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Encyclopedia > Valley of the Kings

Coordinates: 25°44′N, 32°36′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location)
Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location)

The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; "Gates of the King")[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the kings and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth through Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt).[2][3] The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, across from Thebes (modern Luxor), within the heart of the Theban Necropolis.[4] The wadi consists of two valleys, East Valley (where the majority of the royal tombs situated) and West Valley. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x640, 77 KB) Image Information: EARTH FROM SPACE Valley of the King STS026-041-058 STS026-041-058 è una sigla che indica in modo univoco la fonte di questa foto, STS026 è la sigla della missione shuttle Discovery che ha ripreso la... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x640, 77 KB) Image Information: EARTH FROM SPACE Valley of the King STS026-041-058 STS026-041-058 è una sigla che indica in modo univoco la fonte di questa foto, STS026 è la sigla della missione shuttle Discovery che ha ripreso la... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... The Lion Gate at Mycenae, the center of Mycenean Greece 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... David and Saul (1885) by Julius Kronberg. ... A tomb is a small building (or vault) for the remains of the dead, with walls, a roof, and (if it is to be used for more than one corpse) a door. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... This is a Conventional Egyptian chronology. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Thebes Thebes (, ThÄ“bai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... The Theban Necropolis is an area of the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes in Egypt. ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ...


The area has been a focus of concentrated archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, and its tombs and burials continue to stimulate research and interest. In modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun (with its rumours of the Curse of the Pharaohs[5]), and is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis.[6] This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... The Curse of the Pharaohs refers to the belief that any person who disturbs the mummy of an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh is placed under a curse whereby they will shortly die. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Contents

Geology

Stratigraphy of the Valley
Stratigraphy of the Valley

The types of soil where the Valley of Kings is located are an alternating sandwich of dense limestone and other sedimentary rock (which form the cliffs in the valley and the nearby Deir el-Bahri) and soft layers of marl. The sedimentary rock was originally deposited between 35 - 56 million years ago during a time when the precursor to the Mediterranean Sea covered an area that extended much further inland than today. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out the plateau by steady rains.[7] There is currently little year-round rain in this part of Egypt, but there are occasional flash floods which hit the valley, dumping tons of debris into the open tombs.[8] Image File history File links Startigraphy_of_the_Valley_of_the_Kings. ... Image File history File links Startigraphy_of_the_Valley_of_the_Kings. ... -1... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ...


The quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging from finely-grained to coarse stone, the latter with the potential to be structurally unsound. The occasional layer of shale also caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of the layers of rock the builders encountered.[7] Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ...


Builders took advantage of available geological features when constructing the tombs. Some tombs were quarried out of existing limestone clefts, others behind slopes of scree, or were at the edge of rock spurs created by ancient flood channels.[7] Scree or detritic cone is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders. ...


The problems of tomb construction can be seen with tombs of Ramesses III and his father Setnakhte. Setnakhte started to excavate KV11, but broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so construction was abandoned and he instead usurped the tomb of Twosret, KV14. When looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended the part-excavated tomb started by his father.[9] The tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, probably due to the quality of the rock being excavated. Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Setnakht Meryamunra (stX-nxt mrr-imnra) Seth Is Victorious ; Beloved Of Amon-Re[1] Praenomen Userkhaure-setepenre (wsr-xaw-ra stp. ... Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV11 was originally started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broken into another tomb (KV10), then restarted and extended by Ramesses III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ... Menmire–setepenre Eternal like Re, Chosen by Re Nomen Amenmesse Born of Amun Horus name Kanakht Merymaat Sementawy Nebty name Werbiaytemipetsut[1] Golden Horus Unclear Consort(s) Baktwerel Father Merneptah Mother Takhat Died 1200 BC Burial KV10[2] Amenmesse (also Amenmesses) was the 5th ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty in... nomen or birth name Queen Twosret Sitre Meryamun was a Queen of Egypt and the last Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV14 is a joint tomb, used originally by Twosret and then reused and extended by Setnakhte. ...


Between 1998-2002 the Amarna Royal Tombs Project investigated the valley floor using ground-penetrating radar and found that below the modern surface the Valley's cliffs descend beneath the scree in a series of abrupt, natural "shelves", arranged one below the other, descending several metres down to the bedrock in the valley floor.[10] The Amarna Royal Tombs Project was a project based in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. ... A ground-penetrating radar data image, generated as part of the search for the head of Yagan within a grave site in Everton Cemetery in 1997. ...


History

The Theban Hills are dominated by the peak of al-Qurn, known to the Ancient Egyptians as ta dehent, or 'The Peak'.[11] It has a pyramid shaped appearance, and it is considered to have been the reason why the kings of Egypt started to be buried beneath it, echoing the pyramids of the Old Kingdom, more than a thousand years prior to the first royal burials carved out in the Valley of the Kings.[12][13] Its isolated position also resulted in reduced access, and special tomb police (the Medjay) were able to guard the necropolis. The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods which mark the high points of civilisation in the Nile Valley (the... The Medjai were an ancient people of Nubia. ...


While the iconic pyramid complexes of the Giza plateau have come to symbolize ancient Egypt, the majority of tombs were in fact cut into rock. Most pyramids and mastabas contain sections which are cut into ground level, and there are full rock-cut tombs in Egypt that date back to the Old Kingdom. 19th-century tourists in front of the Sphinx - view from South-East, Great Pyramid in background Giza pyramids, view from south in late 19th century. ... A mastaba was a flat-roofed, mud brick, rectangular building with sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypts ancient period. ...


After the defeat of the Hyksos and the reunification of Egypt under Ahmose I, the Theban rulers began to construct elaborate tombs that would reflect their new found power.[14] The tombs of Ahmose and his son Amenhotep I were probably (their exact location remains unknown) in the Seventeenth Dynasty necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga'.[15] The first royal tomb in the valley were those of Amenhotep I (although this identification is also disputed),[16] and Thutmose I, whose advisor Ineni notes in his tomb that he advised his king to place his tomb in the desolate valley (the identity of this actual tomb is unclear, but it is probably KV20 or KV38).[11] The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet, foreign rulers; Greek , ) were an Asiatic people, likely Semitic or Indo-Aryan, who invaded the eastern Nile Delta, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Djeserkare Holy is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Seventeenth Dynasty. ... The necropolis of Dra Abu el-Naga is located on the West Bank at Thebes, Egypt, just by the entrance of the dry bay that leads up to Deir el-Bahri, and north of the necropolis of el-Assasif. ... Djeserkare Holy is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari... Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort... Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ... Tomb KV20 in Egypts Valley of the Kings was possibly the first tomb to be constructed in the valley. ... Tomb KV38, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Thutmose I of the Eighteenth dynasty, and was where his body was removed to (from KV20), by Thutmose III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ...

