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Encyclopedia > Vanadium
23 titaniumvanadiumchromium
-

V

Nb
General
Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23
Chemical series transition metals
Group, period, block 54, d
Appearance silver-grey metal
Standard atomic weight 50.9415(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d3 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 11, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 6.0 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.5 g·cm−3
Melting point 2183 K
(1910 °C, 3470 °F)
Boiling point 3680 K
(3407 °C, 6165 °F)
Heat of fusion 21.5 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 459 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 24.89 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 2101 2289 2523 2814 3187 3679
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 2, 3, 4, 5
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.63 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 650.9 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1414 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2830 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 135 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 171 pm
Covalent radius 125 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 197 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 30.7 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 8.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 4560 m/s
Young's modulus 128 GPa
Shear modulus 47 GPa
Bulk modulus 160 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.37
Mohs hardness 6.7
CAS registry number 7440-62-2
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of vanadium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
48V syn 15.9735 d ε+β+ 4.0123 48Ti
49V syn 330 d ε 0.6019 49Ti
50V 0.25% 1.5×1017y ε 2.2083 50Ti
β- 1.0369 50Cr
51V 99.75% V is stable with 28 neutrons
References
This box: view  talk  edit
The Pourbaix diagram for vanadium in water.

Vanadium (IPA: /vəˈneɪdiəm/) is a chemical element that has the symbol V and atomic number 23. A soft and ductile element, vanadium naturally occurs in certain minerals and is used mainly to produce certain alloys. It is one of the 26 elements found in most living organisms. General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... Vanadium table image File links The following pages link to this file: Vanadium User:Femto/elements e4 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... A Group 5 element is the series of elements in group 5 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), and dubnium (Db). ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Vanadium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Vanadium (V) Standard atomic mass: 50. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 106 seconds (a megasecond) and 107 seconds (11. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 116 days and 1157 days or 3. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily at about 933 K (660 C). Vanadium has good structural strength and a low fission neutron cross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Although a metal, it shares with chromium and manganese the property of having valency oxides with acid properties. For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , Flash point Non-flammable. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ...


Common oxidation states of vanadium include +2, +3, +4 and +5. A popular experiment with ammonium vanadate NH4VO3, reducing the compound with zinc metal, can demonstrate colorimetrically all four of these vanadium oxidation states. A +1 oxidation state is rarely seen. In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Applications

Approximately 80% of vanadium produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive. Other uses: Ferroalloy refers to various alloys of less than 50 percent iron and one or more other element, manganese or silicon for example. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...

History

Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río (a Spanish-born Mexican mineralogist) in Mexico City, in 1801. He called it "brown lead" (now named vanadinite). Through experimentation, its colors reminded him of chromium, so he named the element panchromium. He later renamed this compound erythronium, since most of the salts turned red when heated. The French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only impure chromium. Del Río thought himself to be mistaken and accepted the statement of the French chemist that was also backed by del Río's friend Baron Alexander von Humboldt. An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Surgeon excising an arrow from a wounded soldier, Stele from Herculaneum, Rome, 1 BC A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Calcium carbide. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term cladding can have a number of meanings: Regarding optical fiber in telecommunication, cladding is one or more layers of material of lower refractive index, in intimate contact with a core material of higher refractive index. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... The gauss, abbreviated as G, is the cgs unit of magnetic flux density (B), named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss. ... Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point 102 °C RTECS number UE5950000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Vanadium(IV) oxide is a solid Chemical symbol: VO2. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... The vanadium redox ( and redox flow ) battery was first patented by the University of New South Wales in Australia in 1986. ... Corundum (from Tamil kurundam) is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the rock-forming minerals. ... This article or section should be merged with chrysoberyl Alexandrite is a variety of chrysoberyl. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Parkerizing (sometimes called phosphating) is a method of protecting steel surfaces from corrosion and thus increasing their durability. ... A lacrosse stick (sometimes called a crosse) is a lacrosse players most important piece of equipment. ... Wootz is a steel characterized by a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix. ... Damascus steel is a steel used in Middle Eastern swordmaking from about 1100 to 1700AD. Damascus swords were of legendary sharpness and strength, and were apocryphally claimed to be able to cut through lesser quality European swords and even rock. ... This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... Andrés Manuel Del Río (10 November 1764—23 March 1849) was a Mexican chemist who discovered vanadium (as vanadinite) in 1801. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Vanadinite from Arizona, USA Vanadinite is a mineral with the formula Pb5(VO4)3Cl, lead chlorovanadate. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ...


