Batan Serai (the underground palace) and Bin bir-derek (cistern with a thousand and one columns), both built by Constantine, we find the intersecting groin vaults of the Romans already replaced by small cupolas or domes. These domes, however, are of small dimensions when compared with that projected and carried out by Justinian in the Hagia Sophia. Previous to this the greatest dome was that of the Pantheon at Rome, but this was carried on an immense wall 20 ft. thick, and with the exception of small niches or recesses in the thickness of the wall could not be extended, so that Justinian apparently instructed his architect to provide an immense hemicycle or apse at the eastern end, a similar apse at the western end, and great arches on either side, the walls under which would be pierced with windows. Unlike the Pantheon dome, the upper portions of which were made of concrete, Byzantine domes were made of brick, which were lighter and thinner, but which more vulnerable to the forces exterted onto them. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3996x1912, 1770 KB) Description: Längsschnitt der Hagia Sophia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3996x1912, 1770 KB) Description: Längsschnitt der Hagia Sophia. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul, Greek: , historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Remains of the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine in Rome. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... Map of Constantinople. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Pantheon may refer to: Buildings: Pantheon, Rome, a temple built in 125 AD to all Roman gods, now a Christian church. ... A semicircle is a two-dimensional geometric shape that forms half of a circle. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ...


The diagram (fig. 4) shows the outlines of the solution of the problem. If a hemispherical dome is cut by four vertical planes, the intersection gives four semicircular arches; if cut in addition by a horizontal plane tangent to the top of these arches, it describes a circle; that portion of the sphere which is below this circle and between the arches, forming a spherical spandril, is the pendentive (fig. 5), and its radius is equal to the diagonal of the square on which the four arches rest. Having obtained a circle for the base of the dome, it is not necessary that the upper portion of the dome should spring from the same level as the arches, or that its domical surface should be a continuation of that of the pendentive. The first and second dome of the Hagia Sophia apparently fell down, so that Justinian determined to raise it, possibly to give greater lightness to the structure, but mainly in order to obtain increased light for the interior of the church. This was effected by piercing it with forty windows - the effect of which was of an extraordinary nature, as the light streaming through these windows gave to the dome the appearance of being suspended in the air. The pendentive which carried the dome rested on four great arches, the thrust of those crossing the church being counteracted by immense buttresses which traversed the aisles, and the other two partly by smaller arches in the apse, the thrust being carried to the outer walls, and to a certain extent by the side walls which were built under the arches. From the description given by Procopius we gather that the centering employed for the great arches consisted of a wall erected to support them during their erection. The construction of the pendentives is not known, but it is surmised that to the top of the pendentives they were built in horizontal courses of brick, projecting one over the other, the projecting angles being cut off afterwards and covered with stucco in which the mosaics were embedded; this was the method employed in the erection of the Perigordian domes, to which we shall return; these, however, were of less diameter than those of the Hagia Sophia, being only about 40 to 60 ft. instead of 107 ft. The apotheosis of Byzantine architecture, in fact, was reached in Hagia Sophia, for although it formed the model on which all subsequent Byzantine churches were based, so far as their plan was concerned, no domes approaching the former in dimensions were even attempted. The principal difference in some later examples is that which took place in the form of the pendentive on which the dome was carried. Instead of the spherical spandril of Hagia Sophia, large niches were formed in the angles, as in the Mosque of Damascus, which was built by Byzantine workmen for the Al-Walid I in A.D. 705; these gave an octagonal base on which the hemispherical dome rested (fig. 6); or again, as in the Sassanian palaces of Serbia and Firouzabad of the 4th and 5th century, when a series of concentric arch rings, projecting one in front of the other, were built, giving also an octagonal base; each of these pendentives is known as a squinch. Sample flowchart diagram A diagram is a simplified and structured visual representation of concepts, ideas, constructions, relations, statistical data, anatomy etc used in all aspects of human activities to visualize and clarify the topic. ... In the masonry arch, a spandrel or spandril (formerly splaundrel, a word of unknown origin) is the space between two arches. ... The pendentive (painted yellow) Pendentive in the Hagia Sophia A pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. ... Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. ... In mathematics, diagonal has a geometric meaning, and a derived meaning as used in square tables and matrix terminology. ... Procopius (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ... A squinch in architecture is a piece of construction used for filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a proper base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome. ...