I saw to the excavation of the rock-tomb of his majesty, alone, no one seeing, no one hearing.[17]

The Valley was used for primary burials from approximately 1539 BC to 1075 BC, and contains at least 63 tombs, beginning with Thutmose I (or possibly earlier, during the reign of Amenhotep I), and ending with Ramesses X or XI. (Redirected from 1539 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC - 1530s BC - 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC Events and Trends 1539 BC: Approximate first use of the Valley of the... (Redirected from 1075 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC 1090s BC 1080s BC - 1070s BC - 1060s BC 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC Events and Trends 1079 BC - Death of Zhou cheng wang, King of the... Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort... Djeserkare Holy is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari... Khepermare Ramesses X (also written Ramses and Rameses) Amonhirkhepeshef (ruled c. ... Menmare Ramesses XI (also written Ramses and Rameses) reigned 1102 BC – 1073 BC or 1069 BC) was the tenth and final king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ...


Despite the name, the Valley of the Kings also contains the tombs of favorite nobles as well as the wives and children of both nobles and pharaohs. Around the time of Ramesses I (ca. 1301 BC) construction commenced in the separate Valley of the Queens, although some wives continued to be buried with their husbands in the Valley of the Kings. Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issues Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramessu I (traditional English: Ramesses, also Ramses or Rameses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... The Valley of the Queens, also known as Biban el-Harim (Arabic: ‎), Biban el-Sultanat (Arabic: ‎), and Wadi el-Melikat (Arabic: ‎), is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. ...


Royal Necropolis

The official name for the site in ancient times was The Great and Majestic Necropolis of the Millions of Years of the Pharaoh, Life, Strength, Health in The West of Thebes, or more usually, Ta-sekhet-ma'at (the Great Field).[18]












[18]


At the start of the Eighteenth Dynasty, only the kings were buried within the valley in large tombs, when a non-royal was buried, it was in a small rock cut chamber, close to the tomb of their master.[19] Amenhotep III's tomb was constructed in the Western Valley, and while his son Akhenaten moved his tomb's construction to Amarna, it is thought that the unfinished WV25 may have originally been intended for him.[20] With the return to religious orthodoxy at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, Tutankhamun, Ay and then Horemheb returned to the royal necropolis. The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ...


The Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties saw an increase in the number of burials (both here and in the Valley of the Queens), with Ramesses II and later Ramesses III constructing a massive tomb that was used for the burial of his sons (KV55 and KV3 respectively). There are some kings that are not buried within the valley or whose tomb has not been located, Thutmose II may have been buried in Dra' Abu el-Naga' (although his mummy was in the Deir el-Bahri tomb cache), Smenkhkare's burial has never been located, and Ramesses VIII seems to have been buried elsewhere. Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Edward R. Ayrton discovered Tomb KV55 in Egypts Valley of the Kings on January 6, 1907; Ayrtons sponsor, Theodore M. Davis, published an account of the dig (The Tomb of Queen Tîyi) in 1910. ... ➥the Epopt 30 June 2005 19:23 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Aset Issues Thutmose III, Neferure, Meritre Father... The necropolis of Dra Abu el-Naga is located on the West Bank at Thebes, Egypt, just by the entrance of the dry bay that leads up to Deir el-Bahri, and north of the necropolis of el-Assasif. ... Usermaatre Akhenamun Ramesses VIII (also written Ramses and Rameses) Sethherkhepshef Meryamun(1126-1124 BC) was the seventh Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and is thought to have been a son of Ramesses III. He is the most obscure ruler of this Dynasty and...

Deir el-Medina

The tombs were constructed and decorated by the workers of the village of Deir el-Medina, located in a small wadi between this valley and the Valley of the Queens, facing Thebes. The workers journeyed to the tombs via routes over the Theban hills. The daily lives of these workers are quite well known, recorded in tombs and official documents.[21] Deir al-Madinah is the Arabic name of an Ancient Egyptian village that was home to the artisans who built the temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period (18th to 20th dynasties). ... The Valley of the Queens, also known as Biban el-Harim (Arabic: ‎), Biban el-Sultanat (Arabic: ‎), and Wadi el-Melikat (Arabic: ‎), is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome...

Mortuary Temples
Further information: Theban Necropolis

In the Pyramid Age the tomb of the king was associated with a mortuary temple located close to the pyramid. As the tomb of the king was hidden, this mortuary temple was located away from the burial, closer to the cultivation facing towards Thebes. The Theban Necropolis is an area of the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes in Egypt. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods which mark the high points of civilisation in the Nile Valley (the... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome...


Exploration of the valley

View of the central East Valley, showing area around KV62
View of the central East Valley, showing area around KV62

The Valley of the Kings has been a major area of modern Egyptological exploration for the last two centuries. Before this the area was a site for tourism in antiquity (especially during Roman times). This areas illustrates the changes in the study of ancient Egypt, starting as antiquity hunting, and ending as scientific excavation of the whole Theban Necropolis. Despite the exploration and investigation noted below, only eleven of the tombs have actually been completely recorded. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x605, 155 KB) de: Luxor (Ägypten): das Tal der Könige en: Luxor (Egypt): Valley of the Kings es: Luxor (Egypto): el Valle de loss Reyes {{fr)) Louxor (Egypte): le Vallée des Rois Fotograf/Photographer: Peter J. Bubenik (1995) File... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x605, 155 KB) de: Luxor (Ägypten): das Tal der Könige en: Luxor (Egypt): Valley of the Kings es: Luxor (Egypto): el Valle de loss Reyes {{fr)) Louxor (Egypte): le Vallée des Rois Fotograf/Photographer: Peter J. Bubenik (1995) File... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world... Egyptology is the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Theban Necropolis is an area of the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes in Egypt. ...


