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Encyclopedia > Vasodilator

A vasodilator is a drug or chemical that relaxes the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which causes them to dilate. Dilation of arterial blood vessels (mainly arterioles) lead to a decrease in blood pressure. An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branchs out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ...

Contents

Mechanism and physiology

The mechanism involves the direct relationship between Mean Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output and Total Peripheral Resistance(TPR). Mathematically, Cardiac Output is computed by multiplying the heart rate (in beats/minute) and the stroke volume (the volume of blood ejected during systole). TPR depends on several factors including the length of the vessel, the viscosity of blood (determined by hematocrit), and the diameter of the blood vessel. The latter is the most important variable in determining resistance. An increase in either of these physiological components (cardiac output or TPR) cause a rise in the mean arterial pressure. Vasodilators work to decrease TPR and blood pressure through relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media layer of large arteries and smaller arterioles.[1] The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a term used in medicine to describe a notional average blood pressure in an individual. ... Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a ventricle in a minute. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat of the heart. ... Systole can mean the following: Systole (medicine) is a term describing the contraction of the heart. ... The hematocrit (Ht or HCT) and packed cell volume (PCV) are measures of the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells. ... The tunica media (or just media) is the middle layer of an artery. ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ...


The relaxation of smooth muscle relies on removing the stimulus for contraction, which depends predominately on intracellular calcium ion concentrations. This includes stimulation of myosin light chain phosphatase and induction of calcium symporters and antiporters that pump calcium ions out of the intracellular compartment. This is accomplished through retuptake of ions into the sarcoplasmic reticulum via exchangers and expulsion across the plasma membrane. [2] A symporter, also known as a cotransporter, is an integral membrane protein that is involved in secondary active transport. ... Antiporter illustration An antiporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in secondary active transport. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ...


Vasodilation occurs in superficial blood vessels of warm-blooded animals when their ambient environment is hot; this process diverts the flow of heated blood to the skin of the animal, where heat can be more easily released into the atmosphere. The opposite physiological process is vasoconstriction. These processes are naturally modulated by the organism's Autonomic Nervous System and adrenal glands, both of which secrete catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine, respectively. The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine that act as hormones or neurotransmitters. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ...


Vasomotor refers to the muscles and nerves controlling the process of vasodilation.


hbjhhjhhjhh'''Bold text==Therapeutic uses of vasodilators== Vasodilators are used to treat conditions such as hypertension, where the patient has an abnormally high blood pressure, as well as angina and congestive heart failure, where a maintaining a lower blood pressure reduces the patient's risk of developing other cardiac problems.[3] Flushing may be a physiological response to vasodilators. For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. ...


Endogenous vasodilators

Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... Spacefilling model of bradykinin Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino acids. ... Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor or EDHF refers to an unknown compound, secreted by endothelial cells, which leads to nitric oxide- and prostacyclin-independent vasodilation by relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... A platelet-activating factor, also known as a PAF or paf-acether is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leucocyte functions, including platelet aggregation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis. ... Prostanoid is the term used to describe three classes of eicosanoids: the prostaglandins (mediators of inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions), the thromboxanes (mediators of vasoconstriction) and the prostacyclins (active in the resolution phase of inflamation. ... Prostacyclin is a member of the family of lipid molecules known as eicosanoids. ...

Exogenous vasodilators

Environmental Noise, is unwanted sound, which may cause either nuisance or damage to health. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block α1-adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... Amyl nitrite is the chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO. A variety of isomers are known, but they all feature an amyl group attached to the nitrito functional group. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Basophil redirects here. ... Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is the pharmaceutical name for nitroglycerin. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... Isosorbide mononitrate is a drug used principally in the treatment of angina pectoris and acts by dilating the blood vessels so as to reduce the blood pressure. ... Action: Relaxation of smooth muscle of venous and arterial vasculature. ... PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate, also known as Penthrite) is one of the strongest known high explosives, with a relative effectiveness factor (R.E. factor) of 1. ... Sodium nitroprusside is the chemical compound Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]. It is a potent peripheral vasodilator that affects both arterioles and venules. ... A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, often shortened to PDE5 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase type 5 on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis. ... Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names Viagra, Revatio and generically under various other names, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), developed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. ... Tadalafil is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence). ... Vardenafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. ... “THC” redirects here. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja,[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Papaverine is an opium alkaloid used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm, vasospasm (especially those involving the heart and the brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. ... The Opium Poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as heroin are extracted, as well as an important food item. ...

References

  1. ^ CVPharmacology
  2. ^ American Physiological Society
  3. ^ CVPharmacology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vasodilator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (187 words)
A vasodilator is a substance that causes blood vessels in the body to become wider by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel wall, or vasodilation.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) - a weak vasodilator.
Its mild vasodilating effects redden the eyes of cannabis smokers.
Patent 6,007,836 (6290 words)
The vasodilator is stored and contained in the at least one middle layer of the transdermal patch, which functions as a vasodilator reservoir conventionally in the manner of transdermal medication patches to deliver the vasodilator to the skin surface when the patch is adhered to the skin of the user.
Vasodilator dispensing can be controlled by controlling the permeability of the relatively more releasable milder adhesive coated on the microhole membrane inner surface, by controlling the thickness of the microhole membrane inner layer, and by varying the size, number and spacing of the microholes.
The vasodilator material is mixed with a mild adhesive, and the vasodilator-mild adhesive mixture is spread in a thin, slightly moist layer on the inner surface of the condom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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