In 1831, Sefström of Sweden rediscovered vanadium in a new oxide he found while working with some iron ores and later that same year Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work. Later, George William Featherstonhaugh, one of the first US geologists, suggested that the element should be named "rionium" after del Río, but this never happened. Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Nils Gabriel Sefström (June 2, 1787 - November 30, 1845) Swedish chemist. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... // Born to parents, George and Dorothy Simpson Featherstonhaugh. ...


Metallic vanadium was isolated by Henry Enfield Roscoe in 1867, who reduced vanadium(III) chloride VCl3 with hydrogen. The name vanadium comes from Vanadis, a goddess in Scandinavian mythology, because the element has beautiful multicolored chemical compounds. Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe (January 7, 1833 - 1915) English chemist, was born in London. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vanadium trichloride is VCl3. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Freyja in Wagners operas See Freya radar for German World War II radar. ... Norse mythology, Viking mythology or Scandinavian mythology refer to the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Biological role

In biology, a vanadium atom is an essential component of some enzymes, particularly the vanadium nitrogenase used by some nitrogen-fixing micro-organisms. Vanadium is essential to ascidians or sea squirts in vanadium chromagen proteins. The concentration of vanadium in their blood is more than 100 times higher than the concentration of vanadium in the seawater around them. Rats and chickens are also known to require vanadium in very small amounts and deficiencies result in reduced growth and impaired reproduction. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Orders Aplousobranchia Enterogona Phlebobranchia Pleurogona Stolidobranchia Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians) is an order in the Urochordata subphylum of sac-like marine filter feeders. ... Classes Ascidiacea (2,300 species) Thaliacea Appendicularia Sorberacea Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates, sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with incurrent and excurrent siphons. ... Vanabins (also known as vanadium-associated proteins or vanadium chromagen) are a class of metalloproteins containing vanadium. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ...


Ten percent of the blood cell pigment of the sea cucumber is vanadium. Just as the horseshoe crab has blue blood rather than red blood (colored by iron in hemoglobin) because of copper in the hemocyanin pigment, the blood of the sea cucumber is yellow because of the vanadium in the vanabin pigment[1]. Nonetheless, there is no evidence that vanabins carry oxygen, in contrast to hemoglobin and hemocyanin. A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ... Orders Subclass Apodacea Apodida Molpadiida Subclass Aspidochirotacea Aspidochirotida Elasipodida Subclass Dendrochirotacea Dactylochirotida Dendrochirotida Wikispecies has information related to: Holothuroidea The sea cucumber is an echinoderm of the class Holothuroidea, with an elongated body and leathery skin, which is found on the sea floor worldwide. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The horseshoe crab, horsefoot, king crab, or sauce-pan (Limulus polyphemus, formerly known as Limulus cyclops, Xiphosura americana, Polyphemus occidentalis) is a chelicerate arthropod. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... Vanabins (also known as vanadium-associated proteins or vanadium chromagen) are a class of metalloproteins containing vanadium. ...


A form of vanadium, vanadyl sulfate, seems to improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes.[2][3][4][5][6]

Mineral supplement in drinking water

Most continental waters show a vanadium concentration of less than 3 ppb. However, the groundwater of Mt. Fuji contains a very high concentration of vanadium—up to 150 ppb. This vanadium is solubilized from the basalt by the groundwater. The vanadium content in Mt. Fuji becomes higher at places nearer the summit and deeper in the ground. Recently this high-vanadium water of Mt. Fuji has been sold by many companies as an agent to cope with diabetes. However, there is no concrete evidence for its efficacy. The rainbow trout living in the Mt. Fuji water showed much higher accumulation of vanadium in kidneys and bone. Parts per billion (ppb) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... Mount Fuji (富士山 Fuji-san, IPA: [ɸuʝisaɴ]) is the highest mountain on the island of Honshu and indeed in all of Japan. ...

Occurrence

Vanadium is never found unbound in nature but it does occur in about 65 different minerals among which are patronite VS4, vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl, and carnotite K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O. Vanadium is also present in bauxite, and in carbon containing deposits such as crude oil, coal, oil shale and tar sands. Vanadium has also been detected spectroscopically in light from the Sun and some other stars. For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Vanadinite from Arizona, USA Vanadinite is a mineral with the formula Pb5(VO4)3Cl, lead chlorovanadate. ... Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate mineral with chemical formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O. The water content can vary and small amounts of calcium, barium, magnesium, iron, and sodium are often present. ... This article is about the ore. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ...


Much of the vanadium metal being produced is now made by calcium reduction of V2O5 in a pressure vessel. Vanadium is usually recovered as a by-product or co-product, and so world resources of the element are not really indicative of available supply. For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ...

See also category:vanadate minerals.

Isolation

Vanadium is available commercially and production of a sample in the laboratory is not normally required. Commercially, routes leading to metallic vanadium as main product are not usually required as enough is produced as byproduct in other processes. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ...