Antiquity

The Greek writers Strabo (1st century BC) and Diodorus Siculus (1st century AD) were able to report that the total number of Theban royal tombs was 47, of which at the time only 17 were believed to be undestroyed.[22] Pausanias and other ancient writers remarked on the pipe-like corridors of the Valley, clearly meaning the tombs. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...


Clearly others also visited the valley in these times, as many of the tombs have graffiti written by these ancient tourists. Jules Baillet located over 2100 Greek and Latin graffiti, along with a smaller number in Phoenician, Cypriot, Lycian, Coptic, and other languages.[23] The majority of the ancient graffiti are found in KV9, containing just under a thousand of them. The earliest positively dated graffito dates to 278 B.C.[22] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... Lycian was an Indo-European language, one of the Anatolian languages, that was spoken in the Iron age region of Lycia in Anatolia, present day Turkey. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Eighteenth century

Before the nineteenth century, travel from Europe to Thebes (and indeed anywhere in Egypt) was difficult, time-consuming and expensive, and only the hardiest of European travelers visited – before the travels of Father Claude Sicard in 1726, it was unclear just where Thebes really was.[24] It was known to be on the Nile, but it was often confused with Memphis and several other sites. One of the first travelers to record what he saw at Thebes was Frederic Louis Norden, a Danish adventurer and artist.[25] He was followed by Richard Pococke, who published the first modern map of the valley itself, in 1743.[26] Thebes Thebes (, ThÄ“bai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Father Claude Sicard (1677 – 1726) was a French Jesuit priest, and an early modern visitor to Egypt, between 1708 and 1712, producing the earliest known map of the country. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Memphis, coordiates , , was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 1300 BC. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Ineb Hedj (The White Walls). The name Memphis is the Greek deformation of the Egyptian name of Pepi... Frederic Louis Norden (October 22, 1708 – September 22, 1742), Danish naval captain and explorer. ... Richard Pococke (1704-1765) was an English prelate and anthropologist. ...

French Expedition

In 1799, Napoleon's expedition (especially Dominique Vivant) drew maps and plans of the known tombs, and for the first time noted the Western Valley (where Prosper Jollois and Édouard de Villiers du Terrage located the tomb of Amenhotep III, WV22).[27] The Description de l'Égypte contains two volumes (out a total of 24) on the area around Thebes.[28] For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Dominique Vivant, Baron de Denon (4 January 1747 - 27 April 1825) was a French artist and archaeologist. ... Jean-Baptiste Prosper Jollois (1776 – 1842) was a French engineer who together with Édouard de Villiers du Terrage journeyed with Napoleon to Egypt, and prepared the Description de lEgypte. ... Édouard de Villiers du Terrage (1780–1855) was a French engineer who together with Jean-Baptiste Prosper Jollois journeyed with Napoleon to Egypt, and prepared the Categories: 1780 births | 1855 deaths | Egyptologists ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Tomb WV22 in the Western arm of the Valley of the Kings was used as the resting of the one the greatest rulers of Egypts New Kingdom, Amenhotep III. It was officially discovered by Prosper Jollois and Eduard de Villiers du Terrage, engineers with Napoleons expedition to Egypt in... Description de lEgypte is the title of several books. ...


Nineteenth century

Entrance to a Royal Tomb, drawn in 1821
Entrance to a Royal Tomb, drawn in 1821

European exploration continued in the area around Thebes during the nineteenth century, boosted by Champollion's translation of hieroglyphs early in the century. Early in the century, the area was visited by Belzoni, working for Henry Salt, who discovered several tombs, including those of Ay in the West Valley (WV23) in 1816 and Seti I (KV17) the next year. At the end of his visits, Belzoni declared that all of the tombs had been found and nothing of note remained to be found. Working at the same time (and a great rival of Belzoni and Salt) was Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul-General.[29] Image File history File links Entrance_to_one_of_the_Royal_Tombs_at_Thebes. ... Image File history File links Entrance_to_one_of_the_Royal_Tombs_at_Thebes. ... Jean_François Champollion For the comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ... Giovanni Battista Belzoni, from Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries Within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia by Giovanni Battista Belzoni,London, 1820. ... Henry Salt (June 14, 1780 – October 30, 1827) was an English artist, traveler, diplomat, and Egyptologist. ... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... .. contains a broken sarcophagus and some bad fresco painting of peculiarly short and graceless proportions. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issues Ramesses II, Tia, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre Died... Tomb KV17, located in Egypts Valley of the Kings and also known by the names Belzonis tomb, the Tomb of Apis, and the Tomb of Psammis, son of Nechois, is the tomb of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Bernardino Drovetti (1776-1852) was an Italian diplomat, explorer and antiquarian, best known as French consul to Egypt at a time when the country and its antiquities were being opened rapidly to European knowledge and acquisition. ...


In 1827 John Gardiner Wilkinson was assigned to paint the entry of every tomb, giving them each a designation that is still in use today – they were numbered from KV1 to KV21 (although the maps show 28 entrances, some of which were unexplored). These paintings and maps were later published in The Topography of Thebes and General Survey of Egypt, in 1830. At the same time James Burton explored the valley. His works included making KV17 safer from flooding, but he is better known for entering KV5. John Gardiner Wilkinson (October 5, 1797 - October 29, 1875) was a well-known English traveller, writer and pioneer Egyptologist of the 19th century. ... James Burton (1788 – 1862) was an early British Egyptologist, who worked at a number of sites throughout Egypt, but notably in the Valley of the Kings. ...


Champollion himself visited the valley, along with Ippolito Rosellini and Nestor L'Hôte, in the Franco-Tuscan Expedition of 1829. The expedition spent two months studying the open tombs, visiting about 16 of them. They copied the inscriptions and identified the original tomb owners. In tomb KV17, they removed wall decorations, which are now on display in the Louvre in Paris. Ippolito Rosellini (1800-1843), Italian Egyptologist, was born at Pisa. ... Nestor Hippolyte Antoine l’Hôte (1804 – 1842) was a French Egyptologist, artist and explorer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...

