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Encyclopedia > Vandals
The Vandals' 'traditional' reputation: a colored steel engraving of the Sack of Rome (455) by Heinrich Leutemann (1824–1904), c 1860–80
The Vandals' 'traditional' reputation: a colored steel engraving of the Sack of Rome (455) by Heinrich Leutemann (1824–1904), c 1860–80

The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. The Goth Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths and regent of the Visigoths was allied by marriage with the Vandals, as well as with the Burgundians and the Franks under Clovis I. Look up vandal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (628x787, 225 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (628x787, 225 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Leutemann Gottlob Heinrich (Henrik) Leutemann (October 8, 1824—December 14, 1904) was a German artist and book illustrator. ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ...

Contents

Origins and early history

The Germanic tribes in the mid-1st century AD. The Vandals/Lugii are depicted in green, in the area of modern Poland.
The Germanic tribes in the mid-1st century AD. The Vandals/Lugii are depicted in green, in the area of modern Poland.

Some archaeologists and historians identify the Vandals with the Przeworsk culture, but controversy surrounds potential connections between the Vandals and another, possibly Germanic tribe, the Lugii (Lygier, Lugier or Lygians), which is referred to as inhabiting the area by Roman writers. Some academics believe that either Lugii was an earlier name of the Vandals, or the Vandals were part of the Lugian federation. Jordanes refers to Vandals as Gothic (East Germanic) speakers, and name etymologies support the notion of Vandalic being near related to Gothic. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixel Image in higher resolution (969 × 700 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/png) von de:Benutzer:Schreiber erstellt (GNU-FDL) es handelt sich um die räumliche Verteilung von germanischen Volksgruppen um 100 n. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixel Image in higher resolution (969 × 700 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/png) von de:Benutzer:Schreiber erstellt (GNU-FDL) es handelt sich um die räumliche Verteilung von germanischen Volksgruppen um 100 n. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ... The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Vandalic was a Germanic language probably closely related to the Gothic language. ...


Similarities of names have sometimes led to speculatively appointing homelands for the Vandals in Norway (Hallingdal), Sweden (Vendel), or Denmark (Vendsyssel). The Vandals are assumed to have crossed the Baltic into what is today Poland somewhere in the 2nd century BC, and to have settled in Silesia from around 120 BC. Tacitus recorded their presence between the Oder and Vistula rivers in Germania (AD 98); his identification was corroborated by later historians: according to Jordanes, they and the Rugians were displaced by the arrival of the Goths. This tradition supports the identification of the Vandals with the Przeworsk culture, since the Gothic Wielbark culture seems to have replaced a branch of that culture. Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ... Ohtheres mound Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland. ... Vendsyssel-Thy or Nørrejyske Ø (Danish for North Jutland Island) is the northmost part of the Jutland Peninsula (Denmark) and the second largest island of Denmark. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC - 120 BC - 119 BC 118 BC... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Events Roman emperor Nerva succeeded by Trajan Tacitus finished his Germania (approximate date) Births Deaths January 27: Nerva, Roman emperor Apollonius of Tyana, Greek/Roman philosopher and mathematician (b. ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ... Areas in the first half of the 3rd century: Wielbark culture (red) , Przeworsk culture (green), a Baltic culture (Aesti?, yellow), DÄ™bczyn culture (pink) and the Roman Empire (purple) Wielbark culture (German: , Polish: , Ukrainian Ukrainian: ) was an archaeological culture identified with the Goths which appeared during the first half of...


Some Medieval authors used the ethnonym "Vandals" applying it to Slavic peoples: Wends, Losatians or Poles.[1][2][3] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Vend redirects here. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ...


Incursions into the Roman Empire

Simplified map of the various incursions into the Roman Empire, showing the Vandals' migrations (in blue) from Germany through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa, and their raids throughout the Mediterranean, including the eventual sack of Rome in 455.
Simplified map of the various incursions into the Roman Empire, showing the Vandals' migrations (in blue) from Germany through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa, and their raids throughout the Mediterranean, including the eventual sack of Rome in 455.

