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Encyclopedia > Vasconia

Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced /gaskɔɲ/ ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced /gasˈkuɲɐ/) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. It is currently divided between the Aquitaine région (départements of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, south of Gironde, and south of Lot-et-Garonne) and the Midi-Pyrénées région (départements of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwest of Tarn-et-Garonne, and west of Haute-Garonne). The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... The kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... During the French Revolution (1789-1799) democracy and republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the French sector of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... Capital Bordeaux Land area¹ 41,309 km² Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Population  - Jan. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... Template:France divisions levels, Junkyard Willie The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to British counties. ... Landes is a département in southern France. ... Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a département in the southwest of France which takes its name from the Pyrenees mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. ... Gironde is a département in the southwest of France named after the Gironde Estuary. ... Lot-et-Garonne is a département in the southwest of France named after the Lot and Garonne rivers. ... Capital Toulouse Land area¹ 45,348 km² Regional President Martin Malvy (PS) (since 1998) Population  - Jan. ... Gers is a département in the southwest of France named after the Gers River. ... Hautes-Pyrénées is a département in southwestern France. ... Tarn-et-Garonne is a French département in the southwest of France. ... Haute-Garonne is a département in the southwest of France named after the Garonne river. ...


Gascony was historically inhabited by Basque related people. It is home to the Gascon language. It is also the land of d'Artagnan and the Three Musketeers, of world-wide fame. It has been suggested that Basque diaspora be merged into this article or section. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... Charles de Batz-Castelmore, Comte dArtagnan (c. ... DArtagnan and the Musketeers The Three Musketeers (Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ...

Typical view of the hilly countryside of Gascony, with the Pyrenees mountains in the far distance
Typical view of the hilly countryside of Gascony, with the Pyrenees mountains in the far distance

Gascony is also famed for its douceur de vivre ("sweetness of life"): its reputed food (Gascony is home to foie gras and Armagnac brandy), its medieval towns and villages nested amidst green rolling hills, its sunny weather, the beauty of its landscape, with the occasional distant views of the Pyrenees mountain range, all contribute to the popularity of Gascony as a tourist destination. Due to rural exodus, Gascony is one of the least populated areas of western Europe, and so it has recently become a haven for stressed urbanites of northern Europe (France, England, Benelux) in search of quiet and peace of mind, who are increasingly buying second homes in Gascony. Photo self-taken in 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Gascony Categories: GFDL images ... Photo self-taken in 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Gascony Categories: GFDL images ... Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (French: Pyrénées; Spanish: Pirineos; Occitan: Pirenèus or Pirenèas; Catalan Pirineus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... Pâté de foie gras served picnic-style with a Sauternes wine and bread. ... Armagnac, the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but without double distillation. ... Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (French: Pyrénées; Spanish: Pirineos; Occitan: Pirenèus or Pirenèas; Catalan Pirineus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... Rural exodus is a term used to describe the migratory patterns that normally occur in a region following the mechanisation of agriculture. ... Benelux Benelux Benelux is the region of Europe comprising Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. ...

Contents


History

Origins

In pre-Roman times, the inhabitants of Gascony were the Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani), who spoke a language related to the old Basque language. The Aquitanians inhabited a territory limited to the north and east by the Garonne River, to the south by the Pyrenees mountain range, and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Romans called this territory Aquitania, either from the Latin word aqua (meaning "water"), in reference to the many rivers flowing from the Pyrenees through the area, or from the name of the Aquitanian Ausci tribe (whose name seems related to the Basque root eusk- meaning "Basque"), in which case Aquitania would mean "land of the Ausci". In the 50s BC, Aquitania was conquered by lieutenants of C. Julius Caesar and became part of the Roman Empire. It has been suggested that Greco-Roman be merged into this article or section. ... Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne), region later known as Gascony before the Roman conquest and, probably much later until the Upper Middle Ages. ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... The Garonne (Latin: Garumna, Occitan: Garona) is a river in southwest France, with a length of 575 km (357 miles). ... Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (French: Pyrénées; Spanish: Pirineos; Occitan: Pirenèus or Pirenèas; Catalan Pirineus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Auch is a town and commune in southwestern France. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC _ 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC _ 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52... Bust of Julius Caesar This article is about Julius Caesar the Roman dictator. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine Empire. ...