Drawing of the valley showing open tombs from 1862

In 1845-1846 the valley was explored by Karl Richard Lepsius's expedition, they explored and documented 25 in the main valley and four in the west. Image File history File links Old_Valley_of_the_tombs_of_the_kings. ... Image File history File links Old_Valley_of_the_tombs_of_the_kings. ... Karl Richard Lepsius 1810 – 1884 Karl (or Carl) Richard Lepsius (December 23, 1810 – July 10, 1884) was a pioneering Prussian Egyptologist and linguist and pioneer of modern archaeology. ...


The later half of the century saw a more concerted effort to preserve rather than simply gathering antiquities. Auguste Mariette's Egyptian Antiquities Service started to explore the valley, first with Eugène Lefébure in 1883,[30] then Jules Baillet and Georges Bénédite in early 1888 and finally Victor Loret in 1898 to 1899. During this time Georges Daressy explored KV9 and KV6. A statue of Auguste Mariette in his home city of Boulogne-sur-Mer. ... Eugène Lefébure (1838 – 1908), was a French Egyptologist born at Prunoy. ... Georges Aaron Bénédite (1857 – 1926) was a French Egyptologist. ... Victor Clement Georges Philippe Loret (1 September 1859 – 3 February 1946) was a French Egyptologist. ... Georges Émile Jules Daressy (19 March 1864 – 28 February 1938) was a French Egyptologist. ...


Loret added a further 16 tombs to the list, and explored several tombs that had already been discovered.


When Gaston Maspero was reappointed to head the Egyptian Antiquities Service, the nature of the exploration of the valley changed again, Maspero appointed Howard Carter as the Chief Inspector of Upper Egypt and the young man discovered several new tombs and explored several others, clearing KV42 and KV20. Gaston Camille Charles Maspero (June 23, 1846 - June 30, 1916), French Egyptologist, was born in Paris, his parents being of Lombard origin. ... KV62 in the Valley of the Kings Howard Carter (May 9, 1874 – March 2, 1939) was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist. ...


Twentieth century

Around the turn of the twentieth century, the American Theodore M. Davis had the excavation permit in the valley, and his team (led mostly by Edward R. Ayrton) discovered several royal and non-royal tombs (KV43, KV46 & KV57 being the most important). In 1907 they discovered the possible Amarna Period cache in KV55. After finding what they thought was the burial of Tutankhamun (KV61), it was announced that the valley was completely explored and no further burials were to be found. An American lawyer, Theodore M. Davis (1837 - 1915) was most famous for his work excavating Egypts Valley of the Kings between 1889 and 1912. ... Edward R. Ayrton was an English archaeologist. ... Thutmose receives life from, in turn, Osiris, Anubis, and Hathor (wall decoration in KV43) KV43 is the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmose IV in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. ... Tomb KV46 in the Valley of the Kings is the tomb of Yuya and his wife Thuya, the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep III. It was the discovered in February 1905, and until the discovery of Tutankhamuns tomb it was the richest tomb found in the... Tomb KV57, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Horemheb of the Eighteenth dynasty. ...

Entrance to Horemheb's tomb, soon after discovery in 1908

Howard Carter then acquired the right to explore the valley and after a systematic search discovered the actual tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62) in November 1922. Image File history File links Horemheb_tomb_entrance. ... Image File history File links Horemheb_tomb_entrance. ... KV62 in the Valley of the Kings Howard Carter (May 9, 1874 – March 2, 1939) was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist. ...


At the end of the century, the Theban Mapping Project re-discovered and explored tomb KV5, which has since been discovered to be probably the largest in the valley (having at least 120 rooms), and was either a cenotaph or real burial for the sons of Ramesses II. Elsewhere in the eastern and western branches of the valley several other expeditions cleared and studied other tombs. Until 2002 the Amarna Royal Tombs Project has been exploring the area around KV55 and KV62, the Amarna Period tombs in the main valley. The goal of the Theban Mapping Project is to create a masterplan of the Valley of the Kings and Thebes in general. ... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... The Amarna Royal Tombs Project was a project based in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. ...


Twenty-first century

Various expeditions have continued to explore the valley, adding greatly to the knowledge of the area. In 2001 the Theban Mapping Project designed new signs for the tombs, providing information and plans of the open tombs. The goal of the Theban Mapping Project is to create a masterplan of the Valley of the Kings and Thebes in general. ...


On February 8, 2006, the Supreme Council of Antiquities announced that an American team led by the University of Memphis had uncovered a pharaonic-era tomb (KV63), the first uncovered there since King Tutankhamun's in 1922. The 18th Dynasty tomb included five intact sarcophagi with coloured funerary masks along with more than 20 large storage jars, sealed with pharaonic seals. It is located close to the tomb of Tutankhamun. KV63, as it is known, appears to be a single chamber with five or six sarcophagi and about 20 large funerary jars. The chamber is from the 18th dynasty and it appears to have been a deposit of funerary preparation materials, rather than a tomb. As yet, no mummies have been discovered in the sarcophagi. is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in the Arab Republic of Egypt. ... The University of Memphis is a public American research university located in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. The University was founded under the auspices of the General Education Bill, enacted by the Tennessee Legislature in 1909. ... KV63 is the most recently discovered chamber in Egypts Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis. ...


On 31 July 2006, Nicholas Reeves announced that analysis of ground penetrating radar for the autumn of 2000 showed a sub-surface anomaly in the area of KV62 and KV63.[31] He has tentatively labeled this anomaly "KV64".[32] This has caused some controversy, as only Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities can officially designate the name of a new tomb, the anomaly may not in fact be a tomb, and because Reeves had reported the finding to the press first, instead of a scientific paper.[33] is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Nicholas Reeves (born 28 September 1956) is an English Egyptologist. ... Ground penetrating radar works much like regular radar, using pulses of electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range and reading the reflected signal to detect subsurface structures and objects without drilling, probing or otherwise breaking the ground surface. ... Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in the Arab Republic of Egypt. ...


Tomb development

Further information: List of burials in the Valley of the Kings for full list of burials

The following is a list of burials in the Valley of the Kings, in Thebes (modern Luxor in Egypt) and nearby areas. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1030x794, 50 KB) Sketch Map of East Valley of the Kings. ...

