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Encyclopedia > Varanasi
  ?Varanasi
Uttar Pradesh • India
Coordinates: 25°19′60″N 83°00′00″E / 25.3333, 83
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
Elevation
1,550 km² (598 sq mi)
• 80.71 m (265 ft)
District(s) Varanasi
Population
Density
3,147,927[1] (2001)
• 1,995/km² (5,167/sq mi)[2]
Mayor kaushalendra singh
Codes
Pincode
Telephone
Vehicle

• 221 001
• +0542
• UP-65

Coordinates: 25°19′60″N 83°00′00″E / 25.3333, 83 Varanasi (Sanskrit: वाराणसी Vārāṇasī, IPA: [ʋaːɾaːɳəsiː] ), also known as Benares (Hindi: बनारस Banāras, Urdu: بنارس, IPA: [bənɑːɾəs] ), or Kashi (Hindi: काशी Kāśī), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world, dating back thousands of years and contemporaneous with the Sumer civilisation.[3] The city is called Kashi, "the luminous" in the Rigveda.[4] It is often also referred to as "city of temples and learning."[5] , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... The divisions of a district. ... Varanasi district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, with Varanasi town as the district headquarters. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Example of a PIN: The PIN code of Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh A Postal Index Number or PIN or Pincode is the post office numbering or post code system used by the Indian Postal Service. ... For the past decade or so, telecommunication activities have gained momentum in India. ... Licence plates on the back of a taxi in Kolkata. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... Image File history File links Hi-Varanasi. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... Image File history File links Hi-Banaras. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Image File history File links Hi-Kashi. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about the river. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... This is a list of the oldest, still surviving, towns and cities in the world. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ...


The culture of Varanasi is deeply associated with the river Ganges and the river's religious importance. The city has been a cultural and religious center in northern India for thousands of years. Varanasi has its own style of classical Hindustani music, and has produced prominent philosophers, poets, writers and musicians in Indian history, including Kabir, Ravi Das, Munshi Premchand, Jaishankar Prasad, Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla, Pandit Ravi Shankar, Hariprasad Chaurasia and Ustad Bismillah Khan. Varanasi is the home of Banaras Hindu University. Tulsidas wrote his Ramcharitmanas here, and Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath near Kashi. The language spoken in Varanasi is Kashika Bhojpuri which is closely related to Hindi. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Hindustani (हिन्‍दुस्‍थानी) classical music is an Indian classical music tradition originating in the North of the Indian subcontinent circa the 13th and 14th centuries CE. Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... A painting of Kabir KabÄ«r (also KabÄ«ra) (Hindi: कबीर, GurmukhÄ«: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ... Premchand redirects here. ... Jaishankar Prasad (January 30, 1889 - January 14, 1937) (Hindi: जयशंकर प्रसाद) was one of the most famous figures in modern Hindi literature. ... Ram Chandra Shukla better known as Acharya Shukla (October 4, 1882 - 1942) is regarded as the first codifier of the history of Hindi literature in a scientific system by efforting great research with scanty resources and published ‘Hindi Sahitya Ka Itihaas’(1928-29). ... A pandit or pundit(पन्दित् in Devanagari) is a Hindu Brahmin who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the proper rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. ... Pandit Ravi Shankar, Sitar Maestro © www. ... Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia (b. ... Ustad Bismillah Khan Sahib playing the shehnai The legendary Indian shehnai maestro Ustad Bismillah Khan Sahib is the third classical musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna (in 2001), the highest civilian honour in India. ... Banaras Hindu University (BHU) is a major university located in Varanasi, India. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhārtha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... There are multiple meanings of Kashi: Benares (a. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...

Contents

Geography

Varanasi is closely associated with the Ganges and has many temples along its banks
Varanasi is closely associated with the Ganges and has many temples along its banks

The city of Varanasi is located in the middle Ganga valley of North India, in the Eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, along the left crescent-shaped bank of the Ganga river. It has the headquarters of Varanasi district. The "Varanasi Urban Agglomeration" — an agglomeration of seven urban sub-units — covers an area of 112.26 km² (approximately 43 mi²).[6] The urban agglomeration is stretched between 82° 56’E - 83° 03’E and 25° 14’N - 25° 23.5’N.[6] Being located in the Gangetic plains of North India, the land is very productive for agriculture for low level floods in the Ganges continually replenish the soil. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1054x690, 195 KB) By Steve Evans. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1054x690, 195 KB) By Steve Evans. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ... Varanasi district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, with Varanasi town as the district headquarters. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The Gangetic Plains are the part of the Ganges River (or River Ganga) that flows across Indias northern plains. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ...


On a local level though, Varanasi is located on a higher ground between rivers Ganga and Varuna, the mean elevation being 80.71 m.[7] The main land is relatively stony, which with the absence of small distributaries and canals, provides a continuous and relatively dry land, which must have been perfect for forming settlements in ancient times. This article is about the unit of length. ...