The Vandals were divided in two tribal groups, the Silingi and the Hasdingi. At the time of the Marcomannic Wars (166–180) the Silingi lived in an area recorded by Tacitus as Magna Germania, now Silesia. In the 2nd century, the Hasdingi, led by the kings Raus and Rapt (or Rhaus and Raptus)[citation needed] moved south, and first attacked the Romans in the lower Danube area. In about 271 the Roman Emperor Aurelian was obliged to protect the middle course of the Danube against them. They made peace and settled in western Dacia and Pannonia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Greek Σιλίγγαι - Silingai) were an East Germanic tribe probably part of the larger Vandal group. ... The Hasdingii were the southern tribes of the Vandals. ... Combatants Roman Empire Marcomanni, Quadi, other Germanic peoples along the Danube Commanders Marcus Aurelius The Marcomannic Wars were a series of wars lasting over thirty years during the reign of Marcus Aurelius from about AD 166 until 180, which pitted the Roman Empire against the Marcomanni, Quadi and other Germanic... This article is about the historian Tacitus. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Hasdingii were the southern tribes of the Vandals. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ...


According to Jordanes' Getica, the Hasdingi came into conflict with the Goths around the time of Constantine the Great. At the time, the Vandals were living in lands later inhabited by the Gepids, where they were surrounded "on the east [by] the Goths, on the west [by] the Marcomanni, on the north [by] the Hermanduri and on the south [by] the Hister (Danube)." The Vandals were attacked by the Gothic king Geberic, and their king Visimar was killed. The Vandals then migrated to Pannonia, where after Constantine the Great (about 330) granted them lands on the right bank of the Danube, they lived for the next sixty years. Modern Istanbul, site of ancient Constantinople, capital of the eastern Roman Empire, where Jordanes was being detained when he wrote Getica. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Constantine. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... The Hermunduri (alternate spellings: Hermunduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, Hermonduli) were an ancient tribe of Germanic people who occupied the area around what is now Thuringia, Saxony, and Northern Bavaria, from the first to the third century. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Geberic was a king of the Goths of the fourth century AD. He succeeded Ariaric and conquered Dacia, which had become the territory of the Vandals, around 340 AD. The Vandals had been led by their king Visimar. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Constantine. ...


In 400 or 401, possibly because of attacks by the Huns, the Vandals, under king Godigisel, along with their allies (the Sarmatian Alans and Germanic Suebians) moved westwards into Roman territory. Some of the Silingi joined them later. Around this time, the Hasdingi had already been christianized. During the Emperor Valens's reign (364–78) the Vandals accepted, much like the Goths earlier, Arianism, a belief that was in opposition to that of Nicene orthodoxy of the Roman Empire. Yet there were also some scattered orthodox Vandals, among whom was the famous magister militum Stilicho, the chief minister of the Emperor Honorius. Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... // Events Pope Innocent I succeeds Pope Anastasius I. The Vandals start their westward trek from Dacia and Hungary (or 400). ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Godigisel (b. ... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. ... Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395) and then Western Roman Emperor from 395 until his death. ...


In Gaul

In 406 the Vandals advanced from Pannonia travelling west along the Danube without much difficulty, but when they reached the Rhine, they met resistance from the Franks, who populated and controlled Romanized regions in northern Gaul. Twenty thousand Vandals, including Godigisel himself, died in the resulting battle, but then with the help of the Alans they managed to defeat the Franks, and on December 31, 406 the Vandals crossed the frozen Rhine to invade Gaul, which they devastated terribly. Under Godigisel's son Gunderic, the Vandals plundered their way westward and southward through Aquitaine. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... The date 31 December 406, is the often-repeated date of the crossing of the Rhine by a mixed group of barbarians that included Vandals, Alans and Suebi. ... Gunderic (379-428), King of the Vandals and Alans (407-428) led the Vandals, a Germanic tribe originally residing near the Oder River in modern Poland, to take part in the barbarian invasions of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