There is one other remarkable vault, also built by Justinian, in the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople. The central area of this church was octagonal on plan, and the dome is divided into sixteen compartments; of these eight consist of broad flat bands rising from the centre of each of the walls, and the alternate eight are concave cells over the angles of the octagon, which externally and internally give to the roof the appearance of an umbrella.
The Apse of the former Church with the Mihrab. ... The Apse of the former Church with the Mihrab. ... The Apse of the former Church with the Mihrab. ...


Romanesque

Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all of the light being provided by the Rose window at one end of the vault.
Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all of the light being provided by the Rose window at one end of the vault.

Although the dome constitutes the principal characteristic of the Byzantine church, throughout Asia Minor are numerous examples in which the naves are vaulted with the semicircular barrel vault, and this is the type of vault found throughout the south of France in the 11th and 12th centuries, the only change being the occasional substitution of the pointed barrel vault, adopted not only on account of its exerting a less thrust, but because, as pointed out by Fergusson (vol. ii. p. 46), the roofing tiles were laid directly on the vault and a less amount of filling in at the top was required. The continuous thrust of the barrel vault in these cases was met either by semicircular or pointed barrel vaults on the aisles, which had only half the span of the nave; of this there is an interesting example in the Chapel of Saint John in the Tower of London - and sometimes by half-barrel vaults. The great thickness of the walls, however, required in such constructions would seem to have led to another solution of the problem of roofing over churches with incombustible material, viz. that which is found throughout Perigord and La Charente, where a series of domes carried on pendentives covered over the nave, the chief peculiarities of these domes being the fact that the arches carrying them form part of the pendentives, which are all built in horizontal courses. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 557 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Barrel vault Vault (architecture) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 557 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Barrel vault Vault (architecture) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Santa Maria Maior de Lisboa or Sé de Lisboa is the cathedral of Lisbon and the oldest church in the city. ... Soffit (from French soffite, Italian soffitto, formed as a ceiling; from suffictus for suffixus, Latin suffigere, to fix underneath). ... Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... St. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London, is a historic monument in central London on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Périgord is a former province of France, corresponding to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. ...


The intersecting and groined vault of the Romans was employed in the early Christian churches in Rome, but only over the aisles, which were comparatively of small span, but in these there was a tendency to raise the centres of these vaults, which became slightly domical; in all these cases centering was employed.


Rib vault

Main article: Rib vault

Reference has been made to the twisting of the groins in Roman work, where the intersecting barrel vaults were not of the same diameter; their construction must at all times have been somewhat difficult, but where the barrel vaulting was carried round over the choir aisle and was intersected, as in St Bartholomew's, Smithfield, by semicones, instead of cylinders, it became worse and the groins more complicated; this would seem to have led to a change of system, and to the introduction of a new feature, which completely revolutionized the construction of the vault. Hitherto the intersecting features were geometrical surfaces, of which the diagonal groins were the intersections, elliptical in form, generally weak in construction and often twisting (Plate I. fig. 13). The medieval builder reversed the process, and set up the diagonal ribs first, which were utilized as permanent centres, and on these he carried his vault or web, which henceforward took its shape from the ribs. Instead of the elliptical curve which was given by the intersection of two semicircular barrel vaults, or cylinders, he employed the semicircular arch for the diagonal ribs; this, however, raised the centre of the square bay vaulted above the level of the transverse arches and of the wall ribs, and thus gave the appearance of a dome to the vault, such as may be seen in the nave of Sant' Ambrogio, Milan. To meet this, at first the transverse and wall ribs were stilted, or the upper part of their arches was raised, as in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes at Caen, and the Abbey of Lessay, in Normandy. The problem was ultimately solved by the introduction of the pointed arch for the transverse and wall ribs - the pointed arch had long been known and employed, on account of its much greater strength and of the less thrust it exerted on the walls. When employed for the ribs of a vault, however narrow the span might be, by adopting a pointed arch, its summit could be made to range in height with the diagonal rib; and, moreover, when utilized for the ribs of the annular vault, as in the aisle round the apsidal termination of the choir, it was not necessary that the half ribs on the outer side should be in the same plane as those of the inner side; for when the opposite ribs met in the centre of the annular vault, the thrust was equally transmitted from one to the other, and being already a broken arch the change of its direction was not noticeable. In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In a modern church an aisle is a row down the middle of the church with a set of pews on each side. ... Look up web in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ... Caen is a commune of northwestern France. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... The human rib cage. ... Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ...