In industry, heating of vanadium ore or residues from other processes with salt NaCl or sodium carbonate Na2CO3 at about 850°C gives sodium vanadate NaVO3. This is dissolved in water and acidified to give a red solid which in turn is melted to form a crude form of vanadium pentoxide V2O5. Reduction of vanadium pentoxide with calcium gives pure vanadium. An alternative suitable for small scales is the reduction of vanadium pentachloride VCl5 with hydrogen or magnesium. Many other methods are also in use. R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Sodium vanadate is a yellow solid which is soluble in water. ... Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Industrially, most vanadium is used as an additive to improve steels. Rather than proceed via pure vanadium metal it is often sufficient to react the crude of vanadium pentoxide V2O5 with crude iron. This produces ferrovanadium suitable for further work. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...

Compounds

Vanadium pentoxide V2O5 is used as a catalyst principally in the production of sulfuric acid. It is the source of vanadium used in the manufacture of ferrovanadium. It can be used as a dye and color-fixer. Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ...


Vanadyl sulfate VOSO4, also called vanadium(IV) sulfate oxide hydrate, is used as a relatively controversial dietary supplement, primarily for increasing insulin sensitivity and body-building. Whether it works for the latter purpose has not been proven, and there is some evidence that athletes who take it are merely experiencing a placebo effect. Vanadyl(IV) sulfate is a blue crystalline solid that is normally stable in room conditions. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Bodybuilder Anders Graneheim (Sweden) Bodybuilding is the sport of developing muscle fibers through the combination of weight training, increased caloric intake, and rest. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ...


Vanadium(IV) chloride VCl4 is a soluble form of vanadium that is commonly used in the laboratory. V(IV) is the reduced form of V(V), and commonly occurs after anaerobic respiration by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria. VCl4 reacts violently with water. Vanadium tetrachloride is the chemical compound with the formula VCl4. ... Anaerobic respiration refers to the oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce energy, in opposition to Aerobic respiration which does use oxygen. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...

Toxicity of vanadium compounds

The toxicity of vanadium depends on its physico-chemical state; particularly on its valence state and solubility. Tetravalent VOSO4 has been reported to be more than 5 times as toxic as trivalent V2O3 (Roschin, 1967). Vanadium compounds are poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal system. Inhalation exposures to vanadium and vanadium compounds result primarily in adverse effects to the respiratory system (Sax, 1984; ATSDR, 1990; Ress et al., 2003; Worle-Knirsch et al., 2007). Quantitative data are, however, insufficient to derive a subchronic or chronic inhalation reference dose. Other effects have been reported on blood parameters after oral or inhalation exposures (Scibior et al., 2006; Gonzalez-Villalva et al., 2006), on liver (Kobayashi et al., 2006), neurological development in rats (Soaso and Garcia, 2007), and other organs.


There is little evidence that vanadium or vanadium compounds are reproductive toxins or teratogens. Vanadium pentoxide was reported to be carcinogenic in male rats and male and female mice by inhalation in an NTP study (Ress et al., 2003), although the interpretation of the results has recently been disputed (Duffus, 2007). Vanadium has not been classified as to carcinogenicity by the U.S. EPA (1991a).

Various oxidation states of vanadium ions

It is known that vanadium gets the oxidation states +2, +3, +4, +5. To observe the colours of these states, ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) can be used as a starting agent. It must be acidified beforehand so dioxovanadium(V) ion, VO2+ (yellow +5 oxidation number) is produced. In alkaline medium, the stable form of vanadium(V) state is VO3-. Ammonium vanadate is a yellow crystalline solid soluble in water and is the most common laboratory vanadate reagent (potassium vanadate is used a lot too). ...


Adding zinc powder and concentrated hydrochloric acid continuously, VO2+ is reduced into blue VO2+. General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , Flash point Non-flammable. ...


It can be seen that during the reaction, the mixture is green in colour as the original yellow of the +5 state and the blue of the +4 are present.


Continuously adding Zn powder and concentrated HCl, blue VO2+ is reduced to green V3+. V3+ is then reduced to violet V2+ by Zn powder and concentrated HCl again.

See also Vanadium compounds.
See also Vanadium(V) oxide.

Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of vanadium

Naturally occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope 51V and one radioactive isotope 50V with a half-life of 1.5×1017 years. 24 artificial radioisotopes have been characterized (in the range of mass number between 40 and 65) with the most stable being 49V with a half-life of 330 days, and 48V with a half-life of 15.9735 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives shorter than an hour, the majority of them below 10 seconds. In 4 isotopes, metastable excited states were found (including 2 metastable states for 60V). Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ... Vanadium (V) Standard atomic mass: 50. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... The mass number (A), also called atomic mass number (not to be confused with atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus) or nucleon number, is the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in an atomic nucleus. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable or isomeric state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope 51V is electron capture. The next most common mode is beta decay. The primary decay products before 51V are element 22 (titanium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 24 (chromium) isotopes. In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ...