In Iberia

On October 13, 409 they crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian peninsula. There they 'received land' from the Romans, as foederati, in Gallaecia (Northwest) and Hispania Baetica (South), while the Alans got lands in Lusitania (West) and the region around Carthago Nova. The Suebi also controlled part of Gallaecia. The Visigoths, who invaded Iberia before receiving lands in Septimania (Southern France), crushed the Alans in 426, killing the western Alan king Attaces. The remainder of his people subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. Later Vandal kings in North Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum ("King of the Vandals and Alans"). is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the cleaning product 409®, see butoxyethanol. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... Carthago Nova (New Carthage, Carthage already meaning new city in Punic) is the Latin name of the most important Carthaginian coastal trading colony in Spain. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ... King Attaces was king of the western Alans who migrated away from the oncoming Hunnic horde. ... Gunderic (379-428), King of the Vandals and Alans (407-428) led the Vandals, a Germanic tribe originally residing near the Oder River in modern Poland, to take part in the barbarian invasions of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century. ...


The Vandals may have given their name to the region of Andalusia, which according to one of several theories of its etymology which would be the source of Al-Andalus — the Arabic name of Iberian Peninsula), in the south of present day Spain, where they settled before pushing on to North Africa. For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


The Vandal Kingdom in North Africa

Establishment

The Vandal kingdom, along with the other Germanic kingdoms in the West, ca. 526
The Vandal kingdom, along with the other Germanic kingdoms in the West, ca. 526

The Vandal conquest of North Africa is considered as a strategic move. The Vandals took North Africa as a base for raiding the Mediterranean Sea, much like the Vikings.[4] They settled mainly in the lands corresponding to modern Tunisia and northeastern Algeria.[5] It was under the reign of king Geiseric (Genseric, Gaiseric), Gunderic's half brother, when Vandals started building a Vandal fleet, to plunder the Mediterranean. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 761 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 670 pixel, file size: 156 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Europe in 526. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 761 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 670 pixel, file size: 156 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Europe in 526. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... Gunderic (379-428), King of the Vandals and Alans (407-428) led the Vandals, a Germanic tribe originally residing near the Oder River in modern Poland, to take part in the barbarian invasions of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century. ...


In 429, political maneuvering in Rome was to change the landscape forever. Rome was ruled by the boy emperor Valentinian III (who rose to power at the age of 8), and his mother Galla Placidia. However, the Roman General Flavius Aëtius, in vying for power, convinced Galla Placidia that her General Boniface was plotting to kill her and her son to claim the throne for himself. As proof, he implored her to write him a letter asking him to come to Rome and she would see that Boniface would refuse. At the same time Aëtius sent Boniface a letter stating that he should disregard letters from Rome asking him to return for they were plotting to kill him. When Boniface saw the letter from Rome, and believed there was a plot to kill him, he enlisted the help of the Vandal King Geiseric. He promised the Vandals land in North Africa in exchange for their help. However, once it was known that the whole thing was a plot, and Boniface was once again in Rome's favour, it was too late to turn back the Vandal invasion. Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Portrait of Galla Placidia, from her mausoleum in Ravenna. ... Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, ( 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. ... Count Boniface (in Latin, Comes Bonifacius) (d. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ...


Geiseric crossed the Strait of Gibraltar with the entire tribe of 80,000 and moved east, pillaging and looting as they drove more and more refugees toward the walled city of Hippo Regius. Gaiseric realized that they wouldn't be able to take the city in a direct assault, so began a months long siege on the walls of Hippo Regius. Inside Saint Augustine and his priests prayed for relief from the Arian invaders, knowing full well that the fall of the city would spell conversion or death for many Christians. On 28 August 430, three months into the siege, St. Augustine died, perhaps from hunger or stress, as the wheat fields outside the city lay dormant and unharvested. After 14 months, hunger and the inevitable diseases were ravaging both the city inhabitants and the Vandals outside the city walls. The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Peace was made between the Romans, who in 435 granted them some territory in Northern Africa, but it was broken by Geiseric, who in 439 took Carthage and made it his capital. The Vandals took and plundered the city without a fight, entering the city while most of the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Geiseric then built the Kingdom of the Vandals and Alans into a powerful state with the capital at Saldae; he conquered Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands. Events August 3 - Nestorius is exiled by Imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis. ... Events Licinia Eudoxia, wife of the Roman Emperor Valentinian III, is granted the rank of Augusta following the birth of their daughter Eudocia. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Bejaïa (//; Vgayet in the kabyle language) is a Mediterranean port on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Béjaïa Province, northern Algeria. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