The first introduction of the pointed arch rib took place at Durham Cathedral and pre-dated the abbey of St. Denis. Whilst the pointed rib-arch is often seen as an identifier for gothic architecture, Durham is a romanesque cathedral whose masons experimented with the possibility of rib-arches before it was widely adopted by western church architecture.[7] It was in the church at Vezelay (1140) that it was extended to the square bay of the porch. Before entering into the question of the web or stone shell of the vault carried on the ribs, the earlier development of the great vaults which were thrown over the naves of a cathedral, or church, before the introduction of the pointed arch rib, shall here be noted. As has been pointed out, the aisles had already in the early Christian churches been covered over with groined vaults, the only advance made in the later developments being the introduction of transverse ribs' dividing the bays into square compartments; but when in the 12th century[8] the first attempts were made to vault over the naves, another difficulty presented itself, because the latter were twice the width of the aisles, so that it became necessary to include two bays of the aisles to form one square bay in the nave. This was an immense space to vault over, and moreover, it followed that every alternate pier served no purpose, so far as the support of the nave vault was concerned, and this would seem to have suggested an alternative, viz. to provide a supplementary rib across the church and between the transverse ribs. This resulted in what is known as a sexpartite, or six-celled vault, of which one of the earliest examples is found in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes (S. Etienne) at Caen. This church, built by William the Conqueror, was originally constructed to carry a timber roof only, but nearly a century later the upper part of the nave walls were partly rebuilt, in order that it might be covered with a vault. The immense size, however, of the square vault over the nave necessitated some additional support, so that an intermediate rib was thrown across the church, dividing the square compartment into six cells, and called the sexpartite vault this was adopted in the cathedrals of Sens (1170), Laon (1195), Noyon (1190), Paris (1223-35), and Bourges (1250). The intermediate rib, however, had the disadvantage of partially obscuring one side of the clerestory windows, and it threw unequal weights on the alternate piers, so that in the cathedral of Soissons (1205) a quadripartite (fig. 8) or four-celled vault was introduced, the width of each bay being half the span of the nave, and corresponding therefore with the aisle piers. To this there are some exceptions, in Sant' Ambrogio, Milan, and San Michele, Pavia (the original vault), and in the cathedrals of Spires, Mainz and Worms, where the quadripartite vaults are nearly square, the intermediate piers of the aisles being of much smaller dimensions. In England sexpartite vaults exist at Canterbury (1175) (set out by William of Sens), Rochester (1200),(1200), Lincoln (1215),(1215), Durham (east transept), and St. Faith's chapel, Westminster Abbey. Durham Cathedral silhouetted against the sunset Durham Cathedral from nearby The Rose Window in the Chapel of the Nine Altars. ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... Vézelay is a commune in the Yonne département in the Burgundy region of France. ... A covered porch. ... For the type of foundation, see Deep foundation. ... Caen is a commune of northwestern France. ... Sexpartite vaulting, Laon Cathedral. ... Inside the cathedral of Sens, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, c. ... Laon is a city and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Aisne département. ... Noyon is a small but historic French city in the Oise département, Picardie, on the Oise Canal, approximately 60 miles north of Paris. ... Bourges is a town and commune in central France. ... Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Soissons is a town and commune in the Aisne département, Picardie, France, located on the Aisne River, about 60 miles northeast of Paris. ... Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... Mainz Cathedral sits to the right in this sketch (c. ... Worms Cathedral East facade The spacious Cathedral of St. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... Rochester Cathedral is a Norman church in Rochester, Kent. ... Lincoln (pronounced //) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... Durham Cathedral silhouetted against the sunset Durham Cathedral from nearby The Rose Window in the Chapel of the Nine Altars. ... Cathedral ground plan. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west...