It is often difficult to ascertain the original geography of Varanasi, due to conflicts between descriptions provided in old texts and the city's current location. It is often said that Varanasi is the land between two confluences: one of Ganga and Varuna and other of Ganga and river Assi. The statement gets its weight from the fact that the distance between these two confluences is around 2.5 miles, and a round trip to between these two places is considered holy by Hindus, and is called the Pancha-kroshi Yatra (the five mile journey). At the end of this journey, Sakshi Vinayak Temple is located where devotees go on to complete the circle. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


But while Varuna and Ganga do exist as rivers, Assi exists only in the form of a nullah. Also, there is no evidence that Assi ever was a very large river. Nullah (Hindi for an arm of the sea, stream or watercourse), a steep narrow valley. ...


Climate

Varanasi has a humid subtropical climate with large variations between summer and winter temperatures. Summers are long-stretching from early April to October-with the monsoon season in between. Cold waves from the Himalayan region cause temperatures to dip across the city in the winter from December to February. The average temperature is 32°C–46 °C (90°F–115 °F) in the summers and 5 °C–15 °C (41 °F–59 °F) in the winters.[7] The average annual rainfall is 1110 mm (44 in).[8]. Fog is common in winter while hot dry winds, called loo, blow in the summers. The city is relatively free from air pollution.[citation needed]. Recently, due to water pollution, upstream dams, and increase in the local temperature, the water level of the Ganges has gone down significantly and small islands can be seen in the middle of the river. Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Non notable, no citation, unlikely search target, and not suitable for redirect If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ...


People and culture

Situated on the banks the river Ganges, Varanasi attracts thousands of Hindu piligrims every year.
Situated on the banks the river Ganges, Varanasi attracts thousands of Hindu piligrims every year.

Regions near the banks of the Ganges are extremely crowded and house several Hindu temples, narrow winding lanes and road-side shops. The main residential areas of Varanasi (especially for the middle and upper classes) are situated in regions far from the ghats; they are more spacious and less polluted. Varanasi has nearly 100 ghats, most of which are bathing ghats, while some others are for cremation. According to Hindu belief, dying at Kasi ensures release from the eternal cycle of birth and rebirth. Many of these ghats were built when the Marathas controlled the city and the Scindias, the Peshwas, Holkars and Bhonsles stand out as patrons of present day Varanasi. Even today many of the ghats are privately owned. Shivala or Kali ghat is still owned by the former Maharaja of Kashi. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1094x720, 88 KB) Summary Source: [1] Photo credit: Babasteve Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1094x720, 88 KB) Summary Source: [1] Photo credit: Babasteve Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Desaswamedh Ghat in Varanasi, crowded with pilgrims at sunrise. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jaswant Rao Holkar 1798-1811 AD Holkar of Indore Silver, Nazrana Rupee Minted at Indore in 1807 AD (1222 AH) Weight: 14. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great...


Various legends are associated with the ghats and it is believed that Dasaswamedh Ghat is where Lord Brahma sacrificed 10 horses in a yajna. Manikarnika Ghat is the place where Lord Vishnu dug a pit with his Chakra and, while performing various penances, filled it with his perspiration. While Lord Shiva was watching him, his earring (Manik) fell into the pit, and hence the name. According to another legend, in order to keep Lord Shiva from moving around with his devotees, Goddess Parvati hid her earrings and asked him to find them, saying they had been lost on the banks of the Ganges, so as to make Lord Shiva stay at the place and search forever. It is said that whenever a body gets cremated at the Mani Karnika Ghat, Lord Shiva asks the soul whether they have seen the earring (Mani Karnika). Other interesting ghats are Man Mandir Ghat built in 1770 CE by Maharaja Jai Singh of Jaipur, the intrepid astronomer who built his observatories here, Mansarover Ghat built by Man Singh of Amber. Bachraj is frequented by Jain devotees for it has three Jain temples near the banks of the river. Tulsi Ghat is where Tulsidas wrote Ramcharitmanas. Lalita Ghat was built by the late King of Nepal. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Hinduism, Yajna (Devanagari यज्ञ IAST ; also anglicized as Yagna or Yagya) is a ritual of sacrifice (Monier-Williams gives the meanings worship, prayer, praise; offering, oblation, sacrifice) more commonly practised during Vedic times. ... Vishnu (Hindi: (विष्‍णु) is a form of God, whom Hindus pray to. ... For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ... This article is about the Hindu God. ... For the Harry Potter character, see Parvati Patil. ... Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (November 3, 1688-September 21, 1743) was ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर, Rajasthan Capital), also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... The Yantra Mandir (also known as the Jantar Mantar) is an equinoctial dial, consisting a gigantic triangular gnomon with the hypotenuse parallel to the Earths axis. ... Raja Man Singh(Man Singh I) was the Kacchwaha raja of Amber. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... GosvāmÄ« TulsÄ«dās (1532-1623; DevanāgarÄ«: तुलसीदास) was an Awadhi poet and philosopher. ... ÅšrÄ« Rāmcharitmānas (Hindi रामचरितमानस) is an epic poem composed by the great 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. ... Royal Standard of Nepal The king of Nepal is known as the Raja; his Queen is known as the Rani. ...


