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Encyclopedia > Vauban

Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. He also advised Louis XIV on how to consolidate France's borders, to make them more defensible. Vauban made a radical suggestion of giving up some land that was indefensible to allow for a stronger, less porous border with France's neighbours. May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in a leap year). ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Marshal of France (maréchal de France) was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France. ... A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive and defensive structures for warfare. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. ...

Contents

Life and doctrines

Vauban was born in Saint-Léger-de-Foucheret (renamed Saint-Léger-Vauban in his honour), in the département of Yonne, in Burgundy, France, into a family of minor nobility. At the age of ten he was left an orphan in very poor circumstances, and his boyhood and youth were spent amongst the peasantry of his native place. A fortunate event brought him under the care of the Carmelite prior of Semur, who undertook his education, and the grounding in mathematics, science and geometry which he thus received was of the highest value in his subsequent career. Saint-Léger-Vauban is a small town and commune in the Parc Naturel Régional du Morvan of Burgundy, France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Yonne is a French département named after the Yonne River. ... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples , most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... Origin and early history Carmelites (in Latin Ordo fratrum Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo) is the name of a Roman Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a certain Berthold (d. ... Semur-en-Auxois is a commune of the Côte-dOr département, in France. ...


At the age of seventeen Vauban joined the regiment of Condé in the war of the Fronde. His gallant conduct won him within a year the offer of a commission, which he declined on account of poverty. Condé then employed him to assist in the fortification of Clermont-en-Argonne. Soon afterwards he was taken prisoner by the royal troops; but though a rebel he was well-treated, and the kindness of Mazarin converted the young engineer into a devoted servant of the king. Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... The Fronde (1648–1653) was a civil war in France, followed by the Franco-Spanish War (1653). ... Clermont-en-Argonne is a commune of the Meuse département in northeastern France. ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ...


He was employed in the siege of Sainte-Menehould (which he had helped to storm as a Frondeur) and won a lieutenancy in the regiment of Burgundy, and at Stenay he was twice wounded. Soon afterwards he besieged and took his own first fortress, Clermont; and in May 1655 he received his commission as an ingénieur du roi, having served his apprenticeship under the Chevalier de Clerville, one of the foremost engineers of the time. Between that year and the peace of 1659 he had taken part in or directed ten sieges with distinction, had been several times wounded, and was rewarded by the king with the free gift of a company in the famous Picardy regiment. About this time he married a cousin, Jeanne d'Aulnay. A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Sainte-Menehould is a commune of the Marne département, in northeastern France. ... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples , most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... Stenay is a commune of the Meuse département in northeastern France. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ...

Vauban's fortifications in Besançon.
Vauban's fortifications in Besançon.

After the peace Vauban was put in charge of the construction of several important defences, amongst other places at Dunkirk, where his work continued until the year before his death. On the renewal of war in 1662 he conducted, under the eyes of the king, the sieges of Douai, Tournai and Lille. At Lille he so distinguished himself that he received a lieutenancy in the guard (ranking as a colonelcy). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 550 KB) Description  Citadelle de Besançon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 550 KB) Description  Citadelle de Besançon. ... Besançon is a French city in the département of Doubs, of which it is the préfecture. ... Carnival in Dunkirk. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Douai is a city and commune in the north of France in the département of Nord, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Nord-Pas de Calais Département Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ...


The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle confirmed France in the possession of new fortresses, which Vauban now improved or rebuilt. Hitherto the characteristic features of his method of fortification had not been developed, and the systems of preceding engineers were faithfully followed. Colbert and Louvois were profoundly interested in the work, and it was at the request of the latter that the engineer drew up in 1669 his Mémoire pour servir à l'instruction dans la conduite des sièges (this, with a memorandum on the defence of fortresses by another hand, was published at Leiden in 1740). The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 2 May 1668 ended the War of Devolution between France and Spain. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 – September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from... François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (January 18, 1641 - July 16, 1691), was the French war minister under Louis XIV. He was born in Paris to Michel le Tellier. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Leyden redirects here. ...


