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Encyclopedia > Vascular disease
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Coronary heart disease. (Discuss)
Cardiovascular disease
ICD-10 I00-I78
ICD-9 390-434, 436-448

Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, it is usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis (arterial disease). These conditions have similar causes, mechanisms, and treatments. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Diet and Heart Disease be merged into this article or section. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Section of an artery An arterial road is a class of highway. ... In biology, a vein is a blood vessel which carries blood toward the heart. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...


Over 50 million Americans have cardiovascular problems, and most other Western countries face high and increasing rates of cardiovascular disease. It is the number 1 cause of death and disability in the United States and most European countries. By the time that heart problems are detected, the underlying cause (atherosclerosis) is usually quite advanced, having progressed for decades. There is therefore increased emphasis on preventing atherosclerosis by modifying risk factors, such as healthy eating, exercise and avoidance of smoking. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Healthy diet. ... (for options, see option exercise) U.S. marine emerges from the water upon completing the swimming portion of the triathlon. ... Various smoking equipment including different pipes. ...

Contents


Forms

Cardiovascular disease usually occurs as a result of arterial damage. The symptoms and treatments depend on which set (or sets) of arteries are affected.


In coronary heart disease, atherosclerotic plaques (inflamed fatty deposits in the blood vessel wall) obstruct the coronary arteries (blood vessels supplying the heart). Narrowing of arteries is called arterial stenosis. When the blockages become severe enough, the blood flow to the heart is restricted (cardiac ischemia), especially during increased demand (i.e. during exertion or emotion). This results in angina pectoris. The acute stage of coronary heart disease occurs when one of the plaques ruptures, forming a thrombus (blood clot) that acutely occludes the whole artery. The portion of the heart muscle supplied by that artery dies; this is known as a myocardial infarction (or a heart attack in lay parlance). This may result in the death of the patient if the affected area is large enough. If the patient survives, congestive heart failure may result. It has been suggested that Diet and Heart Disease be merged into this article or section. ... The coronary circulation consists of the blood vessels that supply blood to, and remove blood from, the heart. ... A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... Acute may refer to: An acute accent is a diacritic character. ... A thrombus or blood clot is the final product of blood coagulation, through the aggregation of platelets and the activation of the humoral coagulation system. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ...


Similarly, inflammation and blood clots may obstruct the cerebral arteries (those supplying the brain). As the disease progresses, an artery may be transiently blocked, causing cerebral ischemia. This results in a transient ischemic attack (TIA), called a mini-stroke in lay parlance. If the obstruction is severe, a cerebrovascular accident, or stroke may result, due to the death of brain tissue supplied by the artery. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The human brain. ... Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) are caused by temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of brain and cause recurrent and brief (less than 24 hours) neurologic dysfunctions. ... A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ...


In peripheral artery disease, obstruction occurs in the arteries of the arms or legs. This results initially in pain, during temporary obstruction, and finally in tissue death and gangrene if not treated. In medicine (vascular surgery), Peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) is a collator for all disease caused by the obstruction of large peripheral arteries, which can result from atherosclerosis, inflammatory processes leading to stenosis, an embolism or thrombus formation. ... It has been suggested that gas gangrene be merged into this article or section. ...


There are many specific illnesses that may occur in association with these and other cardiovascular disease. In addition to the ones mentioned above, these include hypertension (high blood pressure), arterial aneurysms (arterial enlargement and weakening), cardiomegaly (abnormal enlargement of the heart), tachycardia/bradycardia/arrhythmia (fast/slow/irregular heart rates), cardiac arrest (heart stoppage), cardiomyopathy (heart muscle weakness), heart valve regurgitation (leakage), and heart valve stenosis (narrowing). For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation). ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... An aneurysm (or aneurism) (from Greek ανευρυσμα, a dilatation) is a localized dilation or ballooning of a blood vessel by more than 50% of the diameter of the vessel. ... Cardiomegaly is a medical condition wherein the heart is enlarged. ... Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid beating of the heart, defined as a resting heart rate of 100 or more beats per minute in an average adult. ... Bradycardia, as applied in adult medicine, is defined as a heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min [1]. It is also less commonly known as brachycardia. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Mitral regurgitation (MR), also known as mitral insufficiency, is the abnormal leaking of blood through the mitral valve, from the left ventricle into the left atrium of the heart. ... Heart valve stenosis can refer to one of the following conditions: Mitral stenosis Aortic valve stenosis Category: ...