Holy city

Varanasi is a holy city in Hinduism, one of the most sacred pilgrimage places for Hindus of all denomination. The Hindu God Shiva supposedly once lived there making many Hindus want to go there on a pilgrimage. More than 1,000,000 pilgrims visit the city each year. Here is the holy shrine of Lord Kashi Vishwanath, (an aspect of Lord Shiva) and one of the twelve revered Jyotirlingas of the Lord Shiva. Hindus believe that bathing in the river Ganga will remit sins and that dying in the holy city of Kashi (Varanasi) circumvents rebirth. This holy city is worshipped as one of the Shakti Peethas where Divine Mother Sati's earring fell and so devotees believe that on that spot stands the present Vishalakshi Temple.[9]and Hindus of the shakti sect come to the city because the river itself is said to be shakti (goddess) itself. It is here that Adi Shankara wrote his commentaries on Hinduism, leading to the great Hindu revival. This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... Hinduism encompasses many movements and schools fairly organized within Hindu denominations. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rebirth may refer the following spiritual/religious concepts: Reincarnation Buddhist Rebirth The experience of being born again in Christianity Rebirth may also refer to: Rebirth, an album by Pain Rebirth, an album by Jennifer Lopez Rebirth, an album by Gackt Rebirth, an album by Angra ReBirth RB-338, software synthesizer... The Shakti Peethas (places of strength) are places of worship consecrated to the goddess Shakti, the female principal of Hinduism and the main deity of the Shakta sect. ... In the Hindu religion, Satī (Devanagari: सती, the feminine of sat true) or Dākshāyani is the Goddess of marital felicity and longevity; she is worshipped particularly by ladies to seek the long life of their husbands. ... The Vishalakshi Temple of Divine Mother Sati, wife of Lord Shiva stands at Meer Ghat just behind Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi, India. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ...

People performing Hindu ceremony at one of the ghats of Varanasi
People performing Hindu ceremony at one of the ghats of Varanasi

It is not just the Hindus venerate Varanasi today, for the city has links with Buddhism and Jainism as well. In the residential neighbourhood of the city lies Sarnath, the site of the deer park where Gautama Buddha is said to have given his first sermon about the basic principles of Buddhism. It is one of the four pilgrimage sites designated by Gautama Buddha, the other three being Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Lumbini. The Dhamek Stupa is one of the few pre-Ashokan stupas remaining, although only the foundations remain. Also remaining is the Chaukhandi Stupa commemorating the spot where the Buddha met his first deciples, dating back to the fifth century or earlier and later enhanced by the addition of an octagonal tower. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 111 KB)People drinking water from the river Ganges during a ceremony. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 111 KB)People drinking water from the river Ganges during a ceremony. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar (26. ... , Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Lumbini(27° 28 60N, 83° 16 60E) (Sanskrit: , the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal. ... Dharmek Stupa Dhamek Stupa is located at Sarnath, 13 km away from Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Chaukhandi Stupa Chaukhandi Stupa is an important Buddhist stupa in Sarnath, located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


Varanasi is also a pilgrimage place for Jains. It is believed to be the birthplace of Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Tirthankar. Vaishnavism and Shaivism have co-existed in Varanasi harmoniously. The city has also been influenced by Islamic culture. The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... A 1097 representation of Parshvanath from Smithsonian Institute’s collections In Jainism, Parshva (877-777 B.C.E.), (more correctly Parshvanatha; occasionally spelled Parswanath) was the twenty-third Tirthankara. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ...


This explains the continuous tension between communities in the city and the fact that really ancient monuments are few. However, Varanasi has kept its sacred position as the Holy City of Hinduism.


Temples

Varanasi is a city of temples. Almost every road crossing has a nearby temple. Such small temples form the basis of daily local prayers and other rituals. But there are many large temples too, erected at different times through out the history of Varanasi.


Kashi Vishwanath Temple, also called Golden Temple, which in its present shape was built in 1780 by Maharani Ahilyabai Holkar of Indore, is located on the outskirts of the Ganga. This temple makes Varanasi a place of great religious importance to the Hindus, as Vishweshwara or Vishwanatha, the aforementioned Jyotirlinga of the Lord Shiva is enshrined here. It is said that a single view of Vishwanatha Jyotirlinga is considered to merit more than that of other jyotirlingas. A Naubatkhana was built up in front of the Temple by the collector Mohammed Ibrahim Khan at the instance of Governor General Warren Hastings in 1785. In 1839, Punjab Kesari, the Sikh Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Punjab donated gold to cover the two domes of the temple. On January 28, 1983 the Temple was taken over by the government of Uttar Pradesh and its management was transferred to a trust with Late Dr. Vibhuti Narayan Singh, then Kashi Naresh, as president and an executive committee with Divisional Commissioner as chairman.[10]. The official website of the Shri Kashi Vishwanath templeKashi Vishwanath was launched on 23rd Jul 2007 and gives details about temple activities as well as facilities for online booking of various sevas and pujas. The most famous temple of the city of Varanasi, the Vishwanath temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. ... Ahilyabai Holkar Rajmata Ahilyadevi Holkar (1725 - 1795, ruled 1767-1795) was a ruler of the Malwa kingdom, India. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... Naqqar khana near Fatehpur Sikri, Delhi. ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Dr. Vibhuti Narayan Singh (1927–2000) was the popular King of Benares, a holy city in Hinduism located in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Kingdom of Kashi is the name given to Kingdom of Maharaja of Kashi (Varanasi), also called as Kashi Naresh. ...