Sack of Rome

Main article: Sack of Rome (455)

During the next thirty-five years, with a large fleet, Geiseric looted the coasts of the Eastern and Western Empires. After Attila the Hun's death, however, the Romans could afford to turn their attention back to the Vandals, who were in control of some of the richest lands of their former empire. In an effort to bring the Vandals into the fold of the Empire, Valentinian III offered his daughter's hand in marriage to Geiseric's son. Before this "Treaty" could be carried out, however, politics again played a crucial part in the blunders of Rome. Petronius Maximus, the usurper, killed Valentinian III in an effort to control the Empire. Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia, begging Geiseric's son to rescue her, the Vandals took Rome, along with the Empress Licinia Eudoxia and her daughters Eudocia and Placidia. The second of three barbarian sacks of Rome, the sack of 455 was at the hands of the Vandals, then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor Petronius Maximus. ... Attila redirects here. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Petronius Maximus on a coin. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Eudocia, or Eudoxia (439–466/474?) was the eldest daughter of Roman emperor Valentinian III and his wife, Licinia Eudoxia and the Granddaughter of Eastern emperor Theodosius II and of his wife, the poet Aelia Eudocia. ... Galla Placidia (c. ...


The chronicler Prosper of Aquitaine[6] offers the only fifth-century report that on 2 June 455, Pope Leo the Great received Geiseric and implored him to abstain from murder and destruction by fire, and to be satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope's influence saved Rome is, however, questioned. The Vandals departed with countless valuables, including the spoils of the Temple in Jerusalem booty brought to Rome by Titus. Saint Prosper of Aquitaine (c. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... Pope Saint Leo I, or Leo the Great, was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ...


Consolidation

In 468 the Vandals destroyed an enormous East Roman fleet sent against them. Following up the attack, the Vandals tried to invade the Peloponnese but were driven back by the Maniots at Kenipolis with heavy losses.[7] In retaliation, the Vandals took 500 hostages at Zakynthos, hacked them to pieces and threw the pieces overboard on the way to Carthage.[7] Nevertheless, after Geiseric was able to conclude a "perpetual peace" with Constantinople in 476, relations between the two states assumed a veneer of normality.[8] Events March 3 - Simplicius succeeds Hilarius as Pope The Vandal fleet overpowers the navy of Leo I of the Byzantine Empire Huns again invade Dacia but are once more repelled by the eastern emperor Leo I. Births Deaths February 29 - Pope Hilarius Gunabhadra Categories: 468 ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... A map showing Mani. ... “Zante” redirects here. ...


Domestic religious tensions

Differences between the Arian Christian faith which most of the Vandals followed and the Nicaean Trinitarian Christians (who included the official church of the Roman Empire and later Byzantium as well as Donatists) was a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were punished by Geiseric with deposition, exile, or death, and laymen were excluded from office and frequently suffered confiscation of their property. It is said of Geiseric himself that he was originally a Catholic and had changed to Arianism about 428; this, however, is probably an invention. He protected his Catholic subjects when his relations with Rome and Constantinople were friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop. The same was also the case during the years 476–77 when Bishop Victor of Cartenna sent him, during a period of peace, a sharp refutation of Arianism and suffered no punishment. Generally, however, and although Trinitarian Christianity was rarely officially forbidden (the last months of Huneric's reign being an exception) most Vandal kings, except Hilderic, persecuted non-Arian Christians to a greater or lesser extent. They were forbidden from making converts among the Vandals, and life was generally difficult for the non-Arian Christian clergy, who were denied bishoprics. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the broader Catholic community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Mostaganem (population, 2005 est: 150,000) is a port city in and capital of Mostaganem province, in the northwest of Algeria. ... Huneric (d. ... Hilderic, King of the Vandals and Alans (c. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ...