Later, in 27 BC, during the reign of Emperor Augustus, the province of Gallia Aquitania was created. Gallia Aquitania was far larger than the original Aquitania, as it extended north of the Garonne River, in fact all the way north to the Loire River, thus including the Celtic Gallic people that inhabited the regions between the Garonne and the Loire rivers. These Gallic people were quite different from the non-Indo-European Aquitanians. This was a deliberate policy of Rome, which sought to gather people from different ethnic background into a single province, in order the avoid the development of a regional identity. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... Bust of Augustus Caesar Augustus redirects here. ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... The Loire is wide; here in Orléans, half of it is shown, up to a dividing half-flooded island. ... A Celtic cross. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (from Latin Gallia, c. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


In 297, as Emperor Diocletian reformed the administrative structures of the Roman Empire, long claims of the now Romanized descendants of the Aquitanians, who had long desired to be separated from the now also Romanized descendants of the Gallic people inhabiting north of the Garonne, were finally heard and Gallia Aquitania was split into three provinces. The territory south of the Garonne River, corresponding to the original Aquitania, was made a province called Novempopulana (i.e. "land of the nine tribes"), while the part of Gallia Aquitania north of the Garonne became the province of Aquitanica I and the province of Aquitanica II. The territory of Novempopulana corresponded quite well to what we call now Gascony. From 297 on, the name "Aquitaine" was never used again for Gascony, despite it having been its original name, and instead became used only for territories north of the Garonne River. Events Narseh of Persia and Diocletian conclude a peace treaty between Persia and Rome. ... Emperor Diocletian Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (245?–312?), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor as Diocletian from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ...


Novempopulana suffered like the rest of the Western Roman Empire from the invasions of Germanic tribes, most notably the Vandals in 407-409. Later in that century Novempopulana was conquered by the Visigoths and became part of the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse. The Visigoths were defeated by the Franks in 507, and fled into Spain. Novempopulana then became part of the Frankish Kingdom like the rest of southern France. However, Novempopulana was far away from the home base of the Franks in northern France, and was only very loosely controlled by the Franks. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... For the cleaning product 409®, see butoxyethanol. ... The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... The Capitole, the 18th century city hall of Toulouse and best known landmark in the city; in the foreground is the Place du Capitole, a hub of urban life at the very center of the city Toulouse (pronounced in standard French, in local Toulouse accent) (Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced ) is a... Look up Frank and frank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...


It is then, around 600, that taking advantage of the power vacuum thus created, the Basque clans descended from their refuge in the western Pyrenees and established their hegemony over Novempopulana. This is why Novempopulana became known as Vasconia (i.e. "land of the Vascones", the Latin word "Vasco" later evolving into the word "Basque"). The word Vasconia evolved into Wasconia, and then into Gasconia (w- often evolved into g- under the influence of Romance languages, cf. warrantee and guarantee, William and Guillaume). Although the Basque clans dominated Gascony, the gradual abandonment of the Basque related Aquitanian language in favor of a local vulgar Latin, which was well under its way, was not reversed. This local vulgar Latin later evolved into Gascon. However, Gascon was heavily influenced by the original Aquitanian language (e.g. Latin f- became h-, cf. Latin fortia, French force, Spanish fuerza, Occitan fòrça, but Gascon hòrça). For other uses, see number 600. ... It has been suggested that Basque diaspora be merged into this article or section. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ...