On the renewal of war Vauban again conducted the most important sieges, (Rheinbergen and Nijmegen 1672, Maestricht and Trier 1673, Besançon 1674). In the latter year he also supervised the only defence in which he ever took part, that of Oudenaarde. This was followed by the reduction of Dinant, Huy and Limbourg. At this time he wrote for the commandants of Verdun and Le Quesnoy, valuable Instructions pour la défense. In 1676 he was made marechal de camp. He took Condé, Bouchain and other places in that year, Valenciennes and Cambrai in 1677, Ghent and Ypres in 1678. Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area 57. ... Combatants France United Provinces Spain Commanders Louis XIV Jacques de Fariaux Strength 24,000 infantry 16,000 cavalry 5,000 infantry 1,200 cavalry Casualties Unknown Comte DArtagnan 6,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Siege of Maastricht was one of the key elements in King Louis XIVs... The city of Trier (Latin: Augusta Treverorum; French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier; Italian: ; Spanish: ) is situated on the western bank of the Moselle River in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone. ... Besançon is a French city in the département of Doubs, of which it is the préfecture. ... Oudenaarde (French Audenarde, English sometimes Oudenarde) is a municipality in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of East Flanders. ... The tower of Notre-Dame, seen from the citadel Dinant is a municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur, Wallonia. ... Huy (Walloon: Hu; French: Huy, Dutch: Hoei) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Limbourg is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Verdun (German (old): Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Le Quesnoy is a commune of the Nord département in northern France. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Condé is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Condé, in the Indre département Condé-sur-lEscaut, in the Nord département Condé-sur-Ifs, in the Calvados département Condé-sur-Marne, in the Ardennes département Condé-sur-Noireau, in the... Bouchain is a former part of French Flanders, located halfway between Cambrai and Valenciennes. ... Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae) is a town and commune in northern France in the Nord département on the Escaut river. ... Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ghent municipality and district in the province East Flanders Ghent (IPA: ; Gent in Dutch; Gand in French, formerly Gaunt in English) is a city and a municipality located in Flanders, Belgium. ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ...


It was at this time that Vauban synthesized the methods of attacking strong places, on which his claim to renown as an engineer rests far more than on his systems of fortification. The introduction of a systematic approach by parallels (said to have been suggested by the practice of the Turks at Candia in 1668) dates from the siege of Maastricht, and in principle remained until the 20th century the standard method of attacking a fortress. The Peace of Nijmegen gave more territory to France, and more fortresses had to be adapted. Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Heraklion or Iraklion (Greek: Ηράκλειο Italian: Candia), is the largest city and the capital of Crete. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of Maastricht. ... The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen (Negotiations de Nimegue or Negotiations de la Paix de Nimegue) were a series of treaties, signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen, August 1678 - December 1679, ending war between various countries, including France, United Provinces, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, Münster, the Holy Roman...

Vauban's fortifications in Camaret-sur-Mer.
Vauban's fortifications in Camaret-sur-Mer.

Vauban was named commissaire-general des fortifications on the death of De Clerville, and wrote in 1679 a memorandum on the places of the new frontier, from which it appears that from Dunkirk to Dinant France possessed fifteen fortresses and forts, with thirteen more in second line. Most of these had been rebuilt by Vauban, and further acquisitions, notably Strasbourg (1681), involved him in unceasing work. At Saarlouis for the first time appeared Vauban's "first system" of fortification, which remained the accepted standard till comparatively recent times. He never hesitated to retain what was of advantage in the methods of his predecessors, which he had hitherto followed, and it was in practice rather than in theory, that he surpassed them. Image File history File links Camarettour. ... Image File history File links Camarettour. ... Camaret-sur-Mer is a commune of the Finistère département in France. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... Saarlouis is a city in the Saarland, Germany, capital of the district of Saarlouis. ...


In 1682 his "second system," which introduced modifications of the first designed to prolong the resistance of the fortress, began to appear; and about the same time he wrote a practical manual entitled Le Directeur-Général des fortifications (Hague, 1683-85). Having now attained the rank of lieut.-general, he took the field once more, and captured Courtrai in 1683, and Luxembourg in the following year. The unexpected strength of certain towers designed by the Spanish engineer Louvigni (fl. 1673) at Luxemburg suggested the tower-bastions which are the peculiar feature of Vauban's second system which was put into execution at Belfort in the same. Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... Kortrijk (French: Courtrai) is a municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Belfort is a town and commune of northeastern France, préfecture (capital) of the Territoire de Belfort département in the Franche-Comté région. ...