Decline

Eastern Hemisphere in 476AD, showing Vandal Kingdom and its neighbors.

Geiseric, one of the most powerful personalities of the "era of the Migrations" died at a great age on 25 January 477. According to the law of succession which he had promulgated, his successor was not the eldest son but the oldest male member of the royal house (law of seniority). Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric (Hunerich, 477–484), who at first protected the Catholics, owing to his fear of Constantinople. But from 482 Huneric's reign was mostly notable for its religious persecutions of the Manichaeans and Catholics in the most terrible manner. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (1973 × 1159 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (1973 × 1159 pixel, file size: 2. ... Huneric (d. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...


Gunthamund (484496), his cousin and successor, sought internal peace with the Catholics and protected them once more. Externally, the Vandal power had been declining since Geiseric's death, and Gunthamund lost large parts of Sicily to the Ostrogoths and had to withstand increasing pressure from the autochthonous Moors. Gunthamund (c. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis I defeats the Alamanni accepts Catholic baptism at Reims. ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), along with the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths) were branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see moor. ...


While Thrasamund (496–523), owing to his religious fanaticism, was hostile to Catholics, he contented himself with bloodless persecutions. Thrasamund (450-523), King of the Vandals and Alans (496-523) was the fourth king of the north African Kingdom of the Vandals, and reigned longer than any other Vandal king in Africa other than his grandfather, Geiseric. ...


The turbulent end

Main article: Vandalic War

Hilderic (Hilderich, 523530) was the Vandal king most tolerant towards the Catholic church. He granted it religious freedom; consequently Catholic synods were once more held in North Africa. However, he had little interest in war, and left it to a family member, Hoamer. When Hoamer suffered a defeat against the Moors, the Arian faction within the royal family led a revolt, raising the banner of national Arianism, and his cousin Gelimer (530533) became king. Hilderic, Hoamer and their relatives were thrown into prison. Hilderic was deposed and murdered in 533.[9] Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Vandals Commanders Belisarius Gelimer Strength 10,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry ca. ... Hilderic, King of the Vandals and Alans (c. ... { ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Gelimer (480-553), King of the Vandals and Alans from 530 to 534, was the last ruler of the North African Kingdom of the Vandals. ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ...


This was taken as an excuse for interference by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, who declared war on the Vandals. The armies of the Eastern Empire were commanded by Belisarius, who, having heard that the greatest part of the Vandal fleet was fighting an uprising in Sardinia, decided to act quickly, and landed on Tunisian soil, then marched on to Carthage. In the late summer of 533, King Gelimer met Belisarius ten miles (16 km) south of Carthage at the Battle of Ad Decimum; the Vandals were winning the battle until Gelimer's brother Ammatas and nephew Gibamund fell in battle. Gelimer then lost heart and fled. Belisarius quickly took Carthage while the surviving Vandals fought on.[10] This article is about the Roman emperor. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... Battle of Ad Decimum Conflict Wars of Justinian I Date September 13, 533 Place Near Carthage Result Roman victory The Battle of Ad Decimum took place on September 13, 533 between the armies of the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer and the eastern Roman Empire, under the command of general...


On December 15, 533, Gelimer and Belisarius clashed again at Tricamarum, some 20 miles (32 km) from Carthage. Again, the Vandals fought well but broke, this time when Gelimer's brother Tzazo fell in battle. Belisarius quickly advanced to Hippo, second city of the Vandal Kingdom, and in 534 Gelimer surrendered to the Roman conqueror, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tzazo was the brother to King Gelimer (530 to 534), the last Vandal ruler of the North Africa, he died on 15th December AD 533 during the Battle of Ticameron, which finally brought to an end the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa. ... Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ... Events January 1 - Decimus Theodorius Paulinus appointed consul, the last to hold this office in the West. ...