The temple was once destroyed by the Muslim Emperor Aurangzeb who built a mosque over it. It was later resurrected at a location near the mosque, and is many times a cause of local strain among Hindus and Muslims.[11]

Durga Temple or Monkey Temple
Durga Temple or Monkey Temple

Durga Temple, also nicknamed "Monkey temple," was built at some point of time in 18th century by a Bengali Queen. The temple got the name 'Monkey temple' because of the presence of large number of monkeys in the temple. According to legends, the present statue of Goddess Durga was not made by man but appeared on its own in the temple. Thousands of Hindu devotees visit the Durga temple during Navratri and other auspicious occasions. Non-Hindus can enter the courtyard of the Durga temple but not the inner sanctum. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 323 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Varanasi ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 323 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Varanasi ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... It has been suggested that Dasara be merged into this article or section. ...


The architecture is of Nagara Style, which is typical of North India. The temple is accompanied by a rectangular tank of water called Durga Kund. ("Kund" meaning a pond or pool.) The temple has multi-tiered spires and is stained red with ochre, signifying the red colour of Durga. The Kund was earlier connected to the river itself thus refreshing the water. This channel was later closed, leading to locked water which is replenished only by rain or drainage from the Temple. Every year on the occasion of Nag panchami, the act of depicting Lord Vishnu reclining on the coiled-up mystical snake or "Shesha" is repeated in the Kund. Nag Panchami is a Hindu festival celebrated by Hindus in most parts of India. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... In Indian and Hindu mythology, Sesha is a naga (serpent). ...


Sankat Mochan Temple is dedicated to Lord Hanuman and is very popular with the local citizens. It is a place for many yearly religious as well as cultural festivals. On March 7, 2006, one of the three explosions carried out by Islamic militants hit the temple, while the aarti, in which numerous worshippers and wedding attendees participated, was in progress. Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple is a temple of Hindu god Hanuman in the city of Varanasi, India. ... This article is about a divine entity in Hinduism. ...


The new Vishwanath Temple, called Birla Mandir, mainly funded by Raja Birla of the Birla family of industrialists, was built as a replica of the old Kashi Vishwanath Temple.[12] Planned by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, the temple is part of the Banaras Hindu University, and stands for national revival. The temple is open to people of all castes and religions. Birla Family The Birla family is one of the foremost business houses in India. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ...


Art

A holy city, Varanasi does not take a backseat when it comes to fine arts and literature. Great Indian writers have lived in this city from Kabir, Ravi Das, and Tulsidas to Bharatendu Harishchandra, Jayshankar Prasad, Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla, Munshi Prem Chand, Jagannath Prasad Ratnakar, Devaki Nandan Khatri, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Tegh Ali, Kshetresa Chandra Chattopadhyaya, Vagish Shastri, Baldev Upadhyaya, Vidya Niwas Mishra, Kashi Nath Singh, Namvar Singh, Rudra Kashikeya, Nirgun among many other notables. A painting of Kabir Kabīr (also Kabīra) (Hindi: कबीर, Gurmukhī: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ... Bharatendu Harishchandra: Hindi Pioneer Bharatendu Harishchandra (1849-1882) is called the ‘Father of Modern Hindi Literature’. Bharatendu Harishchandra was multi-faceted. ... Jaishankar Prasad (January 30th,1889 - January 14th,1937) (Hindi: जयशंकर प्रसाद) was one of the most famous figures in modern Hindi literature. ... Ram Chandra Shukla better known as Acharya Shukla (October 4, 1882 - 1942) is regarded as the first codifier of the history of Hindi literature in a scientific system by efforting great research with scanty resources and published ‘Hindi Sahitya Ka Itihaas’(1928-29). ... Acharya Hazariprasad Dwivedi (हजारी प्रसाद द्विवेदी) (1907 – 1979) was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar. ... Pt. ... Vagish Shastri (also known as B P T Vagish Shastri) is an international Sanskrit grammarian, eminent linguist and yogi. ... Pandit Baldev Upadhyaya (पण्डित बलदेव उपाध्याय, 1899-1999) was a renowned Hindi, Sanskrit scholar, literary historian, essayist and critic. ... Vidya Niwas Mishra (1926-2005) was a scholar, a noted Hindi-Sanskrit litterateur, and a journalist. ...