Dukes and counts of Gascony

Aerial view of the rolling hills of Gascony
Aerial view of the rolling hills of Gascony

Before listing the names of the dukes and counts of Gascony (or Wasconia as it was then known), a long explanation is needed. This is because these names are recorded under a bewildering number of variants, which makes identification very difficult. These dukes and counts were leaders of the Basque clans that dominated Gascony, and so their native names were Basque. However, as the language of their subjects was mostly a vulgar Latin that evolved into Gascon, their names are also recorded in Gascon. Indeed, eventually the dukes of Gascony probably adopted themselves Gascon, which is reflected in the declining use of authentically Basque names by the last dukes. Download high resolution version (1011x714, 247 KB) Photo self-taken in 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Gascony Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1011x714, 247 KB) Photo self-taken in 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Gascony Categories: GFDL images ...


In written documents, their names were usually recorded in Latin, which was the favored written language at the time. Today, their names are also frequently found in their French version, and also sometimes in their Spanish version. One example: the Basque name Otsoa (meaning "wolf") was literally translated Lop in Gascon, Lupus in Latin, Loup in French, and Lobo in Spanish. Thus, Duke Otsoa II of Gascony can be known by any of these names, which confuses people not used to the local linguistic situation. Furthermore, even within a set language, there exist many different variants, such as Basque name Santxo (from Latin sanctus, meaning "holy"), which can be found in Basque documents written Antso, Sanzio, Santio, Sanxo, Sancio, and so on.


Usually, the dukes and counts of Gascony had two names, the first one being their given name, the second one being the given name of their father (e.g.: Duke Sancho I Lobo, which means this is Duke Sancho I, son of Lobo). This custom later generated the Spanish family names, with the adding of suffix -ez meaning "son of". E.g.: Juan Sanchez literally means "Juan, son of Sancho". For a few dukes of Gascony, the second name is not the given name of their father, but it is a nickname that they gained over time and that replaced the given name of their father, such as the famous duke Sans III Mitarra, where Mitarra is not the name of his father, but a nickname of Arab origin meaning "the Terror", a nickname given to him by the Moors after his resounding successes against them. The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. // Origins of the name The name derives from the old tribe of the Mauri and their kingdom, Mauretania. ...


In the list below, the dukes and counts of Gascony are listed according to their Gascon names (based on the current spelling of Gascon, not the medieval spelling, which was fluctuating anyway). Basque was not chosen, as Basque names present too many variants, and anyway the later dukes adopted the Gascon language. In parenthesis appear the most frequently found versions of their names in other languages.


Although all the different names under which the dukes of Gascony are known are just different versions of the same names in different languages, it should be noted that there is one duke of Gascony known by two names that are completely different names, and not merely two versions of the same name: Duke Semen (a.k.a. Duke Siguin). Semen is a Basque name (sometimes written Semeno, Xemen, Ximen, etc., which gave the Spanish family names Ximenez and Jimenez). Nobody knows for sure if Semen is either the Basque version of the biblical name Simon, or a native Basque name based on the Basque word seme (meaning "son"). On the other hand, Siguin (modern Gascon Seguin) is a name of Germanic origin (Sig-, i.e. "victory", cf. modern German Sieg, and -win, i.e. "friend", related to modern English win). At the time of writing this article, it was not possible to determine which of these two names is the correct name of duke Semen/Siguin. Both are found. Simon is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Simeon. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The Vikings in Gascony (840-982)

According to Joël Supéry ("Le Secret des Vikings" Editions des Equateurs, 2005), the Vikings who invaded France were attempting to create a commercial route to Méditerranea. As the Strait of Gibraltar was in the hands of the Saracens settled in Andalousia, the scandinavian traders decided to join "Mare Nostrum" across Aquitany. The route was going from Bayonne to Pampelona and Zaragoza across the Pyrénées and then descending the river Ebro to Tortosa which was the main slave market of Méditerranea. Their attacks in Gascony in 842 eand 844 destroyed all the political and religious structures in the country. Obviously, they wrere preparing their settlement. They dominated the area until the crucial defeat in 982. Gascony was scandinavian for 140 years. The whale hunting and the "discovery" of Terre Neuve around 1392 by the locals are related to these Scandinavians. They founded Bayonne (Björnhamn-Baionam-Baiona) in front of the antic Lapurdum. Asgeir gave his name to Hossegor, a famous surf spot. Meanwhile, Gascony was the first colony in France 70 years before Normandy.