In 1687 he chose Landau as the chief place of arms of Lower Alsace, and lavished on the place all the resources of his art. But side by side with this development grew up the far more important scheme of attack. He instituted a company of miners, and the elaborate experiments carried out under his supervision resulted in the establishment of all the necessary formulae for military mining (Traité des mines, Paris, 1740 and 1799; Hague, 1744); while at the siege of Ath in 1697, having in the meanwhile taken part in more sieges, notably that of Namur in 1692 (defended by the great Dutch engineer Coehoorn), he employed ricochet fire for the first time as the principal means of breaking down the defence. He had indeed already used it with effect at Philippsburg in 1688 and at Namur, but the jealousy of the artillery at outside interference had hindered the full use of this remarkable invention, which with his other improvements rendered the success of the attack almost certain. Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Sapping, or undermining, was a siege method used since Antiquity against a walled city, fortress or castle. ... This article is about the Belgian municipality. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... As at Liege, the city of Namur had been fortified between 1888 and 1892 under the direction of military engineer Brialmont with the construction of a ring of forts around the city. ... Menno, baron van Coehoorn (1641 - March 17, 1704), Dutch soldier and military engineer, of Swedish extraction. ... Alternate meaning: Ricochet (Half-Life) A ricochet is a rebound, bounce or skip off of a surface, particularly in the case of a projectile. ... Philippsburg is a small town in Germany, in the district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg. ...


After the peace of Ryswick Vauban rebuilt or improved other fortresses, and finally New Breisach, fortified on his "third system " which was in fact a modification of the second and was called by Vauban himself système de Landau perfectionné. His last siege was that of Old Breisach in 1703, when he reduced the place in a fortnight. On January 14 of that year Vauban had been made a marshal of France, a rank too exalted for the technical direction of sieges, and his active career came to an end with his promotion. Soon afterwards appeared his Traité de l'attaque des places, a revised and amplified edition of the older memoir of 1669, which contains the methods of the fully developed Vauban attack, the main features of which are the parallels, ricochet fire and the attack of the defending personnel by vertical fire. The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... Neuf-Brisach (German: Neu-Breisach; both names mean New Breisach, referring to the German town, Breisach, wich is located just on the other side of the Rhine) is a commune of the Haut-Rhin département, in France. ... Aerial image of Breisach Breisach is a city with approx. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Marshal of France (maréchal de France) was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France. ...


But Louis XIV was now thrown on the defensive, and the war of the Spanish Succession saw the gradual wane of Vauban's influence, as his fortresses were taken and retaken. The various captures of Landau, his chef-d'oeuvre, caused him to be regarded with disfavour, for it was not realized that the greatness of his services was rather in the attack than in the defence. In the darkness of defeat he turned his attention to the defence; but his work De la defense des places (ed. by General Valaze, Paris, 1829) is of far less worth than the Attaque, and his far-seeing ideas on entrenched camps (Traits des fortifications de campagne) were coldly received, though therein may be found the elements of the "detached forts" system universal in Europe by the 20th century. Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ...

Vauban designed this pentagonal fortress to withstand sieges.
Vauban designed this pentagonal fortress to withstand sieges.

Although indispensable to Louis XIV, Vauban boldly stretched his goodwill on several occasions. In 1685, Vauban vocally condemned the repeal of the edict of Nantes. It appears that his opposition was mostly made on economic grounds. In the 1690s, he conducted a comprehensive census of Flanders and other areas of France, which earned him his nickname as the "French Petty". A prolific writer on many subjects, e.g. forestry, pig breeding, monetary policy, colonisation, etc., Vauban was made an honorary member of the French Academy of Sciences. Applying his knowledge, he even correctly estimated and plotted out the growth of Canada, predicting its population would be about 30 million by the year 2000. Copyright, Disclaimer & Privacy © 2000-2003 New York State Division of Military & Naval Affairs and NY National Guard. ... Copyright, Disclaimer & Privacy © 2000-2003 New York State Division of Military & Naval Affairs and NY National Guard. ... Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ... Events and Trends Thomas Neale designed Seven Dials The Salem Witchcraft Trials are held in Massachusetts Bay Colony (1692). ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus(Sus scrofa domesticus) Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs, also called hogs, swine, boars (male) or sows (female), are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Monetary policy is the government or central bank process of managing money supply to achieve specific goals—such as constraining inflation, maintaining an exchange rate, achieving full employment or economic growth. ... Colonisation (or colonization) is the act where life forms move into a distant area where their kind is sparse or not yet existing at all and set up new settlements in the area. ... Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


