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Encyclopedia > Vapor
Water condenses into visible droplets after evaporating from a cup of hot tea

Vapor (see spelling differences) is the gas phase component of another state of matter (e.g. liquid or solid) which does not completely fill its container. It is distinguished from the pure gas phase by the presence of the same substance in another state of matter. Hence when a liquid has completely evaporated, it is said that the system has been completely transformed to the gas phase. Vaporware is software or hardware product which is announced by a developer well in advance of release, but which then fails to emerge, either with or without a protracted development cycle. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Watervapor_cup. ... Image File history File links Watervapor_cup. ... The differences in the spellings of British English and American English are as follows: Spelling differences between U.S. usage on one side and British and Commonwealth usage on the other are generally more conspicuous than spelling differences within the Commonwealth. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ...

## Contents

The terms vapor and gas are frequently but incorrectly used interchangeably.[citation needed] A vapor refers to a gas phase in a state of equilibrium with identical matter in a liquid or solid state below its boiling point. For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium when it is in thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium, and chemical equilibrium. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

The term gas refers to a compressible fluid phase, as in common usage. Fixed gases are gases for which no liquid or solid can form at the temperature of the gas (such as air at typical ambient temperatures). A liquid or solid does not have to boil to release a vapor. The atmospheric boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to one atmosphere (unit). This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ...

See the article on vapor pressure for more information on this topic. Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ...

Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

Vapor is responsible for the familiar processes of cloud formation and condensation. It is commonly employed to carry out the physical processes of distillation and headspace extraction from a liquid sample prior to gas chromatography. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or simply gas chromatography (GC) is a type of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid on an inert solid support. ...

The vapor pressure is the equilibrium pressure from a liquid or a solid at a specific temperature. The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid or solid is not affected by the amount of contact with the liquid or solid interface. Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ...

The physical chemistry behind distillation is based on manipulating the equilibrium occurring between the liquid and vapor phases of a molecule in solution. Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Vapor-liquid equilibrium, abbreviated as VLE by some, is a condition where a liquid and its vapor (gas phase) are in equilibrium with each other, a condition or state where the rate of evaporation (liquid changing to vapor) equals the rate of condensation (vapor changing to liquid) on a molecular... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ...

For two-phase systems (e.g., two liquid phases), the vapor pressure of the system is the sum of the vapor pressures of the two liquids. In the absence of stronger inter-species attractions between like-like or like-unlike molecules, the vapor pressure follows Raoult's Law, or the vapor pressure is equal to the sum of the product of the vapor pressure of the pure compound and its mole fraction in the mixture for all of the constituents. In chemistry, Raoults law states that the vapor pressure of mixed liquids is dependent on the vapor pressures of the individual liquids and the molar vulgar fraction of each present in solution. ...

The constituent atoms or molecules of a vapor possess vibrational, rotational, and translational motion. More information can be found under the entry of the Kinetic theory of gases.
Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... The kinetic theory of gases is a theory that explains the macroscopic properties of gases by consideration of their composition at a molecular level. ...

## Examples

Water vapor is responsible for humidity
• Perfumes contain chemicals that vaporize at different temperatures. The top note vaporizes first followed by the heart note. The slowest to vaporize is the base note.
• Fog, mist and haar are meteorological designations for visible near surface water vapor.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 531 pixelsFull resolution (2048 Ã— 1360 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 531 pixelsFull resolution (2048 Ã— 1360 pixels, file size: 1. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... In perfumery, a top note is a volatile odorant that evaporates very quickly. ... In perfumery, a base note (pronounced like the musical term bass note) is a class of odorants that evaporates very slowly and are typically not perceived until perfume drydown. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Dramatic morning mist Mist is a phenomenon of a liquid in small droplets floating through air. ... There are several meanings of Haar: Haar, Bavaria, a municipality near Munich, Germany a Hungarian mathematician named Alfred Haar (1885 - 1933). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

## Measuring vapor

Since it is in the gas phase, the amount of vapor present is quantified by the partial pressure of the gas. Also, vapors obey the barometric formula in a gravitational field just as conventional atmospheric gases do. In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ... The barometric formula, sometimes called the exponential atmosphere or isothermal atmosphere, is a formula used to model how the pressure (or density) of the air changes with altitude. ...

## Vapors of flammable liquids

Flammable liquids do not burn when ignited. It is the vapor cloud above the liquid that will burn if the vapor's concentration is between the lower explosive limit and upper explosive limit of the flammable liquid. Generally, a flammable liquid means a liquid which may catch fire easily. ... The explosive limit of a gas or a vapour, is the limiting concentration (in air) that is needed for the gas to ignite and explode. ... The explosive limit of a gas or a vapour, is the limiting concentration (in air) that is needed for the gas to ignite and explode. ...

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 ARL Frequently Asked Questions (1761 words) It is, therefore, the ratio of the mass of water vapor in a sample to the total mass of the sample moist air, including both the dry air and the water vapor. Absolute humidity is the water vapor density, defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the volume of associated moist air and generally expressed in grams per cubic meter. Transpiration of water vapor through leaf stomata depends on the gradient of moisture between the leaf interior (which is saturated) and the overlying air, as well as the availability of moisture in the soil.
 Best practices: Vapor retarders and air infiltration barriers - Oldhouseweb.com (2958 words) Effective vapor retarders must have a water vapor permeability not exceeding 1.0 grains per hour per square foot per inch of mercury vapor pressure difference (referred to as 1.0 perms), and must be installed in such a manner as to prevent air leaks at joints and laps. The primary purpose for installing a vapor retarder in residential rehabilitation is to minimize moisture vapor migration into a wall or roof assemly where it has the potential to deposit condensate when the dew point is reached. Vapor retarder primers are the simplest application in situations where existing wallboard or plaster surfaces are not to be significantly disturbed.
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