Precautions

Powdered metallic vanadium is a fire hazard, and unless known otherwise, all vanadium compounds should be considered highly toxic. Generally, the higher the oxidation state of vanadium, the more toxic the compound is. The most dangerous compound is vanadium pentoxide. Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ...


The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set an exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3 for vanadium pentoxide dust and 0.1 mg/m3 for vanadium pentoxide fumes in workplace air for an 8-hour workday, 40-hour work week. OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ...


The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that 35 mg/m3 of vanadium be considered immediately dangerous to life and health. This is the exposure level of a chemical that is likely to cause permanent health problems or death. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ...

See also

  • Vanadium compounds
  • Vanadium minerals
  • Vanadate minerals

References

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory – Vanadium
  • High vanadium content in Mt.Fuji groundwater and its relevance to the ancient biosphere by Tatsuo Hamada in Vanadium in Environment. Part 1: Chemistry and Biochemistry. Edited by Jerome O. Nriagu. Page 97-123. 1998. John Wilen & Sons, Inc.
  • Duffus JH. Carcinogenicity classification of vanadium pentoxide and inorganic vanadium compounds, the NTP study of carcinogenicity of inhaled vanadium pentoxide, and vanadium chemistry. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2007 Feb;47(1):110-4.
  • Gonzalez-Villalva A, Fortoul TI, Avila-Costa MR, et al. Thrombocytosis induced in mice after subacute and subchronic V2O5 inhalation. Toxicol Ind Health 2006 Apr;22(3):113-6.
  • Kobayashi K, Himeno S, Satoh M, et al. Pentavalent vanadium induces hepatic metallothionein through interleukin-6-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Toxicology 2006 Dec 7;228(2-3:162-170.
  • Ress NB, Chou BJ, Renne RA, et al. Carcinogenicity of inhaled vanadium pentoxide in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci 2003 Aug;74(2):287-96.
  • Scibior A, Zaporowska H, Ostrowski J. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters of blood in rats after subchronic administration of vanadium and/or magnesium in drinking water. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2006 Aug;51(2):287-95.
  • Soazo M, Garcia GB. Vanadium exposure through lactation produces behavioral alterations and CNS myelin deficit in neonatal rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2007 Jul-Aug;29(4):503-10.
  • Worle-Knirsch JM, Kern K, Schleh C, et al. Nanoparticulate vanadium oxide potentiated vanadium toxicity in human lung cells. Environ Sci Technol 2007 Jan 1;41(1):331-6.

External links

Footnotes

  1. ^ Natkin, Michael (2007). Blood Color. Science Facts. Soak (Source Of All Knowledge). Retrieved on 2007-11-16.
  2. ^ Halberstam, M, et al (1996). "Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not in obese nondiabetic subjects.". Diabetes 45: 659–66. 
  3. ^ Boden, G, et al (1996;). "Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.". Metabolism 45: 1130–5. 
  4. ^ Goldfine, AB, et al (2000). "Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: in vivo and in vitro studies.". Metabolism 49: 400–10. 
  5. ^ Badmaev, V, et al (1999). "Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes." (XX). Altern Complement Med. 5: 273-291. 
  6. ^ Goldwaser, I, et al (1999). "{{{title}}}". J Biol Chem 274: 26617-26624 title = L-glutamic acid gamma-monohydroxamine. A potentiator of vanadium-evoked glucose metabolism in vitro and in vivo.. 

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Vanadium - Supplements (764 words)
Vanadium is thought to play a role in metabolism of carbohydrates and may have functions in cholesterol and blood lipid metabolism.
Vanadium or the most common supplemental form -vanadyl sulfate - is thought to mimic the physiological effects of insulin by a mechanism which remains unclear.
Vanadium is now considered to be an essential trace mineral and 10mcg (micrograms) per day is thought to satisfy the body's needs (our diets probably contain about 10-30mcg of vanadium per day).
AccessAtlanta Health : Integrative Medicine  :  Supplements   :  Vanadium | AccessAtlanta (997 words)
Vanadium is an essential trace mineral that is present in varying amounts in the soil and in many foods.
While it is thought that trace amounts of vanadium are essential in the diet, it is not clear what role it plays in the body or whether too little vanadium has any effect on the body.
Use of vanadium is not advised because of the potential toxic effects associated with high doses of this mineral.
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