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Encyclopedia > Vasili II of Russia

Vasili II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (Blind) (Василий II Васильевич Тёмный in Russian) (March 10, 1415March 27, 1462) was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425-1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of medieval Russian history. March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... Events Foundation of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Births Deaths March 17 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Ashikaga shogun July 21 - Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor Categories: 1425 ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ...

Contents


First ten years of internecine struggle

At the wedding of Vasili the Dark his mother pulls the golden belt from Prince Vasili the Cross-Eyed (1861)
At the wedding of Vasili the Dark his mother pulls the golden belt from Prince Vasili the Cross-Eyed (1861)

Vasily II was the eldest son of Vasili I Dmitriyevich by Sofia, the only daughter of Vytautas the Great. On his father's death he was proclaimed Grand Duke at the tender age of 10. His uncle, Yuri of Zvenigorod (Prince of Galich-Mersky), and his two sons, Vasily the Cross-Eyed and Dmitry Shemyaka, seized on the opportunity to advance their own claims to the throne. Vasili's bid was supported by his maternal grandfather. The causes for the great feudal war that followed are disputed. There are reasons to believe that Yuri's family, whose Northern dominions were rich in salt and ore, could offer Russia a more liberal, proto-capitalistic path of development. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x695, 65 KB)At the wedding of Vasilii the Dark Sofia Vitovtovna pulls the belt from Prince Vasilii Kosoi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x695, 65 KB)At the wedding of Vasilii the Dark Sofia Vitovtovna pulls the belt from Prince Vasilii Kosoi. ... Vasili I Dmitriyevich (Василий I Дмитриевич in Russian) (1371 — February, 1425), Grand Prince of Moscow since 1389, oldest son of Dmitri Donskoi and Grand Princess Eudoxia (Yevdokiya in Russian) - daughter of the Grand Prince of Suzdal Dmitry Konstantinovich. ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... One of Rublevs icons from Zvenigorod. ... Galich, Галич is a Russian town of 21500 inhabitants (1992), situated on the southern bank of Lake Galitskoye, in the Kostroma Oblast. ... Dmitriy Yurievich Shemyaka (Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка in Russian) (1420-1453) was the second son of Yury of Zvenigorod by Anastasia of Smolensk and grandson of Dmitri Donskoi. ...


Upon Vytautas' death in 1430, Yuri went to the Golden Horde, returning with a license to take Moscow throne. But the khan did not support him any further, largely due to the guileful policies of the Smolensk princeling and Muscovite boyarin Ivan Vsevolzhsky. When Yuri assembled an army and attacked Moscow, Vasili, betrayed by Vsevolzhsky, was defeated and captured by his enemies (1433). Upon being proclaimed Grand Duke of Muscovy, Yuri pardoned his nephew and sent him to reign in the town of Kolomna. That proved to be a mistake, as Vasili immediately started to plot against his uncle and gather all sort of malcontents. Feeling how insecure his throne was, Yuri resigned and then left Moscow for his Northern hometown. On his return to Moscow, Vasili had the traitor Vsevolzhsky blinded. This article refers to the Mongol state in what is now Russia. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: Смоленск;, Belarusian: Смаленск) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dniepr river at 54. ... A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... Kolomna (Russian: Коломна) is an ancient Russian town, founded in 1177 on the Moskva River and Oka River. ...


Meanwhile, Yuri's claim was inherited by his sons who decided to continue the fight. They managed to defeat Vasili, who had to seek refuge in the Golden Horde. After death of Yuri in 1434, Vasili the Cross-Eyed entered the Kremlin and was proclaimed new Grand Duke. Dmitry Shemyaka, who had his own plans for the throne, quarelled with his brother and concluded an alliance with Vasili II. Together they managed to banish Vasily the Cross-Eyed from the Kremlin in 1435. The latter was captured and blinded, thus having been effectively removed from the contest for the throne. Events May 30, Battle of Lipany in the Hussite Wars Jan van Eyck painted the wedding of Giovanni Arnoflini The Honorable Passing of Arms at the bridge of Obrigo The Portuguese reach Cape Bojador in Western Sahara. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin (Russian citadel). ... Dmitriy Yurievich Shemyaka (Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка in Russian) (1420-1453) was the second son of Yury of Zvenigorod by Anastasia of Smolensk and grandson of Dmitri Donskoi. ... For other uses, see number 1435. ...


Vasili's fight with Kazan and Shemyaka

Vasili's reign saw the collapse of the Golden Horde and its break up into smaller Khanates. Now that his throne was relatively secure, he had to deal with the Tatar threat. This article refers to the Mongol state in what is now Russia. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ...


In 1439, Vasili had to flee the capital, when it was besieged by Olug Moxammat, ruler of the nascent Kazan Khanate. Six years later, he personally led his troops against Olug Moxammat, but was defeated and taken prisoner. The Muscovites were forced to gather an enormous ransom for their prince, so that Vasili could be released some 5 months later. Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Olug Moxammat (Ulugh Muhammed, Makhmet, Ulu-Makhmet, Tatar: Oluğ Möxämmät) (d. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ...