Dismayed by the inefficiency of Colbertism, Vauban's 1707 tract called for the repeal of all taxes and the imposition of a single tax of 10% on all land and trade with no exemptions. He backed up his argument with a mass of statistics. It was not well-received at the time (the king shunned him thereafter), but it inspired later Enlightenment economists, such as Forbonnais, Mirabeau and the Physiocrats. Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 – September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... A tax (also known as a duty) is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... The Age of Enlightenment (from the German word Aufklärung, meaning Enlightenment) refers to either the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the seventeenth century and the Age of Reason. ... Paul Samuelson, Nobel Prize in Economics winner. ... Portrait of Mirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, (often referred to simply as Mirabeau) (March 9, 1749 - April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ... The Physiocrats were a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. ...


He died in Paris, of an inflammation of the lungs. At the Revolution his remains were scattered, but in 1808 his heart was found and deposited by order of Napoléon in the church of Les Invalides. The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799/1804) was a vital period in the history of France and Europe as a whole. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Bonaparte as general, by Antoine-Jean Gros. ... The church at the Invalides Court of the museum of the Army Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans...


Fortifications

Between 1667 and 1707, Vauban upgraded the fortifications of around 300 cities, including: // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


Antibes (Fort Carré) | Arras | Auxonne | Barraux | Bayonne | Belfort | Bergues | Besançon | Bitche | Blaye | Briançon | Bouillon | Calais | Cambrai | Colmars-les-Alpes | Entrevaux | Gravelines | Huningue | Joux | Kehl | Landau | Le Quesnoy | Lille | Lusignan | Le Perthus (Fort de Bellegarde) | Luxembourg City | Maastricht | Maubeuge | Metz | Mont-Dauphin | Mont-Louis | Montmédy | Namur | Neuf-Brisach | Perpignan | Plouezoc'h (Château du Taureau)|Rocroi | Saarlouis | Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port | Saint-Omer | Sedan | Toul | Villefranche-de-Conflent (town and Fort Liberia) | | Ypres Antibes (Provençal Occitan: Antíbol in classical norm or Antibo in Mistralian norm) is a resort town of southeastern France, on the Mediterranean Sea in the Côte dAzur, located between Cannes and Nice. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Auxonne is a town in the département of Côte dOr in France, over the Saône river. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Belfort is a town and commune of northeastern France, préfecture (capital) of the Territoire de Belfort département in the Franche-Comté région. ... Location of Bergues in the arrondissement of Dunkirk Bergues is a commune of the Nord département, in France. ... Besançon is a French city in the département of Doubs, of which it is the préfecture. ... French City in the Alsace region of France, about 30km South of Landstuhl, Germany. ... Blaye is a commune of the Gironde département, in France. ... Briançon is a town and commune in the French départment of Hautes-Alpes (Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur), of which it is the sous-préfecture. ... Relief map displayed in the city. ... Calais is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... Colmars or Colmars-les-Alpes is a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département in France. ... Entrevaux is a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, in France. ... Canal of Gravelines, Georges Seurat, 1890. ... Huningue (French; German:Huningen) is the name of both a canton and a commune in Alsace, France. ... Fort-de-Joux is located at Jura, France commands the mountain pass cluse de Pontarlier(1,2). ... Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg. ... Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... Le Quesnoy is a commune of the Nord département in northern France. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Nord-Pas de Calais Département Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ... Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, March: the Château de Lusignan The Château de Lusignan (in Lusignan, Vienne département, France) remains, even in its present ruined state, the largest of the châteaux-forts of France [citation needed]. It was the seat of the... Le Perthus is a commune of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southwestern France. ... District Luxembourg Canton Luxembourg LAU 2 LU00011001 Geography Area Area rank 51. ... Flag of Maastricht. ... Maubeuge is a town and commune of northern France, in the département of Nord, situated on both banks of the Sambre, here canalized, 234 miles by railway southeast of Valenciennes, and about 2 m. ... For other uses of Metz, see Metz (disambiguation) City motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) City proper (commune) Région Lorraine Département Moselle (57) Mayor Jean-Marie Rausch Area 41. ... Mont-Dauphin is a commune of the Hautes-Alpes département in France. ... Mont-Louis (catalan: Montlluís or el Vilar dOvansa) is a commune of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southwestern France. ... Montmédy is a commune of the Meuse département, in northeastern France. ... Namur, the Meuse, the Walloon parliament and the citadel. ... Neuf-Brisach is a commune of the Haut-Rhin département, in France. ... Perpignan (French: Perpignan; Catalan Perpinyà) is a commune and the préfecture (administrative capital city) of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southern France. ... Rocroi is a commune in the French Ardennes. ... Saarlouis is a city in the Saarland, Germany, capital of the district of Saarlouis. ... Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (Basque: Donibane Garazi) is a commune in the French département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... The main square and Hôtel de Ville in St Omer. ... Sedan is a town and commune in France, a sous-préfecture of the Ardennes département. ... Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Toul Toul is a historic fortified town of France, a sous-préfecture of the Meurthe-et-Moselle département. ... Walls in Villefranche Villefranche-de-Conflent (Catalan Vilafranca de Conflent) is a small walled town in the Pyrénées-Orientales département, southwestern France. ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ...