North Africa became a Roman province, from which the Vandals were expelled. The surviving Vandal men were enslaved or joined into the imperial service, while the captured Vandal women married Byzantine soldiers. Choicest Vandal warriors were formed into five cavalry regiments, known as Vandali Iustiniani, and stationed on the Persian frontier. Some entered the private service of Belisarius.[11] Gelimer was honourably treated and received large estates in Galatia. He was also offered the rank of a patrician but had to refuse it because he was not willing to change his Arian faith.[12] Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Republic, succeeded by Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire later Persian Empire projected through Parthian and Sassanid dynasties Commanders Lucullus, Pompey, Crassus, Mark Antony, Trajan, Valerian I, Julian, Belisarius, Heraclius Surena, Shapur I, Shapur II, Kavadh I, Khosrau I, Khosrau II, Shahin, Shahrbaraz, Rhahzadh The Roman-Persian Wars... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


List of kings

  1. Wisimar (? - † 335)
  2. Godigisel (359407)
  3. Gunderic (407428)
  4. Geiseric (428477)
  5. Huneric (477484)
  6. Gunthamund (484496)
  7. Thrasamund (496523)
  8. Hilderic (523530)
  9. Gelimer (530534)

Events November 7 - Athanasius is banished to Trier, on the charge that he prevented the corn fleet from sailing to Constantinople. ... Godigisel (b. ... Shield the Broken (The Red Skies) Battle of Amida: Shapur II of Persia conquers Amida from the Romans. ... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... Gunderic (379-428), King of the Vandals and Alans (407-428) led the Vandals, a Germanic tribe originally residing near the Oder River in modern Poland, to take part in the barbarian invasions of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century. ... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... Events April 10 - Nestorius is made Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... Events April 10 - Nestorius is made Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Events Huneric becomes king of Vandals Aelle king of the South Saxons, arrives in England, with his three sons, near Cymenshore. ... Huneric (d. ... Events Huneric becomes king of Vandals Aelle king of the South Saxons, arrives in England, with his three sons, near Cymenshore. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Gunthamund (c. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis I defeats the Alamanni accepts Catholic baptism at Reims. ... Thrasamund (450-523), King of the Vandals and Alans (496-523) was the fourth king of the north African Kingdom of the Vandals, and reigned longer than any other Vandal king in Africa other than his grandfather, Geiseric. ... Events Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis I defeats the Alamanni accepts Catholic baptism at Reims. ... { ... Hilderic, King of the Vandals and Alans (c. ... { ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... Gelimer (480-553), King of the Vandals and Alans from 530 to 534, was the last ruler of the North African Kingdom of the Vandals. ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... Events January 1 - Decimus Theodorius Paulinus appointed consul, the last to hold this office in the West. ...

Vandalic language

Main article: Vandalic language

Very little is known about the Vandalic language which was of the East Germanic linguistic branch, closely related to Gothic (known from Ulfilas's Bible translation), both completely extinct. Vandalic was a Germanic language probably closely related to the Gothic language. ... Vandalic was a Germanic language probably closely related to the Gothic language. ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ...


Vandals in present day etymology

From c. 1540, the Swedish king had been styled, Suecorum, Gothorum et Vandalorum Rex: King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vandals. The present king, Carl XVI Gustaf dropped the title in 1973 and now styles himself simply as King of Sweden. Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus), styled HM The King (born April 30, 1946), King of Sweden, is the son of Prince Gustaf Adolf (1906-1947) and Sibylla of Saxe_Coburg_Gotha (1908-1972), and the grandson of King Gustav VI Adolf. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ...


References to the Vandals

The verb vandalize is first recorded in 1800. The term "vandalism" has come to mean senseless destruction as a result of the Vandals' sack of Rome under King Geiseric in 455. Historians agree that the Vandals were no more destructive than other invaders of ancient times. [citation needed]During the Enlightenment, Rome was idealized, so the Goths and Vandals were disparaged. John Dryden writes: Till Goths, and Vandals, a rude Northern race, Did all the matchless Monuments deface (1694). The word "goth" has gained architectural and other associations since Dryden's time, but "vandal" has not. Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...