Wall paintings, Varanasi, 1973
Wall paintings, Varanasi, 1973

Art lovers and historians like Rai Krishnadas, his son Prof. Anand Krishna, musicians like Pt. Omkarnath Thakur,P t. Ravi Shankar, Ustad Bismillah Khan, Girija Devi, Siddheshwari Devi, Dr. Lalmani Misra and his son Dr. Gopal Shankar Misra, Dr. N. Rajam, Dr.Rajbhan Singh, Pt. Anokhelal, Pt. Samta Prasad, Kanthe Maharaj, Pt. M. V. Kalvint, Sitara Devi, Gopi Krishna, Pt. Kishan Maharaj, Rajan and Sajan, Mahadev Mishra, Girija Devi and numerous others have kept the city alive to the spiritual aspect of fine arts apart from their ability to entertain. Numerous festivals are celebrated that preserve traditional styles of classical and folk culture. All night, open music concerts like ones organised at Sankat Mochan Temple, Hori, Kajri and Chaiti Mela, Budwa Mangal, are annual features that draw connoisseurs from all over. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,883 × 1,344 pixels, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself in 1973. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,883 × 1,344 pixels, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself in 1973. ... Rai Anand Krishna // Birth Anand Krishan was born on Novemebr 12, 1925 into a venerable family of Varanasi that traced its lineage to Patani Mall whose forebears served as Diwans to Moghul courts and East india Company Rai Patani Mall had been granted Mansab of 5000 and control of territories... Ustad Bismillah Khan Sahib playing the shehnai The legendary Indian shehnai maestro Ustad Bismillah Khan Sahib is the third classical musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna (in 2001), the highest civilian honour in India. ... Girija Devi (8th May 1920, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh) is an Indian singer and represent the Banaras Gharana of singers. ... Siddheshwari Devi was a famous Hindustani singer from Benares, lovingly known as Maa (mother). ... Dr. Lalmani Misra M.A. Ph. ... Dr. Gopal Shankar Misra is remembered for his cryptic comment in a television interview. ... Rajm is an Arabic term that means to stone. ... Höri is a municipality in the district of Bülach, in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. ... Kajri is the Hindi adaptation of the Tamil film Ghajini to be directed by A. R. Murugadoss. ...


Economy

Varanasi has several small cottage industries, including Silk sari making, the production of textiles such as hand-woven carpets, and handicrafts. The Banarasi Pan (betel leaves) and Banarasi Khoa (a milk product, somewhat similar to cheese) are popular, and the related small-scale industries employ many people. Indian Railways runs a major diesel locomotive factory in Varanasi, Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW). According to Macaulay, Varanasi was the "city which, in wealth, population, dignity and sanctity was among the foremost in Asia". He described the commercial importance saying "from the looms of Benaras went forth the most delicate silks that adorned the halls of St. James and of Versailles."[9][13] For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For the city, see Sari, Iran. ... Indian Railways (Hindi भारतीय रेल), abbreviated as IR, is a Department of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Railways, and is tasked with operating the rail network in India. ... The Diesel Locomotive Works in Varanasi, India, are a major manufacturer of locomotives in India. ...


Demographics

The population of Varanasi urban agglomeration in 2001 was 1,371,749; the sex ratio was 879 females every 1000 males.[14] However, the area under Varanasi Municipal Corporation has a population of 1,100,748[15] with the sex ratio being 883 females for every 1000 males.[15] The literacy rate in the urban agglomeration is 61.5% while that in the municipal corporation area is 61%.[15] Approximately 138,000 people in the municipal area live in slums.[16] The crime rate in the city in 2004 was 128.5 per 100,000 which is higher than Uttar Pradesh rate of 73.2 but lower than the national rate of 168.8.[17]


Transport

A typical rickshaw
A typical rickshaw

Auto Rickshaws and Rickshaws are the most widely available public transport within Varanasi. In outer regions of the city, mini-buses are common. Small boats and small steamers are used to cross the river Ganga. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x1242, 379 KB)Image taken from Wikimedia commons, re-uploaded to en-wiki to prevent name conflicts with existing image with same name here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x1242, 379 KB)Image taken from Wikimedia commons, re-uploaded to en-wiki to prevent name conflicts with existing image with same name here. ... Japanese rickshaws c. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ...


Varanasi is well connected by air, rail and buses with all the main Indian cities. Its distance from Delhi is 776 km. The Babatpur airport is about 25 km from the city center (about 45 minutes by taxi) and it is well connected to Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, and Nepal. All the major domestic Indian carriers, including Jet Airways, Kingfisher Airlines, Indian, Spicejet, and Alliance Air operate from here. For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... “km” redirects here. ...


One of the major factors in Varanasi's sustained existence as an inhabited city is its role as an established transportation hub between different cities. Dating to ancient times, the city was connected to cities like Taxila, Gazipur, Pataliputra, Vaishali, Ayodhya, Gorakhpur, Agra etc. Taxila (Urdu: , Sanskrit: , Pali:Takkasilā) is an important archaeological site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 6th century BCE[3] to the 5th century CE.[4] [5... Gazipur is a district in central Bangladesh. ... For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ... Vaishali is one of the districts of Bihar state, India. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Gorakhpur (Hindi: गोरखपुर, Urdu: Ú¯Û‹Ú™Ú©Ú¾ پور) is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ...