Risk factors

There are many risk factors which predispose to various forms of cardiovascular disease. These include the following:

Although men have a higher rate of cardiovascular disease than women, it is also the number one health problem for women in industrialized countries. After menopause, the risk for women approaches that of men. Hormone replacement therapy alleviates a number of post-menopausal problems, but appears to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Molecular structure of flavone, a common Polyphenol antioxidant Polyphenol antioxidant is a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role of down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids and may be structural or catalytic in function. ... Various smoking equipment including different pipes. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is the principal inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase (uPA), the activators of plasminogen and hence fibrinolysis (the physiological breakdown of blood clots). ... Homocysteine is a variant of the amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... Molecular structure of ADMA Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring chemical found in blood plasma. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Environmental noise can produce irreversible hearing loss Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... Central obesity (or apple-shaped or masculine obesity) occurs when the main deposits of body fat are localised around the abdomen and the upper body. ... In medicine, a family history consists of information about disorders that a patients direct blood relatives have suffered from. ... Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in species that experience such cycles. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ...


Prevention

Attempts to prevent cardiovascular disease take the form of modifying risk factors. Some, such as gender (male or female), age, and family history, cannot be modified. Smoking cessation (or abstinence) is one of the most effective and easily modifiable changes. Also important is a low-fat, low-calorie diet, which helps one to maintain a healthy body mass index (BMI) and preventing obesity. Regular cardiovascular exercise (aerobic exercise) complements the healthful eating habits. Sometimes, the combination of diet and exercise will improve lipoprotein (cholesterol) levels; if not, a physician may prescribe "cholesterol-lowering" drugs, such as the statins. These medications have additional protective benefits aside from their lipoprotein profile improvement. Aspirin may also be prescribed, as it has been shown to decrease the clot formation that may lead to myocardial infarctions and strokes; it is routinely prescribed for patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors. The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet Index is a statistical measure of the weight of a person scaled according to height. ... Aerobic exercise is a type of exercise in which muscles draw on oxygen in the blood as well as fats and glucose, that increase cardiovascular endurance. ... I LOVE YOU! In physical exercise, aerobic exercise is complementary to anaerobic exercise. ... Lovastatin, the first statin to be marketed The statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) form a class of hypolipidemic agents, used as pharmaceuticals to lower cholesterol levels in people at risk for cardiovascular disease because of hypercholesterolemia. ... Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. ...


Eating oily fish at least twice a week may help reduce the risk of sudden death and arrhythmias. Studies of individual heart cells showed that the fatty acids blocked excessive sodium and calcium currents in the heart, which could otherwise cause dangerous, unpredictable changes in its rhythm (Leaf et al 2003). Oily fish (oil-rich fish, pelagic fish) are those fish which have oils throughout the fillet and in the belly cavity around the gut, rather than only in the liver like white fish. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Treatment

Treatment of cardiovascular disease depends on the specific form of the disease in each patient, but effective treatment always includes preventative lifestyle changes discussed above. Medications, such as blood pressure reducing medications, aspirin and other treatments may be involved. In some circumstances, surgery or angioplasty may be warranted to reopen, repair, or replace damaged blood vessels. Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... Coronary artery bypass surgery Image showing a tube leading into the heart as well as the chest spreaders used to keep the chest cavity open. ... Angioplasty is the mechanical, hydraulic dilation of a narrowed or totally obstructed arterial lumen, generally caused by atheroma (the lesion of atherosclerosis). ...


Research

The causes, prevention, and/or treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease are active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies being published on a weekly basis.


A fairly recent emphasis is on the link between low-grade inflammation that hallmarks atherosclerosis and its possible interventions. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that may be present in increased levels in the blood in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. Its exact role in predicting disease is the subject of debate. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein, an acute phase protein produced by the liver. ...


Some areas currently being researched include possible links between infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary artery disease. The Chlamydia link has become less plausible with the absence of improvement after antibiotic use (Andraws et al 2005). An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Binomial name Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae is a obligate intracellular bacterium. ...


References

  • Andraws R, Berger JS, Brown DL. Effects of antibiotic therapy on outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease. JAMA 2005;293:2641-7. PMID 15928286.
  • Leaf A, Kang JX, Xiao YF, Billman GE. Clinical prevention of sudden cardiac death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mechanism of prevention of arrhythmias by n-3 fish oils. Circulation 2003;107:2646-52. PMID 12782616.

External links

  • Clinical Solutions in Cardiovascular Disease from Siemens
  • Heart disease 'costing UK £29bn' at BBC News, 14 May 2006

 
 

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