  • "Vandalism" is from the French vandalisme, which originated during the French revolution. On August 31, 1794, there was an explosion of the powder mill of Grenelle in Paris. The Abbot Grégoire denounces vandalism (it is the first time that this term is employed).[citation needed]
  • It has been speculated that the Arabic term for Muslim Spain Al Andalus is possibly derived from the berber pronunciation of Vandal: "Ouandal".
  • Stephen Lawhead's book, Pendragon, which recasts the medieval King Arthur fable in 5th-6th Century Celtic Britain, finds the Vandals invading Britain, having just been expelled from Carthage.
  • The mascot for the University of Idaho of Moscow, Idaho is the Vandals.

The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... This article is about the historical region. ... Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The University of Idaho is the states prominent institution of higher learning, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County. ... Motto: Heart of the Arts Coordinates: Country United States State Idaho County Latah Settled 1871 Incorporated (town) 1887 Government  - Type Council-Mayor  - Mayor Nancy Chaney  - City Supervisor Gary J. Reidner Area  - City  6. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Vandals

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ... The German term Völkerwanderung (lit. ... Old Norse Aurvandil, Old English Éarendel, Lombardic Auriwandalo, German Orentil (or Erentil) are cognate Germanic personal names. ... This is a historical timeline of Portugal. ... Ohtheres mound Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland. ... This article is about the Veneti of the Vistula River basin. ... Wanda is the name of: Wanda in Minnesota, Wanda Township in Nebraska. ... Wendel is the surname of: Elmarie Wendel Johnathan Wendel, professional gamer also known as Fatal1ty Joseph Wendel (1901-1960), archbishop of the diocese of Munich and Freising Lara Wendel (* 1965), German actress Sankt Wendel, a German city, named after Saint Wendel Hans Wendl Wandal Wendell This page or section lists... Vend redirects here. ...

Further reading

  • Stefan Donecker; Roland Steinacher, Rex Vandalorum - The Debates on Wends and Vandals in Swedish Humanism as an Indicator for Early Modern Patterns of Ethnic Perception, in: ed. Robert Nedoma, Der Norden im Ausland - das Ausland im Norden. Formung und Transformation von Konzepten und Bildern des Anderen vom Mittelalter bis heute (Wiener Studien zur Skandinavistik 15, Wien 2006) 242-252.
  • John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries
  • Westermann, Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)
  • Pauly-Wissowa
  • This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913.
  • Lord Mahon Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, The Life of Belisarius, 1848. Reprinted 2006 (unabridged with editorial comments) Evolution Publishing, ISBN 1-889758-67-1. [1]
  • Online Etymology Dictionary: Vandal
  • Brian Adam: History of the Vandals
  • Ivor J. Davidson, A Public Faith, Chapter 11, Christians and Barbarians, Volume 2 of Baker History of the Church, 2005, ISBN 0-8010-1275-9
  • Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecution ISBN 0-85323-127-3. Written 484, non-NPOV primary source.
  • F. Papencordt’s Geschichte der vandalischen Herrschaft in Afrika