The city was connected by a single road from Taxila going through Pataliputra during the Mauryan empire. This road was later renovated and extended by Sher Shah Suri during the 16th century and later came to be known as the famous Grand Trunk Road. (source needed) The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ... The Grand Trunk Road (abbreviated to GT Road in common usage) is one of South Asias oldest and longest major roads. ...


The traffic is slow inside the city.


Civic administration and utility services

Varanasi is governed by a number of bodies, the prime being the Varanasi Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) and Varanasi Development Authority, which is responsible for the master planning of the city. Water supply and sewage system is maintained by Jal Nigam, a subsidiary of Nagar Nigam. Power supply is by the Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited. The city produces about 350 million litres per day[18] of sewer and 425 tonnes per day of solid waste.[19] The solid wastes are disposed in one landfill site.[20] A huge amount of sewer flows into the river Ganga daily. Nagar Nigam also runs a bus service in the city and suburban areas. The city is within the Varanasi range of Varanasi zone of Uttar Pradesh Police. A Special Superintendent of Police is the highest ranking police officer in the city.[21] The city constitutes one parliamentary constituency. Indian National Congress won the constituency in Indian general election, 2004. Varanasi Nagar Nigam is the municipal corporation of the city of Varanasi in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Superintendent (Supt. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Varanasi was one the five cities where Ganga Action Plan was launched. Ganga Action Plan or GAP was a program launched by Government of India in April 1985 in order to reduce the pollution load on the river Ganga. ...


Education

Main article: Education in India

India has been a major seat of learning for thousands of years. ...

University education

Varanasi is the site of three public universities. Banaras Hindu University, which includes Institute of Technology and Institute of Medical Sciences, is among the top 3 largest residential universities in the world having more than 128 independent teaching departments.[22] Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth University and Sampurnanand Sanskrit University are the other two universities. Banaras Hindu University (BHU) is a major university located in Varanasi, India. ... Front of main building The Institute of Technology or IT-BHU is the engineering school of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in Varanasi. ... Sampurnanand Sanskrit University is an institution of higher learning in Sanskrit allied areas and is located in Benares which is also known as Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


Banaras Hindu University (1916) was founded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya with the cooperation of Dr Annie Besant. Its 1350 acre (5.5 km²) campus was built on land donated by the then Maharaja of Kashi. Banaras Hindu University (BHU) is a major university located in Varanasi, India. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... Annie Besant Plaque on house in Colby Road, London SE19 where Annie Besant lived in 1874. ... Kingdom of Kashi is the name given to Kingdom of Maharaja of Kashi (Varanasi), also called as Kashi Naresh. ...


Governor General Lord Cornwallis establish the Sanskrit College (1791), which was the first college in Varanasi. The first principal of Sanskrit College was Sanskrit Professor J. Myor, ICS followed by Dr. J.R. Ballentien, RTH Griffith, Dr. G. Thevo, Dr. Aurthor Venice, Dr. Ganganath Jha, and Gopinath Kaviraj among others. After independence this college turned to in Sampurnanand Sanskrit University.[23] Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (December 31, 1738-October 5, 1805) was a British general and colonial governor. ... Sampurnanand Sanskrit University is an institution of higher learning in Sanskrit allied areas and is located in Benares which is also known as Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


The Central Institute for Higher Tibetan Studies at Sarnath is a deemed university with a preference for the traditional Tibetan method of teaching within a framework of modern universities.[24] Uday Pratap College, another rdeemed university, is the center of sports and science study for the suburban students of modern Benares. Varanasi is also noted for many private and public institutes that provide Hindu religious teaching. Since ancient times people have been coming to Varanasi to learn philosophy, Sanskrit, astrology, social science and religious teachings. In Indian tradition, Varanasi is often called "Sarva Vidya Ki Rajdhani" (capital of knowledge).[25] The city also has the Jamiah Salafiah, a Salafi Islamic institution.[26] Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... Deemed University is a status of autonomy granted to high performing institutes and departments of various universities in India. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Basic and special education

The schools are affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), or the U.P. Board of High School & Intermediate Education. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in a 2 year junior college (also known as a pre-university) or in schools with a higher secondary facility. Students usually choose from one of three streams — liberal arts, commerce, or science, though vocational streams are also available. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs. The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations for class 10, i. ... The Central Board of Secondary Education is a board of school education in India. ... India has had a long, interesting history of education and has been a seat of learning for . ... For the Indian grade 11 and 12 schools, see Junior College A junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide a method of obtaining academic, vocational and professional education. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Tourism

Probably due to its unique culture, Varanasi is a major tourist destination for foreign tourists in India. A number of 3, 4 and 5 star hotels are present in the city. All sort of cuisines are available mostly as street food due to rich and hospitable culture of Varanasi. Stars are also used to classify senior military ranks. ...