Development of the rib vault

In the earlier stage of rib vaulting, the arched ribs consisted of independent or separate voussoirs down to the springing; the difficulty, however, of working the ribs separately led to two other important changes: (I) the lower part of the transverse diagonal and wall ribs were all worked out of one stone; and (2) the lower horizontal, constituting what is known as the [[tas-de-charge (q.v.) or solid springer. Fig. 9 is a diagram made by Professor Willis taken from the south transept of Westminster Abbey. The horizontal courses rise to N. or about half the height of the vault, but the ribs are freed from one another from the point M. The tas-de-charge, or solid springer, had two advantages: (1) it enabled the stone courses to run straight through the wall, so as to bond the whole together much better; and (2) it lessened the span of the vault, which then required a centering of smaller dimensions. As soon as the ribs were completed, the web or stone shell of the vault was laid on them. In some English work, as may be seen in fig. 9, each course of stone was of uniform height from one side to the other; but, as the diagonal rib was longer than either the transverse or wall rib, the courses dipped towards the former, and at the apex of the vault were cut to fit one another. At an early period, in consequence of the great span of the vault and the very slight rise or curvature of the web, it was thought better to simplify the construction of the web by introducing intermediate ribs between the wall rib and the diagonal rib and between the diagonal and the transverse ribs; and in order to meet the thrust of these intermediate ribs a ridge rib was required, and the prolongation of this rib to the wall rib hid the junction of the web at the summit, which was not always very sightly, and constituted the ridge rib. In France, on the other hand, the web courses were always laid horizontally, and they are therefore of unequal height, increasing towards the diagonal rib. Each course also was given a slight rise in the centre, so as to increase its strength; this enabled the French masons to dispense with the intermediate rib, which was not introduced by them till the 15th century, and then more as a decorative than a constructive feature, as the domical form given to the French web rendered unnecessary the ridge rib, which, with some few exceptions, exists only in England. In both English and French vaulting centering was rarely required for the building of the web, a template (Fr. cerce) being employed to support the stones of each ring until it was complete. In Italy, Germany and Spain the French method of building the web was adopted, with horizontal courses and a domical form. Sometimes, in the case of comparatively narrow compartments, and more especially in clerestories, the wall rib was stilted, and this caused a peculiar twisting of the web, as may be seen in fig. 9, where the springing of the wall rib is at K: to these twisted surfaces the term ploughshare vaulting is given. Springer is the name of several places in the United States: Springer, New Mexico Springer Township, North Dakota Springer, Oklahoma Springer is the name of: Springer Science+Business Media, a worldwide publishing group based in Germany (including Springer-Verlag) Axel Springer Verlag AG, famous conservative German publishing house Springer (EP... Look up apex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... A rib vault or ribbed vault is any vault reinforced by masonry ribs. ...