List of dukes and counts

Abbreviations: B.=Basque, S.=Spanish, L.=Latin, F.=French

  • Lop II (a.k.a. B. Otsoa II, L. Lupus II, F. Loup II), was duke of Gascony around 770. The ancestors of Lop II are not known. It is often claimed that Lop II was related to dukes Odo of Aquitaine and Hunald of Aquitaine, some people even saying that Lop II was the son of Duke Odo of Aquitaine, but this is not true, as no medieval document telling us the family of Lop II has survived.
  • Sans I Lop (a.k.a. B. Antso I Otsoa, S. Sancho I Lobo, F. Sanche I Loup) (son of previous), duke of Gascony (was already duke in 801, died ca. 812)
  • Semen Lop (a.k.a. B. Semeno Otsoa, F. Semen Loup, also Siguin) (older brother of previous), duke of Gascony (ca. 812-died ca. 816)
  • Gassia I Semen (a.k.a. B. Gartzia I Semeno, F. Garcia I Siguin) (son of previous), duke of Gascony (816-died in 818)
  • Lop III Centullo (a.k.a. B. Otsoa III Wasco, L. Lupus III Centullus, F. Loup III Centulle) (son of previous, or possibly son of Centullo, a brother of Sans I Lop), duke of Gascony (818-deposed in 819 by king Pippin I of Aquitaine)
  • Aznar I Sans (a.k.a. B. Aznar I Antso, S. Aznar I Sancho, F. Aznard I Sanche, and strangely also called Aznar I Galíndez in Spain) (son of Sans I Lop), count of Vasconia Citerior (i.e. Gascony) (made count by Pippin I in 820-died in 836), founder of the county of Aragon (see his descendance at: List of Aragonese monarchs). One of his sons, Gassia of Comminges, became count of Comminges, and thus separated Comminges from Gascony (see his descendance at: List of counts of Comminges).
  • Sans II Sancion (a.k.a. S. Sancho II Sanción, F. Sanche II Sancion) (brother of previous), count of Vasconia Citerior against the will of Pippin I (836-852), then duke of Gascony (852-died in 855)
  • Arnaut (a.k.a. B. Arnaut, F. Arnaud, the medieval spelling Arnold is also found) (son of Emenon, count of Perigord and his wife Sancia, herself sister of Sans II Sancion), duke of Gascony (855-died in 864)
  • Sans III Mitarra (a.k.a. B. Antso III Handia (Handia="the Great" in Basque), S. Sancho III Mitarra, F. Sanche III Mitarra, or Sanche III Menditarra) (son of Semen Gassia, himself son of Gassia I Semen, and of Sancia Aznarez, herself daugher of Aznar I Sans), duke of Gascony (864-before 893)
  • Gassia II Sans (a.k.a. B. Gartzia II Antso, S. Garcia II Sancho, F. Garcia II Sanche) (son of previous), called "the Bent", duke of Gascony (before 893-ca. 930)
  • Sans IV Gassia (a.k.a. B. Antso IV Gartzia, S. Sancho IV Garcia, F. Sanche IV Garcia) (son of previous), duke of Gascony (ca. 930- ? ). Gascony was divided between Sans IV Gassia and his brothers: Guilhem Gassia inherited Fezensac and Armagnac and is the ancestor of the counts of these lands, while Arnaut Gassia inherited Astarac and is the ancestor of the counts of Astarac. From that time on, the territory really controlled by the dukes of Gascony was reduced generation after generation.
  • Sans V Sancion (a.k.a. B. Antso V Sancion, S. Sancho V Sanción, Sanche V Sancion) (son of previous), duke of Gascony ( ? -ca. 961)
  • Guilhem Sans (a.k.a. B. Gilen Antso, S. Guillermo Sancho, F. Guillaume Sanche) (brother of previous), duke of Gascony (ca. 961-at least until 996)
  • Bernat I Guilhem (a.k.a. B. Bernart Gilen, F. Bernard Guillaume) (son of previous), duke of Gascony (sometime after 996-died December 25, 1009)
  • Sans VI Guilhem (a.k.a. B. Antso VI Gilen, F. Sanche VI Guillaume) (brother of previous), duke of Gascony (1009-died October 4, 1032)
  • Odon of Aquitaine (a.k.a. F. Eudes) (son of Duke William V of Aquitaine and his second wife Prisca, sister of Sans VI Guilhem), duke of Gascony (1032-died March 10, 1039). Odon inherited the duchy of Gascony at the death of his uncle Sans VI Guilhem, who did not have sons. In December 1038, his older half-brother Duke William VI of Aquitaine died without an heir, and so Odon became duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitiers (1038-1039). Thus Gascony was united with Aquitaine (or rather reunited, since it had been part of Aquitaine in Antiquity and in the days of the Carolingian kings of Aquitaine).
  • Bernat II Tumapaler of Armagnac (a.k.a. F. Bernard II Tumapaler) (son of Count Guiraut I Trancaleon of Armagnac and of his wife Adalais of Aquitaine, sister of Odon of Aquitaine) (born 1020 - died after 1064), duke of Gascony (1039-ceded title 1052), count of Armagnac (1020-abdicated 1061). Was recognized Duke of Gascony at the death of his uncle Odon of Aquitaine in 1039 as he was a direct descendant of Duke Guilhem Sans of Gascony. Later his title was contested by his uncle Guy-Geoffroy of Aquitaine, younger half-brother of Odon of Aquitaine, but not descending from Duke Guilhem Sans of Gascony. Guy-Geoffroy married Garsende of Périgord, daughter of Count Aldabert II of Périgord and his wife Alausie, herself the second daughter of the late duke Sans VI Guilhem of Gascony, thus reinforcing his claim to the title of Duke of Gascony. Eventually, after a protracted fight, Bernat II Tumapaler was defeated and had to relinquish the title of Duke of Gascony to Guy-Geoffroy. However, by then the title was almost empty, as most of Gascony had been dismembered and was in the hand of the counts of Béarn, Bigorre, Armagnac, Comminges, Astarac, and so on. Guy-Geoffroy had only conquered a rump Gascony
  • In 1058 Guy-Geoffroy succeeded his childless older brother William VII of Aquitaine as duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitiers, becoming Duke William VIII of Aquitaine. In May 1063 he defeated a rebellion of the lords of Gascony headed by Bernat II Tupamaler, and decisively put an end to the dreams of reviving the independent duchy of Gascony. From then on, Gascony was securely tied to Aquitaine/Poitiers, and followed the destiny of Aquitaine: it fell into the house of Plantagenet with Eleanor of Aquitaine, and so became an English possession. Then, it was conquered by France over England at the end of the Hundred Years' War.