Varanasi is a noted centre for silk weaving and brassware. Fine silks and brocaded fabrics, exquisite saris, brassware, jewellery, woodcraft, carpets, wall hangings, lamp shades and masks of Hindu and Buddhist deities are some of Varanasi's shopping attractions. The main shopping areas include the Chowk, Godaulia, Vishwanath Lane, Lahurabir and Thatheri Bazaar. [9]


Varanasi in popular culture

Banaras - A Mystic Love Story is the name of an Indian Bollywood film directed by Pankuj Parashar released in 2006. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny) is a political-satirical opera composed by Kurt Weill to a German libretto by Bertolt Brecht. ... Bibhutibhushan Bandhopadhyay Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay (Bengali: Bibhutibhushon Bôndopaddhae; last name also rendered as Banerjee or Banerji) was a Bengali novelist and writer. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Aparajito (Bengali: অপরাজিত, Ôporajito, meaning The Unvanquished) is an award-winning 1956 Bengali film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... The Apu trilogy is a series of three films directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Dan Simmons (born April 4, 1948 in Peoria, Illinois) is an American author most widely known for his Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel Hyperion and its sequel The Fall of Hyperion. ... Hyperion The Hyperion Cantos form a tetralogy of science fiction novels by Dan Simmons. ... There are at least two well-known musicians named Ian McDonald: Ian McDonald of the bands King Crimson (1969-70) and Foreigner (1977-79). ... River of Gods is a science fiction novel by Ian McDonald. ... Krishna Das (born Jeffrey Kagel in Long Island, New York) is a singer who performs Indian chants called kirtans. ...

See also

Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.

Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the Brāhmī script of Mauryan India. ... Varanasi district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, with Varanasi town as the district headquarters. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy of Holies. ... Vishnu Sarma was the author of the anthropomorphic political treatise called Panchatantra. ... The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, in Sanskrit: पञ्चतन्त्र, Five Principles) or Kalīleh o Demneh (in Persian: ) or Anvār-e Soheylī [4][5][6] (in Persian: , The Lights of Canopus) or Kalilag and Damnag[7] (in Syriac) or Kalīlah wa Dimnah[8] (in Arabic: كليلة و دمنة, Kalilah... This article is about the river. ... Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple is a temple of Hindu god Hanuman in the city of Varanasi, India. ... Kashi Mutt is one of the three mutts which Goud Saraswat Brahmins follow. ... Dharmek Stupa Dhamek Stupa is located at Sarnath, 13 km away from Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... Chaukhandi Stupa Chaukhandi Stupa is an important Buddhist stupa in Sarnath, located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ranking of Districts by Population Size in 1991 and 2001. Government of Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  2. ^ Ranking of Districts by Population Density. Government of Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  3. ^ Lannoy, Richard (October 1999). Benares Seen from Within. University of Washington Press, Back Flap. ISBN 029597835X. OCLC 42919796. 
  4. ^ Talageri, Shrikant G.. The Geography of the Rigveda. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  5. ^ Varanasi : The eternal city. Banaras Hindu University. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  6. ^ a b Singh, Rana P.B.. Varanasi as Heritage City (India) on the scale the UNESCO World Heritage List: From Contestation to Conservation (PDF). EASAS papers. Swedish South Asian Studies Network. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  7. ^ a b Varanasi. India-cities. Atrip4india.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  8. ^ Varanasi tourism. DelhiTourism.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  9. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  10. ^ Shri Kashi Vishwanath Mandir Varanasi. National Informatics Centre, Government of India. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  11. ^ "Countrywide alert on Masjid demolition anniversary", The Tribune, 1998-12-06. Retrieved on 2007-02-05. 
  12. ^ Birla Temple (new Vishwanath Temple). Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  13. ^ Varanasi. Tourism of India 2. HinduNet Inc. (2003). Retrieved on 2007-03-07. “all along the shore lay great fleets of vessels laden with rich merchandise. From the looms of Benaras went forth the most delicate silks, that adorned the halls of St. James and of Versailles, and in the bazaars, the muslins of Bengal and sabres of Oude were mingled with the jewels of Golconda and the shawls of Cashmere”
  14. ^ Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population of more than one million in 2001. Census of India 2001 (Provisional). Office of the Registrar General, India (2001-07-25). Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  15. ^ a b c Population, Population in the age group 0–6 and literates by sex - Urban Agglomeration/Town: 2001 (PDF). Census of India 2001 (Provisional) 53-54. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  16. ^ Slum Population in Million Plus Cities (Municipal Corporations): Part A. Census of India 2001 (Provisional). Office of the Registrar General, India (2002-01-22). Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  17. ^ National Crime Records Bureau (2004). "Crimes in Mega Cities", Crime in India-2004 (PDF Format), Ministry of Home Affairs, 158. 
  18. ^ Bhargava, Gopal. "Scheme for Varanasi", The Tribune. 
  19. ^ Waste Generation and Composition. Management of municipal solid wastes. Planning Division, Central Pollution Control Board. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  20. ^ Status of landfill sites in 59 cities. Management of municipal solid wastes. Planning Division, Central Pollution Control Board. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  21. ^ UP Police Is divided into following zines consisting ranges & districts. UP Police. NIC. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  22. ^ Banaras Hindu University. SurfIndia. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  23. ^ Acharya Baldeva Upadhyay, Kashi ki Panditya Parampara, Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan, Varanasi, 1983.
  24. ^ Central Institute for Higher Tibetan Studies. Varanasi City. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  25. ^ Educational Institutes in Varanasi. Varanasi City. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  26. ^ Darul Uloom Jamia Rasheedia. Tipu Sultan Advanced Study & Research Centre (TSASRC). Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  27. ^ Text and Information. Retrieved on 2007-06-24.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Washington Press is the nonprofit book and multimedia publishing arm of the University of Washington. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banaras Hindu University (BHU) is a major university located in Varanasi, India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tribune, now published from Chandigarh and Delhi, started publication on February 2, 1881, in Lahore (now in Pakistan). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Informatics Centre (NIC) is Indias premiere government organization providing network infrastructure and e-Governance support to all government bodies. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Varanasi
  • District Varanasi Official Website - Official website of Varanasi District and City
  • Varanasi at the Open Directory Project
  • Varanasi travel guide from Wikitravel