Valley of the Kings Sketch Map [KV2] ... ➥the Epopt 30 June 2005 19:23 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... ➥the Epopt 30 June 2005 19:23 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Naturenet | Talk 29 June 2005 16:09 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... KV5 is the tomb of the sons of Ramesses II, and the recent discovery of its great extent has been called the most amazing discovery in the Valley of the Kings since the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun. ... Ramses IXs names appear on the doorway to the tomb This article is about a tomb in the Theban Necropolis. ... Tomb KV7, located in the Valley of the Kings, is the tomb of Ramesses II, and is located in the main valley, opposite the tomb of his sons, KV5, and near to the tomb of his son and successor, Merenptah, KV8. ... Tomb KV8, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Merenptah of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV9 in Egypts Valley of the Kings was original constructed by Ramses V, and he was interred here, but his brother Ramses VI later reused the tomb as his own. ... Tomb KV10, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Amenmesse of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV11 was originally started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broken into another tomb (KV10), then restarted and extended by Ramesses III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ... Located in the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV12 is an unusual tomb, used originally in Eighteenth Dynasty, and then in the Nineteenth Dynasty and Twentieth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV13, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of the noble Bay of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV14 is a joint tomb, used originally by Twosret and then reused and extended by Setnakhte. ... Tomb KV15, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Seti II of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV16, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Ramesses I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV17, located in Egypts Valley of the Kings and also known by the names Belzonis tomb, the Tomb of Apis, and the Tomb of Psammis, son of Nechois, is the tomb of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV18, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was intended for the burial of Pharaoh Ramesses X of the Twentieth Dynasty; however, because it was apparently abandoned while still incomplete and since no funerary equipment has ever found there, it is uncertain whether it was actually used... Tomb KV19, located in a side branch of Egypts Valley of the Kings, was intended as the burial place of Prince Ramesses Sethherkhepshef, better known as Pharaoh Ramesses VIII, but was later used for the burial of Prince Mentuherkhepshef, the son of Ramesses IX, who died during the reign... Tomb KV20 in Egypts Valley of the Kings was possibly the first tomb to be constructed in the valley. ... Tomb KV21 is located in Egypts Valley of the Kings. ... Tomb WV22 in the Western arm of the Valley of the Kings was used as the resting of the one the greatest rulers of Egypts New Kingdom, Amenhotep III. It was officially discovered by Prosper Jollois and Eduard de Villiers du Terrage, engineers with Napoleons expedition to Egypt in... .. contains a broken sarcophagus and some bad fresco painting of peculiarly short and graceless proportions. ... WV25 in the West Valley of the Valley of the Kings, is clearly the beginnings of a Royal Tomb, but was never finished or decorated. ... Tomb KV26, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was visited by James Burton, and then probably by Victor Loret. ... Tomb KV28, is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV29, is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV30, is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV31 is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV32, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Tiaa, the wife of Amenhotep II and the mother of Thutmose IV. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ... Tomb KV34 in the Valley of the Kings (near the modern-day Egyptian city of Luxor) was the final resting place of 18th dynasty Pharaoh Thutmose III. One of the first tombs to be dug in the Valley, it was cut high in the cliff face of the furthermost wadi. ... Tomb KV35 in the Valley of the Kings (Luxor, Egypt) is the tomb of Amenhotep II. It was discovered by Victor Loret in March 1898. ... Tomb KV36, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of the noble Maiherpri from the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV37, is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV38, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Thutmose I of the Eighteenth dynasty, and was where his body was removed to (from KV20), by Thutmose III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ... Tomb KV40, is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... KV42 was constructed for Hatshepsut-Meryetre, the wife of Thutmose III, but she was not buried in the tomb. ... Thutmose receives life from, in turn, Osiris, Anubis, and Hathor (wall decoration in KV43) KV43 is the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmose IV in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. ... Tomb KV44, is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV45, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of the noble Userhet of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Tomb KV46 in the Valley of the Kings is the tomb of Yuya and his wife Thuya, the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep III. It was the discovered in February 1905, and until the discovery of Tutankhamuns tomb it was the richest tomb found in the... Tomb KV47, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Siptah of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV48, is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV54 is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Edward R. Ayrton discovered Tomb KV55 in Egypts Valley of the Kings on January 6, 1907; Ayrtons sponsor, Theodore M. Davis, published an account of the dig (The Tomb of Queen Tîyi) in 1910. ... Tomb KV56, located in the Valley of the Kings, is known as the Gold Tomb, and was discovered by Edward R. Ayrton in January, 1908. ... Tomb KV57, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Horemheb of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Tomb KV58, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV59 is located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV61 is an unused tomb discovered in Egypts Valley of the Kings. ... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world... KV63 is the most recently discovered chamber in Egypts Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis. ...

Location

The earliest tombs were located in cliffs at the top of scree slopes, under storm-fed waterfalls (for example KV34 and KV43).[11] As these locations were soon used, burials then descended to the valley floor, gradually moving back up the slopes as the valley bottom filled up with debris. This explains the location of the tombs KV62 and KV63 buried in the valley floor. Scree or detritic cone is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders. ... Tomb KV34 in the Valley of the Kings (near the modern-day Egyptian city of Luxor) was the final resting place of 18th dynasty Pharaoh Thutmose III. One of the first tombs to be dug in the Valley, it was cut high in the cliff face of the furthermost wadi. ... Thutmose receives life from, in turn, Osiris, Anubis, and Hathor (wall decoration in KV43) KV43 is the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmose IV in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. ... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world... KV63 is the most recently discovered chamber in Egypts Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis. ...