The unity of Gascony had disappeared already in the 10th century, and so those wishing to learn more about the history of Gascony should look at the particular histories of Béarn, Armagnac, Bigorre, Comminges, Nébouzan, and so on. Events Emperor Konin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shotoku. ... Odo of Aquitaine (a. ... Hunald (a. ... Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. ... Events Births April 12 - Muhammad at-Taqi, Shia Imam (d. ... Events Births April 12 - Muhammad at-Taqi, Shia Imam (d. ... Events Frankish king Louis the Pious crowned emperor. ... Events Frankish king Louis the Pious crowned emperor. ... Events Bishop Theodulf of Orléans is deposed and imprisoned after getting involved in a conspiracy of Bernard, king of Italy, against Louis the Pious Births Deaths May 26 - Ali ar-Rida, Shia Imam Categories: 818 ... Events Bishop Theodulf of Orléans is deposed and imprisoned after getting involved in a conspiracy of Bernard, king of Italy, against Louis the Pious Births Deaths May 26 - Ali ar-Rida, Shia Imam Categories: 818 ... Events The Abbasid capital is moved back to Baghdad Louis the Pious marries Judith Welf Births Deaths Categories: 819 ... Aznar I Galíndez (?? - 839) was Count of Aragón from 809 to 820, succeeding Aureolo upon the latters death. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... Events Abbasid caliph al-Mutasim establishes new capital at Samarra, Iraq. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Here is a list of the... Coat of arms of the counts of Comminges This is a list of counts of the County of Comminges. ... Events Abbasid caliph al-Mutasim establishes new capital at Samarra, Iraq. ... Events Boris I Michael succeeds the duumvirate of Malamir and Presian as monarch of Bulgaria. ... Events Boris I Michael succeeds the duumvirate of Malamir and Presian as monarch of Bulgaria. ... Events Louis II succeeds Lothar as western emperor. ... Périgord is a former province of France, corresponding to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. ... Events Louis II succeeds Lothar as western emperor. ... Events Khan Boris I of Bulgaria is baptized an Orthodox Christian. ... Events Khan Boris I of Bulgaria is baptized an Orthodox Christian. ... Events Simeon I succeeds Vladimir as king of Bulgaria. ... Events Simeon I succeeds Vladimir as king of Bulgaria. ... Events With the establishment of the Icelandic Althing, now the worlds oldest parliament, the Icelandic Commonwealth is founded. ... Events With the establishment of the Icelandic Althing, now the worlds oldest parliament, the Icelandic Commonwealth is founded. ... The hilly Armagnac region in the foothills of the Pyrenées, between the Adour and Garonne rivers is a historic comté of the Duchy of Gascony (Gascogne), established in 601 in the southwest of Aquitaine (now France). ... Events Byzantine Empire recaptures Crete from Muslim control Ani made the capital of Armenia by the Bagratid dynasty Haakon_I_of_Norway squashed the rebelling forces of Eric Bloodaxes sons but was killed in the Battle of Fitje. ... Events Byzantine Empire recaptures Crete from Muslim control Ani made the capital of Armenia by the Bagratid dynasty Haakon_I_of_Norway squashed the rebelling forces of Eric Bloodaxes sons but was killed in the Battle of Fitje. ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... Events February 2 - Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy. ... Eudes of Aquitaine (a. ... William V of Aquitaine (969-January 30, 1030), nicknamed the Great, was Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers as William II of Poitiers. ... Events February 2 - Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... Events June 4 - Henry III becomes King of Germany. ... William VI of Aquitaine (1004-1038), nicknamed the Fat, was Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers as William IV of Poitou between 1030 and 1038. ... The persons who held the title of Duke of Aquitaine (French: Duc dAquitaine}, which became part of France in 1449 but was an independent duchy before that date, with the years they held it, were: See also: Dukes of Aquitaine family tree External Links Columbia Encyclopedias Entry for... Among the men who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers (or Poitou, in what is now France but in the Middle Ages became part of the Aquitaine) are: Guerin (or Warin[us]) (638-677) Renaud (795-843) Bernard I (815-844) Ranulph I (835-875) Ranulph II (855... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... Events June 4 - Henry III becomes King of Germany. ... The Carolingians (also known as the Carlovingians) were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdoms from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Events Hospice built in Jerusalem by Knights Hospitaller City of Saint-Germain-en-Laye founded Third Italian campaign of Henry II of Germany Canute the Great codifies the laws of England Births Harold II of England (approximate) Empress Agnes of Poitou, regent of the Holy Roman Empire (d. ... Events Sunset Crater Volcano first erupts. ... Events June 4 - Henry III becomes King of Germany. ... Events Births Milarepa Deaths Heads of state Holy See - Leo IX pope (1049-1054) Categories: 1052 ... The following is a list of Counts of Armagnac: William Count of Fezensac and Armagnac  ?- 960 Bernard the Suspicious, First count privative of Armagnac 960- ? Gerald I Trancaléon ? -1020 Bernard I Tumapaler 1020-1061 Gerald II 1061-1095 Arnauld-Bernard II (associated 1072 for about ten years) Bernard III... Events Hospice built in Jerusalem by Knights Hospitaller City of Saint-Germain-en-Laye founded Third Italian campaign of Henry II of Germany Canute the Great codifies the laws of England Births Harold II of England (approximate) Empress Agnes of Poitou, regent of the Holy Roman Empire (d. ... Events Normans conquer Messina in Sicily Pope Alexander II elected The building of the Speyer Cathedral in Speyer, Germany, had begun to be built. ... William VIII of Aquitaine, (Guillaume VIII in French) (1025 – September 25, 1086), whose name was Guy-Geoffroy before becoming Duke of Aquitaine, was Duke of Gascony (1052-1086), and then Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers (as William VI of Poitiers) between 1058 and 1086, succceeding his brother William... Périgord (   pronunciation?) is a former province of France, corresponding to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. ... Béarn coat of arms Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn) is a former province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. ... Bigorre coat of arms Bigorre (Gascon: Bigòrra) is an historically independent county, and later a province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains, in southwest France. ... Coat of arms of the counts of Comminges This is a list of counts of Comminges. ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... William VII of Aquitaine, (Pierre-Guillaume in French) (1023 – 1058) was the Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers as William V of Poitiers between 1039 and 1058, following his half-brother Otto of Aquitaine. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine (Bordeaux, France,c. ... A map of Europe in the 1430s, at the height of the Hundred Years War The Hundred Years War is the name modern historians have given to what was actually a series of related conflicts, fought over a 116-year period, between the Kingdom of England and France; beginning in... Béarn coat of arms Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn) is a former province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. ... The hilly Armagnac region in the foothills of the Pyrenées, between the Adour and Garonne rivers is a historic comté of the Duchy of Gascony (Gascogne), established in 601 in the southwest of Aquitaine (now France). ... Bigorre coat of arms Bigorre (Gascon: Bigòrra) is an historically independent county, and later a province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains, in southwest France. ... Coat of arms of the counts of Comminges This is a list of counts of Comminges. ... Nébouzan (pronounced in French) (Gascon: Nebosan, pronounced ) was a small province of France located in the foothills of the Pyrenees mountains, in the southwest of France. ...