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Image File history File links Aum. ... As per the 2001 census there are 36 cities or urban agglomerations in India with a population of 1 million or more. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Asansol (Bengali: ), a coal-mining-industrial centre, is the second largest city [1] in West Bengal, after Kolkata. ... , For other uses, see Aurangabad. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... , Madras redirects here. ... , Coimbatore (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Dhanbad (Hindi: धनबाद) is the capital of Dhanbad District, Jharkhand, India. ... , Faridabad is a city and a municipal corporation in Faridabad district in the state of Haryana, India. ... , Ghaziabad   (Hindi: गाज़ियाबाद, Urdu: غازی آباد) is an industrial city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... This article is about a city in India. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... , Jabalpur (Hindi: जबलपुर) is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर, Rajasthan Capital), also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... , Jamsehdpur   (जमशेदपूर in Devanagari) is a city located in the state of Jharkand in India, founded by the late Jamshedji Nusserwanji Tata. ... , Kanpur   (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کان پور, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948) is one of the most populous cities in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The urban agglomeration (UA) of Kochi (pronunciation?·i; Malayalam: കൊച്ചി [Kocci]); formerly known as Cochin) is the largest UA in the Indian state of Kerala. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... For the district of the same name, see Ludhiana District. ... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... , Nashik (Marathi: ) ( ) or Nasik (Marathi: ) is a city in Indias Maharashtra state. ... , Navi Mumbai (Marathi: नवी मुंबई, IAST: ) (erstwhile: New Bombay) is a twin of Mumbai city, India. ... For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ... , Pune (IPA: , Marathi: पुणे) is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ... , Rajkot   (2005 pop. ... Get the information of Kakinada at http://www. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... , Vadodara (Gujarati: વડોદરા,Marathi:बडोदा)  ), also known as Baroda, is the third most-populated town in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat. ... , Vijayawada ( ) (విజయవాడ) literally translates to The Place of Victory.It is also called as blazewada. ... , Visakhapatnam  (telugu - విశాఖపట్నం) (also Viśākhapattanamu, shortened and anglicized: Vizag or Vizagapatnam) is a port city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... , For the district of the same name, see Warangal district. ...

State of Uttar Pradesh
Divisions AgraAllahabadAzamgarhBareillyBastiChitrakootDevipatanFaizabadGorakhpurJhansiKanpurLucknowMirzapurMoradabadSaharanpurVaranasi
Districts AgraAligarhAllahabadAmbedkar NagarAuraiyaAzamgarhBadaunBagpatBahraichBalliaBalrampurBandaBarabankiBareillyBastiBijnorBulandshahrChandauliChitrakootDevariaEtahEtawahFaizabadFarrukhabadFatehpurFirozabadGautam Buddha NagarGhaziabadGhazipurGondaGorakhpurHamirpurHardoiJalaunJaunpurJhansiJyotiba Phule NagarKannaujKanpur Dehat (Akbarpur)Kanpur NagarKaushambiKushinagar (Padrauna)Lakhimpur KheriLalitpurLucknowMahamaya (Hathras)MaharajganjMahobaMainpuriMathuraMauMeerutMirzapurMoradabadMuzaffarnagarPilibhitPratapgarhRaebareliRampurSaharanpurSant Kabir NagarSant Ravidas Nagar (Bhadohi)ShahjahanpurShravastiSiddharthnagarSitapurSonbhadraSultanpurUnnaoVaranasi
Major cities AgraAllahabadKanpurLucknowMeerutVaranasi

  Results from FactBites:
 
Varanasi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3276 words)
The culture of Varanasi is deeply associated with the river Ganga and its religious importance; the city has been a cultural and religious center in northern India for thousands of years.
The Varanasi City is the district headquarters of the Varanasi district.
Varanasi is governed by a number of bodies, the prime being the Varanasi Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) and Varanasi Development Authority, which is responsible for the master planning of the city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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