One of the earliest examples of the introduction of the intermediate rib is found in the nave of Lincoln Cathedral, and there the ridge rib is not carried to the wall rib. It was soon found, however, that the construction of the web was much facilitated by additional ribs, and consequently there was a tendency to increase their number, so that in the nave of Exeter Cathedral three intermediate ribs were provided between the wall rib and the diagonal rib. In order to mask the junction of the various ribs, their intersections were ornamented with richly carved bosses, and this practice increased on the introduction of another short rib, known as the lierne, a term in France given to the ridge rib. Lierne ribs in English vaults are short ribs crossing between the main ribs, and were employed chiefly as decorative features, as, for instance, in the stellar vault (see Plate I. fig. 16), one of the best examples of which exists in the vault of the oriel window of Crosby Hall, London. The tendency to increase the number of ribs led to singular results in some cases, as in the choir of Gloucester Cathedral (see Plate II. fig. 17), where the ordinary diagonal ribs become mere ornamental mouldings on the surface of an intersected pointed barrel vault, and again in the cloisters, where the introduction of the fan vault, forming a concave-sided conoid, returned to the principles of the Roman geometrical vault. This is further shown in the construction of these fan vaults, for although in the earliest examples each of the ribs above the tas-de-charge was an independent feature, eventually it was found easier to carve them and the web out of the solid stone, so that the rib and web were purely decorative and had no constructional or independent functions. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this articles infobox may require cleanup. ... Plan of lierne vault - Ely Choir, (liernes are shaded black). ... Oriel windows are a form of bay window commonly found in Gothic revival architecture, which jut out from the main wall of the building but do not reach to the ground. ... Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ... Molding (US) or moulding (UK) can be: molding (decorative) (or moulding) a decorative feature used in interior design and architecture molding (process) (or moulding) a process used in manufacturing This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Fan vaulting over the nave at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ... The Conoid Ligament, the posterior and medial fasciculus, is a dense band of fibers, conical in form, with its base directed upward. ...


Fan vault

Main article: Fan vault

The fan vault would seem to have owed its origin to the employment of centerings of one curve for all the ribs, instead of having separate centerings for the transverse, diagonal wall and intermediate ribs; it was facilitated also by the introduction of the four-centred arch, because the lower portion of the arch formed part of the fan, or conoid, and the upper part could be extended at pleasure with a greater radius across the vault. The simplest version is that found in the cloisters of Gloucester Cathedral, where the fans meet one another at the summit, so that there are only small compartments between the fans to be filled up. In later examples, as in King's College Chapel, Cambridge (see Plate II. fig. 18), on account of the great dimensions of the vault, it was found necessary to introduce transverse ribs, which were required to give greater strength. Similar transverse ribs are found in Henry VII's chapel (see Plate II. fig. 19) and in the divinity schools at Oxford, where a new development presented itself. One of the defects of the fan vault at Gloucester is the appearance it gives of being half sunk in the wall; to remedy this, in the two buildings just quoted, the complete conoid is detached and treated as a pendant. Fan vaulting over the nave at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ... Kings College Chapel (partially obscured by the Gibbs Building), seen from The Backs Fan vaulting diagram Kings College Chapel is the chapel to Kings College of the University of Cambridge, and is one of the finest examples of late English Gothic or Perpendicular -style. ... Henry VII may refer to: Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor (c. ... A divinity school is an institute of higher education devoted to the study of divinity, religion and theology. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... A pendant (from Old French) is a hanging object, generally attached to a necklace or an earring. ...