Helmut Castritius: Die Vandalen. Etappen einer Spurensuche. Stuttgart u.a. 2007. Christian Courtois: Les Vandales et l'Afrique. Paris 1955 Pierre Courcelle: Histoire littéraire des grandes invasions germaniques. 3rd edition Paris 1964 (Collection des études Augustiniennes: Série antiquité, 19). Hans-Joachim Diesner: Vandalen. In: Paulys Realencyclopädie der class. Altertumswissenschaft (RE Suppl. X, 1965), S. 957-992. Hans-Joachim Diesner: Das Vandalenreich. Aufstieg und Untergang. Stuttgart 1966. Frank M. Clover: The Late Roman West and the Vandals. Aldershot 1993 (Collected studies series 401), ISBN 0-86078-354-5. L’Afrique vandale et byzantine. Teil 1. Turnhout 2002 (Antiquité Tardive 10), ISBN 2-503-51275-5. L’Afrique vandale et byzantine. Teil 2, Turnhout 2003 (Antiquité Tardive 11), ISBN 2-503-52262-9. Walter Pohl: Die Völkerwanderung. Eroberung und Integration. Stuttgart 2002, S. 70-86, ISBN 3-17-015566-0. Roland Steinacher: Vandalen - Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. In: Hubert Cancik (Hrsg.): Der Neue Pauly, Stuttgart 2003, Band 15/3, S. 942-946, ISBN 3-476-01489-4. Yves Modéran: Les Maures et l'Afrique romaine. 4e.-7e. siècle. Rom 2003 (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome, 314), ISBN 2-7283-0640-0. Die Vandalen: die Könige, die Eliten, die Krieger, die Handwerker. [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Die Vandalen"; eine Ausstellung der Maria-Curie-Sklodowska-Universität Lublin und des Landesmuseums Zamość ... ; Ausstellung im Weserrenaissance-Schloss Bevern .... Nordstemmen 2003. ISBN 3-9805898-6-2 Ludwig Schmidt: Geschichte der Wandalen. 2. Auflage, München 1942. Roland Steinacher: Wenden, Slawen, Vandalen. Eine frühmittelalterliche pseudologische Gleichsetzung und ihr Nachleben bis ins 18. Jahrhundert. In: W. Pohl (Hrsg.): Auf der Suche nach den Ursprüngen. Von der Bedeutung des frühen Mittelalters (Forschungen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 8), Wien 2004, S. 329-353. John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ... Pauly-Wissowa is the name commonly used for the Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1894ff, a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope (January 30, 1805 - December 24, 1875) English historian, better known as Lord Mahon, son of the 4th earl and his wife, the daughter of the 1st Baron Carrington. ...


References

  1. ^ Annales Alamannici, 795 ad
  2. ^ Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum by Adam Bremensis 1075 ad
  3. ^ Roland Steinacher under Reiner Protsch"Studien zur vandalischen Geschichte. Die Gleichsetzung der Ethnonyme Wenden, Slawen und Vandalen vom Mittelalter bis ins 18. Jahrhundert", 2002
  4. ^ Merrills, A.H. (2004). Vandals, Romans and Berbers: new perspectives on late antique North Africa. Ashgate Publishing, 11. ISBN 0-7546-4145-7. 
  5. ^ Vandals (htm). lexicorient.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  6. ^ Prosper's account of the event was followed by his continuator in the sixth century, Victor of Tunnuna, a great admirer of Leo quite willing to adjust a date or bend a point (Steven Muhlberger, "Prosper's Epitoma Chronicon: was there an edition of 443?" Classical Philology 81.3 (July 1986), pp 240-244).
  7. ^ a b Greenhalgh and Eliopoulos, Deep into Mani: Journey into the Southern Tip of Greece", 21
  8. ^ J.B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire (1923), Vol. II, p.125
  9. ^ J.B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire (1923), Vol. II, p.131
  10. ^ J.B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire (1923), Vol. II, pp.133-135
  11. ^ J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. II Chap. XVII
  12. ^ J.B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire (1923), Vol. II, pp.138

The core text of the Annales Alamannici covers the years 709 through to 799. ... Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum is a historical treatise written between 1075 and 1080 by Adam of Bremen. ... Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ... Reiner Protsch (born January 14, 1939 in Berlin) is a German anthropologist who published false carbon dating data of human fossils. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Prosper of Aquitaine (c. ... Victor of Tunnuna (d. ...

External links

  • Blume, Mary. "Vandals Exhibit Sacks Some Cultural Myths", International Herald Tribune, August 25, 2001.
  • Kingdom of the Vandals - location map

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The Rhythm Vandals (239 words)
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In 406 the Vandals advanced from Pannonia by way of Gaul, which they devastated terribly, into Spain, where they settled in 411.
mind, nor was the plundering as extreme as later tradition and the expression "Vandalism" would imply.
Africa became a Roman province, from which the Vandals were expelled.
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