Architecture
The tomb of Twosret and Setnakhte showing descending corridor
The tomb of Twosret and Setnakhte showing descending corridor

The usual tomb plan of a long inclined rock-cut corridor, descending through one or more halls (possibly mirroring the descending path of the sun-god into the underworld[34]), to the burial chamber. In the earlier tombs the corridors turn through 90 degrees at least once (such as KV43, the tomb of Thutmose IV), and the earliest had cartouche-shaped burial chambers (KV43, the tomb of Thutmose IV). This layout is known as 'Bent Axis',[35] and after the burial the upper corridors were meant to be filled with rubble, and the entrance to the tomb hidden.[36] After the Amarna period, the layout gradually straightened, with an intermediate 'Jogged Axis' (the tomb of Horemheb, KV57 is typical of this, and is one of the tombs that is sometimes open to the public), to the generally 'Straight Axis' of the late Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasty tombs (Ramesses III's and Ramesses IX's tombs, KV11 and KV6 respectively).[37] As the tomb's axes straightend, the slope also lessened, and almost disappeared in the late Twentieth Dynasty.[38] Another feature that is common to most tombs is the 'well', which may have originated as an actual barrier intended to stop flood waters entering the lower parts of the tombs. It later seems to have developed a 'magical' purpose as a symbolical shaft. In the later Twentieth Dynasty, the well itself was sometimes not excavated, but the well room was still present. Image File history File linksMetadata Tombe_TaousertetSethnakht. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tombe_TaousertetSethnakht. ... Thutmose receives life from, in turn, Osiris, Anubis, and Hathor (wall decoration in KV43) KV43 is the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmose IV in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. ... Menkheperure Established in forms is Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth bore him Consort(s) Nefertari, Iaret, Mutemwiya Issues Amenhotep III, Siatum (?), Amenemhat, Tiaa, Amenemopet, Petepihu, Tentamun Father Amenhotep II Mother Tiaa Died 1391 BC or 1388 BC Burial KV43 Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV and meaning Thoth... Thutmose receives life from, in turn, Osiris, Anubis, and Hathor (wall decoration in KV43) KV43 is the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmose IV in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. ... Menkheperure Established in forms is Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth bore him Consort(s) Nefertari, Iaret, Mutemwiya Issues Amenhotep III, Siatum (?), Amenemhat, Tiaa, Amenemopet, Petepihu, Tentamun Father Amenhotep II Mother Tiaa Died 1391 BC or 1388 BC Burial KV43 Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV and meaning Thoth... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Tomb KV57, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Horemheb of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Tomb Interior of Ramesses IX Neferkare Ramesses IX (also written Ramses and Rameses) (1124 BC – 1106 BC) was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV11 was originally started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broken into another tomb (KV10), then restarted and extended by Ramesses III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ... Ramses IXs names appear on the doorway to the tomb This article is about a tomb in the Theban Necropolis. ...

Decoration
Detail of decoration from KV2
Detail of decoration from KV2

The majority of the royal tombs were decorated with religious texts and images. The early tombs were decorated with scenes from Amduat ('That Which is in the Underworld'), with describes the journey of the sun-god through the twelve hours of the night. From the time of Horemheb, tombs were decorated with the Book of Gates, which shows the sun-god passing through the twelve gates that divide the night time, and ensure the tomb owner's own safe passage through the night. The literature that make up the Ancient Egyptian Funerary Texts are a collection of religious documents that were used in Ancient Egypt, usually to help the spirit of the concerned person to be preserved in the afterlife. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1134x1656, 553 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:it. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1134x1656, 553 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:it. ... ➥the Epopt 30 June 2005 19:23 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Amduat (literally That Which Is In the Afterworld) is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom. ... Image illustrating the Book of Gates copied from the tomb of Ramesses III. The standard portrayal of an Egyptian is the first large figure at the top left. ...


Late in the Nineteenth Dynasty the Book of Caverns, which divided the underworld into massive caverns containing deities and the deceased waiting for the sun to pass through and restore them to life. The burial of Ramesses III saw the Book of the Earth, where the underworld is divided into 4 sections, climaxing in the sun disc being pulled from the earth by Naunet. The Book of Caverns is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom. ... In Egyptian mythology, Naunet (or Nunet) is the goddess of the primordial, watery abyss of the underworld and one of the Ogdoad. ...


The ceilings of the burial chambers were decorated (from the burial of Seti I onwards) with what become formalised as the Book of the Heavens, which again describe the sun's journey through the twelve hours of night. Again from Seti I's time, the Litany of Re, a lengthy hymn to the sun god. The Litany of Re (or more fully Book of Praying to Re in the West, Praying to the United One in the West) is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom. ...

Pillar in Seti I's tomb
Pillar in Seti I's tomb
Tomb equipment

Each burial was provided with equipment that would enable them a continued existence in the afterlife in comfort. Also present in the tombs were ritual magical items, such as Shabti's and divine figurines. Some equipment was that which the king may have used in their lifetime (Tutankhamun's sandles for example), and some was specially constructed for the burial. Image File history File links Seti_pillar. ... Image File history File links Seti_pillar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ushabti. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun...

Tomb numbering

The modern abbreviation "KV" stands for "Kings' Valley", and the tombs are numbered in the order of 'discovery' from Ramesses VII (KV1) to KV63 (which was discovered in 2005), although many of the tombs have been open since antiquity, and KV5 was only rediscovered in the 1990s (after being dismissed as unimportant by previous investigators).[39] The West Valley tombs often have the "WV" prefix, but follow the same numbering system. A number of the tombs are unoccupied, the owners of others remain unknown, and others are merely pits used for storage.[40] Most of the open tombs in the Valley of the Kings are located in the East Valley, and this is where most tourists and facilities can be found. Nebmaatre Meryamun Ramesses VII (also written Ramses and Rameses) (reigned from 1134 BC to 1126 BC). ... [KV2] ... KV63 is the most recently discovered chamber in Egypts Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis. ... KV5 is the tomb of the sons of Ramesses II, and the recent discovery of its great extent has been called the most amazing discovery in the Valley of the Kings since the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun. ...


Eighteenth Dynasty

KV34
KV34
Typical 'Bent axis' early Eighteenth Dynasty tomb
Typical 'Bent axis' early Eighteenth Dynasty tomb

The Eighteenth dynasty tombs within the valley vary a good deal in decoration, style and location. At first there seems to have been no fixed plan, indeed the tomb of Hatshepsut is of a unique shape, twisting and turning down over 200 metres from the entrance so that the burial chamber is 97 metres below the surface. The tombs gradually became more regular and formalised, and the tomb's of Thutmose III and Thutmose IV, KV34 and KV43 are good examples of Eighteenth Dynasty tombs, both with their bent axis, and simple decoration. Image File history File links Egypt. ... Image File history File links Egypt. ... Image File history File links Bentaxis. ... Image File history File links Bentaxis. ... Tomb KV20 in Egypts Valley of the Kings was possibly the first tomb to be constructed in the valley. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Menkheperure Established in forms is Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth bore him Consort(s) Nefertari, Iaret, Mutemwiya Issues Amenhotep III, Siatum (?), Amenemhat, Tiaa, Amenemopet, Petepihu, Tentamun Father Amenhotep II Mother Tiaa Died 1391 BC or 1388 BC Burial KV43 Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV and meaning Thoth... Tomb KV34 in the Valley of the Kings (near the modern-day Egyptian city of Luxor) was the final resting place of 18th dynasty Pharaoh Thutmose III. One of the first tombs to be dug in the Valley, it was cut high in the cliff face of the furthermost wadi. ... Thutmose receives life from, in turn, Osiris, Anubis, and Hathor (wall decoration in KV43) KV43 is the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmose IV in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. ...