Gothic survival and the renaissance

One of the most interesting examples of the fan vault is that over the staircase leading to the hall of Christ Church, Oxford, and here the complete conoid is displayed in its centre carried on a central column. This vault, not built until 1640, is an exceptional example of the long continuance of traditional workmanship, probably in Oxford transmitted in consequence of the late vaulting of the entrance gateways to the colleges. Fan vaulting is peculiar to England, the only example approaching it in France being the pendant of the Lady-chapel at Caudebec, in Normandy. In France, Germany and Spain the multiplication of ribs in the 15th century led to decorative vaults of various kinds, but with some singular modifications. Thus in Germany, recognizing that the rib was no longer a necessary constructive feature, they cut it off abruptly, leaving a stump only; in France, on the other hand, they gave still more importance to the rib, by making it of greater depth, piercing it with tracery and hanging pendants from it, and the web became a horizontal stone paving laid on the top of these decorated vertical webs. This is the characteristic of the great Renaissance work in France and Spain; but it soon gave way to Italian influence, when the construction of vaults reverted to the geometrical surfaces of the Romans, without, however, always that economy in centering to which they had attached so much importance, and more especially in small structures. In large vaults, where it constituted an important expense, the chief boast of some of the most eminent architects has been that centering was dispensed with, as in the case of the dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, built by Filippo Brunelleschi, and Ferguson cites as an example the great dome of the church at Mousta in Malta, erected in the first half of the 19th century, which was built entirely without centering of any kind. Fig. 10 is a plan and section of the vault of Henry VII.'s chapel and fig. 11 a perspective view, in which it will be seen that the transverse rib thrown across the chapel carries the pendant, the weight of the latter probably preventing a rise in the haunches. College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 MCR or GCR President {{{MCR President}}} Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ... The chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and attached to churches of large size. ... Tracery is implementation of net-like decorations in a building used especially in Gothic architecture. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church, or Duomo, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, noted for its distinctive dome. ... Florences skyline Florences skyline at night from Piazza Michaelangelo Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446From Florence all of his principle works are in Florence. ... A cube in two-point perspective. ...


Vaulting and Faux Vaulting in the Renaissance and After

It is important to note that whereas Roman vaults, like that of the Pantheon, and Byzantine vaults, like that at Hagia Sophia, were not protected from above (i.e. the vault from the inside was the same that one saw from the outside), the European architects of the Middle Ages, protected their vaults with wooden roofs. In other words, one will not see a Gothic vault from the outside. The reasons for this development are hypothetical, but the fact that the roofed basilica form preceded the era when vaults begin to be made is certainly to be taken into consideration. In other words, the traditional image of a roof took precedent over the vault. Pantheon may refer to: Buildings: Pantheon, Rome, a temple built in 125 AD to all Roman gods, now a Christian church. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... St. ...


The separation between interior and exterior - and between structure and image - was to be developed very purposefully in the Renaissance and beyond, especially once the dome became reinstated in the Western tradition as a key element in church design. Michelangelo’s dome for St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, as redesigned between 1585 and 1590 by Giacomo della Porta, for example, consists of two domes of which, however, only the inner is structural. Baltasar Neumann, in his baroque churches, perfected light-weight plaster vaults supported by wooden frames.[9] These vaults, which exerted no lateral pressures, were perfectly suited for elaborate ceiling frescoes. In St Paul's Cathedral in London there is a highly complex system of vaults and faux-vaults.[10] The dome that one sees from the outside is not a vault, but a relatively light-weight wooden-framed structure resting on an invisible - and for its age highly original - catenary vault of brick, below which is another dome, (the dome that one sees from the inside), but of plaster supported by a wood frame. From the inside, one can easily assume that that one is looking at the same vault that one sees from the outside. Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter from Castel SantAngelo. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Giacomo della Porta (c. ... Johann Balthasar Neumann (January 27, 1687 _ August 19, 1753) was a German Baroque architect who designed the Vierzehnheiligen and several churches in Würzburg. ... Block quote For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


India

There are two other ribbed vaults in India which form no part of the development of European vaults, but are too remarkable to be passed over; one carries the central dome of the Jumma Musjid at Bijapur (A.D. 1559), and the other is Gol Gumbaz, the tomb of Muhammad Adil Shah II (A.D. 1626-1660) in the same town. The vault of the latter was constructed over a hall 135 ft. square, to carry a hemispherical dome. The ribs, instead of being carried across the angles only, thus giving an octagonal base for the dome, are carried across to the further pier of the octagon (fig. 12) and consequently intersect one another, reducing the central opening to 97 ft. in diameter, and, by the weight of the masonry they carry, serving as counterpoise to the thrust of the dome, which is set back so as to leave a passage about 12 ft. wide round the interior. The internal diameter of the dome is 124 ft., its height 175 ft. and the ribs struck from four centres have their springing 57 ft. from the floor of the hall. The Jumma Musjid dome was of smaller dimensions, on a square of 70 ft. with a diameter of 57 ft., and was carried on piers only instead of immensely thick walls as in the tomb; but any thrust which might exist was counteracted by its transmission across aisles to the outer wall. Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district headquarters of the Bijapur District in the state of Karnataka. ... Gol Gumbaz is the mausoleum of Muhammad Adil Shah II (1627-57). ...


