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Encyclopedia > Vat dye

Vat dyes are an ancient class of dyes, based on the natural dye, indigo, which is now produced synthetically. Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indigo is the color on the spectrum between about 450 and 420 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ...

Contents

Overview

The process "vat dyeing" refers to dyeing in a bucket or vat. It can be performed whenever a solid, even shade over the entire garment is desired. Almost any dye can be used, including fiber reactive dyes, direct dyes, and acid dyes. One alternative to vat dyeing is direct dye application, such as the process used for tie dyeing. "Vat dyes" are a special class of dyes that work with a special chemistry. Cotton, wool, and other fibers can be all dyed with vat dyes. Note that not all vat dyeing is done with vat dyes! In a reactive dye a chromophore contains a substituent that is activated and allowed to directly react to the surface of the substrate. ... Acid dye is a member of a class of dye that is applied from an acidic solution. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ...


Most vat dyes are less suitable than fiber reactive dyes for the home dyers, as they are difficult to work with; they require a reducing agent to solubilize them. The dye is soluble only in its reduced (oxygen-free) form. The fiber is immersed repeatedly in this oxygen-free dyebath, then exposed to the air, whereupon the water-soluble reduced form changes color as oxygen turns it to the water-insoluble form. Indigo is an example of this dye class; it changes from yellow, in the dyebath, to green and then blue as the air hits it. Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ...


Light-oxidized Vat Dyes

Ink-o-dye is a type of vat dye which uses light rather than oxygen to 'fix' the dye, with an inspirationally wide variety of possible effects. These dyes, which are chemically similar to vat dyes, Inkodyes are developed by light instead of being applied in an oxygen-free bath and being developed in the fabric by exposure to oxygen. Ink-o-dyes are true dyes, not fabric paints. (A dye actually itself attaches to the fabric; fabric paint includes a glue-like binder, which imparts a stiffer feeling to the fabric.) The process is more difficult than the process of tie-dyeing with fiber reactive dyes. One retail source of Ink-o-dye is Dharma Trading Company.


Using vat dyes

PRO Chemical & Dye, which sells some vat dyes, provides instructions online for Immersion Dyeing using PRO Vat Dyes. The process requires the use of lye (sodium hydroxide), which must be used with due care, including the use of safety goggles.


Indigo is subject to major crocking (the rubbing off of the dye onto other items) unless it is applied carefully. This means use a weaker dyebath, and dipping many times, rather than a single strong dipping.


References

Imagery on Fabric by Jean Ray Laury


The Chemistry of Vat Dyes by Dianne Epps


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dye - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (944 words)
The dye is usually used as an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.
Acid dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool, nylon and modified acrylic fibers using neutral to acid dyebaths.
Vat dyes are essentially insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly.
Vat dye - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (456 words)
Vat dyes are an ancient class of dyes, based on the natural dye, indigo, which is now produced synthetically.
Most vat dyes are less suitable than, say, fiber reactive dyes, for the home dyers, as they are difficult to work with; they require a reducing agent to solubilize them.
These dyes, which are chemically similar to vat dyes, Inkodyes are developed by light instead of being applied in an oxygen-free bath and being developed in the fabric by exposure to oxygen.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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