During that time, the control of Moscow passed to Dmitry Shemyaka. Keeping in mind the fate of his own brother, Dmitry had Vasili blinded and exiled him to Uglich (1446). Hence, Vasili's nickname Tyomniy, which stands for "blind" (or, more accurately, "seeing darkness"). As Vasili still had a number of supporters in Moscow, Dmitry recalled him from exile and gave him Vologda as an appanage. That proved to be a new mistake, as Vasili quickly assembled his supporters and regained the throne. Dmitriy Yurievich Shemyaka (Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка in Russian) (1420-1453) was the second son of Yury of Zvenigorod by Anastasia of Smolensk and grandson of Dmitri Donskoi. ... Transfiguration cathedral in the kremlin Uglich (Russian: У́глич, pronounced ooglitch) is a historic town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, on the Volga River. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... St Sophia Cathedral (1568-70) is the central monument of the Episcopal House, traditionally (though erroneously) called Vologda Kremlin. ...

One of the few churches dating from Vasili's reign is the Savior Cathedral in Moscow.
One of the few churches dating from Vasili's reign is the Savior Cathedral in Moscow.

Vasili's final victory against his cousin came in 1450s, when he captured Galich-Mersky and poisoned Dmitry. The latter's children managed to escape to Lithuania. These events finally put to rest the principle of collateral succession, which was a major cause of medieval internecine struggles. Andronnikov Minster in Moscow, now the Andrei Rublev Museum of Old Russian Art (early 15th century) The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Andronnikov Minster in Moscow, now the Andrei Rublev Museum of Old Russian Art (early 15th century) The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Saviour Cathedral of the Andronikov Monastery. ... Events March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen April 15 - Battle of Formigny. ... Galich, Галич is a Russian town of 21500 inhabitants (1992), situated on the southern bank of Lake Galitskoye, in the Kostroma Oblast. ...


Later reign and policies

Now that the war was over, Vasili eliminated almost all of the small appanages in Muscovy, so as to strengthen his sovereign authority. As a result of his military campaigns, republican governments in Novgorod, Pskov and Vyatka were forced to acknowledge him as their overlord. A military campaign is defined as: A series of related military operations aimed at accomplishing a strategic or operational objective within a given time and space. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the highway (and railway) connecting Moscow and St Petersburg. ... 10-ruble Russian coin of 2003 in the Ancient cities of Russia series - commemorating Pskov Pskov (Псков, ancient spelling Пльсковъ, also Pihkva (Estonian), Pleskau (German) and Psków (Polish)) is an ancient Russian city, located in the north-west of Russia near the present-day border with Estonia, on the river... Kirov (Ки́ров) is a city in eastern European Russia, on the Vyatka River, capital of Kirov Oblast. ...


In the meantime, Constantinople fell to the Turks, and the Patriarch agreed to acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope in the Council of Florence. Vasili promptly rejected this concession. By his order in 1448, bishop Jonah was appointed metropolitan of Russia, which was tantamount to declaration of independence of the Russian Orthodox Church from the Patriarch of Constantinople. This move further strengthened Russia’s reputation among Orthodox states. Map of Constantinople. ... Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Catholic Church. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (יוֹנָה Dove, Standard Hebrew Yona, Tiberian Hebrew Yônāh) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, the son of Amittai, from the Galilean village of Gath-hepher, near Nazareth. ... When the word metropolitan (from the Greek metera = mother and polis = town) is used as an adjective, as in metropolitan bishop, metropolitan France, or metropolitan area it can mean: of or characteristic of a metropolis; see also metropolitan area, Metropolitan Police, Metropolitan Railway of or belonging to the home territories... Christ the Redeemer, a well-known Russian Orthodox icon from Zvenigorod. ... Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


External link

History of the Great Feudal War



Preceded by:
Vasili I
Grand Prince of Moscow
1425–1462
Succeeded by:
Ivan III


Vasiliy I Dmitriyevich (Василий I Дмитриевич in Russian) (1371 – February, 1425), Grand Prince of Moscow since 1389, oldest son of Dmitri Donskoi and Grand Princess Eudoxia - daughter of the Grand Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich of Nizhny Novgorod. ... At different times, a ruler in Ruthenia/Kievan Rus/Muscovy/early Russia/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of the Russian...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vasili II of Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (771 words)
Vasili II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (Blind) (Василий II Васильевич Тёмный in Russian) (March 10, 1415 March 27, 1462) was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425-1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of medieval Russian history.
Vasily II was the eldest son of Vasili I Dmitriyevich by Sofia, the only daughter of Vytautas the Great.
In the meantime, Constantinople fell to the Turks, and the Patriarch agreed to acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope in the Council of Florence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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