Modern vaults

Hyperbolic paraboloids

The 20th century saw great advances in reinforced concrete design. The advent of shell construction and the better mathematical understanding of hyperbolic paraboloids allowed very thin, strong vaults to be constructed with previously unseen shapes. Image File history File links A hyperbolic paraboloid. ... Image File history File links A hyperbolic paraboloid. ... In mathematics, a paraboloid is a quadric, a type of surface in three dimensions, described by the equation: (elliptic paraboloid), or (hyperbolic paraboloid). ... Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ... The worlds first double curvature lattice steel Shell by V.G.Shukhov (during construction), Vyksa near Nizhny Novgorod, 1897 Thin-shell structures can be defined as curved structures capable of transmitting loads in more than two directions to supports. ... In mathematics, a paraboloid is a quadric, a type of surface in three dimensions, described by the equation: (elliptic paraboloid), or (hyperbolic paraboloid). ...

The worlds first hyperboloid water tower by Vladimir Shukhov, All-Russian Exposition, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 1896 Hyperboloid structures in architecture were first applied by Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853-1939). ... A concrete shell, also commonly called thin shell concrete structure, is a structure composed of a relatively thin shell of concrete, usually with no interior columns or exterior buttresses. ... Tensile architecture is a relatively new field of architecture devoted to lightweight membrane structures. ... The worlds first steel tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1896 The Sidney Myer Music Bowl in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension and no compression or bending. ...

See also

The following is a list of arched structures known in architecture as vaults. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Isometric view of a typical arch An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica states that the vaults under the ziggurat were 4000BCE, recent scholarship revises the date forward considerably but imprecisely, and casts doubt on the methodology and conclusions of the original excavations of 1880. See Patterns of Occupation at Nippur (1992)
  2. ^ a b c d Spiers, R. Phené, (1911), Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition , Volume 27, pages 956-961
  3. ^ Willockx, Sjef (2003) Building in stone in Ancient Egypt, Part 1: Columns and Pillars
  4. ^ Photograph of the barrel vaults at the Ramesseum
  5. ^ http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/building/elements.htm
  6. ^ Artlex Art Dictionary
  7. ^ Basic architectural history course
  8. ^ Transverse ribs under the vaulting surfaces had been employed from very early times by the Romans, and utilized as permanent stone centerings for their vaults; perhaps the earliest examples are those in the corridor of the Tabularium in Rome, which is divided into square bays, each vaulted with a cloister dome. Transverse ribs are also found in the Roman Piscinae and in the Nymphaeum at Nimes; they were not introduced by the Romanesque masons till the 11th century.
  9. ^ Maren Holst. Studien zu Balthasar Neumanns Wölbformen (Mittenwald: Mäander, 1981).
  10. ^ Vaughan Hart. St. Paul’s Cathedral: Sir Christopher Wren (London: Phaidon Press, 1995).

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The Tabularium, on the right, with the medioeval Senate palace built upon. ... A Nymphaeum, in Greek and Roman antiquities, is a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs. ...

References

  • Copplestone, Trewin. (ed). (1963). World architecture - An illustrated history. Hamlyn, London.
  • Spiers, R. Phené, (1911), Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition , Volume 27, pages 956-961
  • Scanned pages of Encyclopedia Brittanica

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

Further reading

External links

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Vault

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


 
 

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