Perhaps the most imposing tomb of this period is that of Amenhotep III, WV22 located in the West Valley.[41] It has been re-investigated in 1990s (by a team from Waseda University, Japan), but is not open to the public.[42] At the same time, powerful and influential nobles started to be buried with the royal family, the most famous of these tombs is the joint tomb of Yuya and Tjuyu, KV46. They were possibly the parents of Queen Tiy, and until the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun, this was the best preserved tomb to be found in the Valley. Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Tomb WV22 in the Western arm of the Valley of the Kings was used as the resting of the one the greatest rulers of Egypts New Kingdom, Amenhotep III. It was officially discovered by Prosper Jollois and Eduard de Villiers du Terrage, engineers with Napoleons expedition to Egypt in... Waseda University ), often abbreviated to Sodai ) is a co-educational, private university in Japan. ... Yuya (sometimes Iouiya) also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390 BC). ... Tjuyu (sometimes transliterated as Thuyu) was an Egyptian noblewoman and descedant of Ahmose-Nefertari. ... Tomb KV46 in the Valley of the Kings is the tomb of Yuya and his wife Thuya, the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep III. It was the discovered in February 1905, and until the discovery of Tutankhamuns tomb it was the richest tomb found in the... Tiy (c. ...


Amarna Period

Typical 'Jogged axis' post-Amarna tomb
Typical 'Jogged axis' post-Amarna tomb

The return of royal burials to Thebes after the end of Amarna period marks a change to the layout of royal burials, with the intermediate 'jogged axis' gradually giving way to the 'straight axis' of later dynasties. In the Western valley, there is a tomb commencement that is thought to have been started for Akhenaten, but is no more than a gateway and a series of steps. Close by to this tomb is the tomb of Ay, Tutankhamun's successor. It is likely that this tomb was started for Tutankhamun (its decoration is of a similar style), but later usurped for Ay's burial (this would mean that KV62 may have been Ay's original tomb, which would explain the smaller size and unusual layout for a royal tomb). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (264x1010, 11 KB) Idealised dog leg royal tomb File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (264x1010, 11 KB) Idealised dog leg royal tomb File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world...


The other Amarna period tombs are located in a smaller, central area in the centre of the East Valley, with a possible mummy cache (KV55) that possibly contains the possible burials of several Amarna Period royals РTiy and Smenkhkare or Akhenaten.[43] Edward R. Ayrton discovered Tomb KV55 in Egypts Valley of the Kings on January 6, 1907; Ayrtons sponsor, Theodore M. Davis, published an account of the dig (The Tomb of Queen T̨yi) in 1910. ... Tiy (c. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Manifestations[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, successor of... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who...

KV62
KV62

Close to this is the burial of Tutankhamun, perhaps the most famous discovery of modern Western archaeology and was made here by Howard Carter on November 4, 1922, with clearance and conservation work continuing until 1932. This was the first royal tomb to be discovered that was still largely intact (although tomb robbers had entered it), and was, until the excavation of KV63 on 10 March 2005,[44] considered the last major discovery in the valley. The opulence of his grave goods notwithstanding, Tutankhamun was a rather minor king and other burials probably had more numerous treasures. Painted walls in the burial chamber KV62 (Tutankhamuns tomb) Valley of the Kings, Egypt Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... Painted walls in the burial chamber KV62 (Tutankhamuns tomb) Valley of the Kings, Egypt Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... KV62 in the Valley of the Kings Howard Carter (May 9, 1874 – March 2, 1939) was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... KV63 is the most recently discovered chamber in Egypts Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun...


In the same central area as KV62 and KV63, is 'KV64' a radar anomaly believed to be a tomb or chamber announced on 28 July 2006. It is not an official designation, and indeed the actual existence of a tomb at all is dismissed by the Supreme Council of Antiquities.[33] KV64 is a radar anomaly discovered in the Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis in Egypt. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in the Arab Republic of Egypt. ...


The nearby tomb of Horemheb, (KV57) is rarely open for visitors, but it is superbly decorated and has excellent tomb paintings. Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Tomb KV57, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Horemheb of the Eighteenth dynasty. ...


Nineteenth Dynasty

Typical 'Straight axis' Nineteenth/Twentieth Dynasty tomb
Typical 'Straight axis' Nineteenth/Twentieth Dynasty tomb

The nineteenth dynasty saw a further standardisation of tomb layout and decoration. The tomb of the first king of the dynasty Ramesses I was hurriedly finished (due to the death of the king), and is little more than a descending corridor and a burial chamber, however KV16 has vibrant decoration, and still contains the sarcophagus of the king. Its central location means that it is one of the frequently visited tombs. It shows the development of the tomb entrance and passage and of decoration. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (375x665, 2 KB) Idealised Straight axis royal tomb File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (375x665, 2 KB) Idealised Straight axis royal tomb File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issues Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramessu I (traditional English: Ramesses, also Ramses or Rameses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Tomb KV16, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Ramesses I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah Detail of a stone sarcophagus in the Istanbul Archeological Museum showing a hunting scene Anthropoid sarcophagus discovered at Cádiz A sarcophagus is a stone container for a coffin or body. ...


His son and successor, Seti I's tomb, KV17 (also known as Belzoni's tomb, the tomb of Apis, or the tomb of Psammis, son of Necho) is usually thought to be the finest tomb in the valley, with well executed relief work and paintings. Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issues Ramesses II, Tia, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre Died... Tomb KV17, located in Egypts Valley of the Kings and also known by the names Belzonis tomb, the Tomb of Apis, and the Tomb of Psammis, son of Nechois, is the tomb of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...