Geography

The most important towns are :

View of Grand Bayonne across the Adour Bayonne (Basque: Baiona; Spanish: Bayona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Tourist Office Hotel du Palais or Eugenie Palace La Grande Plage, the towns largest beach Biarritz is a town and commune which lies on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast, in southwestern France. ... Bagnères-de-Luchon, also referred to as Luchon, is a spa town and a commune in the Haute-Garonne département, in southwestern France. ... Château de Pau Pau is a city of southwestern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département. ... Tarbes, Musée des Beaux-Arts Location within France Tarbes is a French city and commune, in the département of Hautes-Pyrénées, of which it is the préfecture. ... Dax is a commune of France, sous-préfecture of the Landes département Categories: Stub ... Statue of the Blessed Virgin of Lourdes Our Lady of Lourdes Basilica Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan) is a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département in France. ... Auch is a town and commune in southwestern France. ...

Economy

Main industries are :

  • fishing
  • stock raising
  • wine making
  • brandy distilling
  • tourism

External link

  • This article incorporates some information taken from http://www.hostkingdom.net/ with permissionda.Pooping

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gascony (485 words)
Except in the region SW of the Adour, where the Basque language and customs have persisted to the present, Latin soon became the tongue of Novempopulana.
Conquered by the Visigoths (5th cent.) and by the Franks (6th cent.), Novempopulana was invaded in turn by the Basque-speaking peoples (the Vascones) from S of the Pyrenees, who in 601 set up the duchy of Vasconia or Gascony.
The duchy's borders fluctuated as the Basques fought the Visigoths, the Franks, and the Arabs throughout the
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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