He directed the building of 37 new fortresses, and fortified military harbours, including:


Ambleteuse |Brest | Dunkerque | Quebec (Citadel of Quebec) | Rochefort | Saint-Jean-de-Luz (Fort Socoa) | Saint-Martin-de-Ré | Toulon | Wimereux | Le Portel | Petrovaradin Fortress Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... Location within France Dunkirk ( French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... Motto: « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Québec Official logo Provincial region Province Country Capitale-Nationale Québec Canada Gentilé Québécois, Québécoise Mayor Jean-Paul LAllier 1989-Dec. ... The Citadel (fr: Citadelle) is a military fort atop Cape Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... Rochefort is a commune in western France, a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean. ... Saint-Jean-de-Luz (Basque Donibane Lohitzun) is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département in France. ... Saint-Martin-de-Ré is a commune of the Charente-Maritime département in France. ... Panorama of Toulon area Satellite view Coat of Arms of Toulon view of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet. ... Wimereux is a commune of the Pas-de-Calais département, in France. ... Le Portel is a chief town of canton of northern France, in the département of Pas-de-Calais, district of Boulogne-sur-Mer. ... Petrovaradin fortress, on the Danube river, overlooking Novi Sad Petrovaradin fortress (Serbian: Петроварадинска тврђава or Petrovaradinska tvrÄ‘ava) is a fortress on Danube river, near Novi Sad in the Serbian province of Vojvodina. ...

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Vauban

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See also

A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ...

Reference

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vauban - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1641 words)
Vauban was born in Saint-Léger-de-Foucheret (renamed Saint-Léger-Vauban in his honour), in the département of Yonne, in Burgundy, France, into a family of minor nobility.
Vauban was named commissaire-general des fortifications on the death of De Clerville, and wrote in 1679 a memorandum on the places of the new frontier, from which it appears that from Dunkirk to Dinant France possessed fifteen fortresses and forts, with thirteen more in second line.
In 1685, Vauban vocally condemned the repeal of the edict of Nantes.
Sébastien de Vauban (1600 words)
Vauban was named commissaire-général des fortifications on the death of De Clerville, and wrote in 1679 a memorandum on the places of the new frontier, from which it appears that from Dunkirk to Dinant France possessed fifteen fortresses and forts, with thirteen more in second line.
Vauban was deeply impressed with the deplorable condition of the peasantry, whose labor he regarded as the main foundation of all wealth, and protested in particular against the unequal incidence of taxation and the exemptions and privileges of the upper classes.
Vauban's attention was closely engaged, not only in general military matters, but in political and financial reform and the inland navigation of France.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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