The son of Seti, Ramesses the Great constructed a massive tomb, KV7, but it is in a ruinous state, and it is currently undergoing excavation and conservation by a Franco-Egyptian team led by Christian Leblanc.[45][46] It is a vast size, being about the same length, and a larger area, of the tomb of his father. Its layout returns to the earlier 'bent axis', maybe due to the poor quality of the rock found during excavation. Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... Tomb KV7, located in the Valley of the Kings, is the tomb of Ramesses II, and is located in the main valley, opposite the tomb of his sons, KV5, and near to the tomb of his son and successor, Merenptah, KV8. ...


At the same time (and just opposite his own tomb), Ramesses enlarged the earlier small tomb of an unknown Eighteenth Dynasty noble (KV5) for his numerous sons. With 120 known rooms and excavation work still underway, it is probably the largest tomb in the valley. Originally opened (and robbed) in antiquity it is a low-lying structure that has been particularly prone to the flash floods that sometimes hit the area, which washed in tones of debris and material over the centuries, ultimately concealing its vast size. It is not currently open to the public. KV5 is the tomb of the sons of Ramesses II, and the recent discovery of its great extent has been called the most amazing discovery in the Valley of the Kings since the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun. ...

KV8
KV8

Ramesses II's son and eventual successor, Merenptah's tomb has been open since antiquity, it extends 160 metres, ending in a burial chamber that once contained a set of four nested sarcophagi.[47] Well decorated, it is typically open to the public most years. Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah Tomb KV8, Valley of the Kings Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah Tomb KV8, Valley of the Kings Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ... Tomb KV8, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Merenptah of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah Detail of a stone sarcophagus in the Istanbul Archeological Museum showing a hunting scene Anthropoid sarcophagus discovered at Cádiz A sarcophagus is a stone container for a coffin or body. ...


The last kings of the dynasty also constructed tombs in the valley, all of which follow the same general pattern of layout and decoration, notable amongst these is the tomb of Siptah, which is well decorated, especially the ceiling decoration.[48] Tomb KV47, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Siptah of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Akhenre-setepenre (late form) Nomen Siptah Merenptah[1] Horus name Kanakht Meryhapi Sankhtanebemkafraneb Nebty name Saaiunu Golden Horus Unclear Died 1187 BC Burial KV47, in the Valley of the Kings Akhenre Setepenre Siptah or Merneptah Siptah was the penultimate ruler of the 19th Dynasty and the son of an obscure...


Twentieth Dynasty

The first ruler of the dynasty, Setnakhte actually had 2 tombs constructed for himself, he started to excavate the eventual tomb of his son, Ramesses III but broke into another tomb, and abandoned it in order to usurp and complete the tomb of the Nineteenth dynasty female pharaoh Twosret. This tomb therefore has two burial chambers, the later extensions making the tomb one of the largest of the Royal tombs, at over 112 metres. Setnakht Meryamunra (stX-nxt mrr-imnra) Seth Is Victorious ; Beloved Of Amon-Re[1] Praenomen Userkhaure-setepenre (wsr-xaw-ra stp. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Tomb KV14 is a joint tomb, used originally by Twosret and then reused and extended by Setnakhte. ... nomen or birth name Queen Twosret Sitre Meryamun was a Queen of Egypt and the last Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...

KV11

The tomb of Ramesses III (known Bruce's Tomb, The Harper's Tomb) is one of the largest tombs in the valley, and is open to the public, it is located close to the central 'rest–area', and is location and superb decoration usually makes this one of the tombs visited by tourists.[49] Image File history File links Luxor,_Tal_der_Könige,_Grab_von_Thutmosis_III._(1,_1995,_800x570). ... Image File history File links Luxor,_Tal_der_Könige,_Grab_von_Thutmosis_III._(1,_1995,_800x570). ... Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV11 was originally started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broken into another tomb (KV10), then restarted and extended by Ramesses III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died...


The successors and offspring of Ramesses III constructed tombs that had straight axes, and were decorated in much the same manner as each other, notable amongst these are KV2, the tomb of Ramesses IV, which has been open since antiquity, containing a large amount of hieratic graffiti. The tomb is mostly intact and is decorated with scenes from several religious texts.[50] The joint tomb of Ramesses V and Ramesses VI, KV9 (also known as the Tomb of Memnon or La Tombe de la Métempsychose) is decorated with many sunk-relief carvings, depicting many illustrated scenes from religious texts. Open since antiquity, it contains over a thousand graffiti in ancient Greek, Latin and Coptic.[51] The spoil from the excavation and later clearance of this tomb covered the earlier burial of KV62 and seems to have been what protected that tomb from earlier discovery and looting. Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... ➥the Epopt 30 June 2005 19:23 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Heqamaatre Ruler of Justice like Re[1] Nomen Ramesses Re bore him Consort(s) Duatentopet Issues Ramesses V Burial KV2 Major Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... Ramesses V (also written Ramses and Rameses) (reigned 1146 BC to 1142 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Nebmaatre-meryamun Nomen Ramesses (Amenherkhepeshef) Neterhekaiunu Horus name Kanakht Aanakhtu Nebty name Userkhepeshhedhefenu Golden Horus Userrenputmitatjenen Died 1134 BC Burial KV9 Ramesses VI (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the fifth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt who reigned from 1142 BC to 1134 BC. His tomb, KV9, is... Tomb KV9 in Egypts Valley of the Kings was original constructed by Ramses V, and he was interred here, but his brother Ramses VI later reused the tomb as his own. ...

KV6
KV6

The tomb of Ramesses IX, KV6 has been open since antiquity, as can be seen by the graffiti left on its walls by Roman and Coptic visitors.[52] Located in the central part of the Valley, it stands between and slightly above KV5 and KV55. The tomb extends a total distance of 105 metres into the hillside, including extensive side chambers which were neither decorated nor finished. The hasty and incomplete nature of the rock-cutting and decorations within the tomb indicate that the tomb was not completed by the time of Ramesses' death. Tomb of Ramses IX Valley of the Kings Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... Tomb of Ramses IX Valley of the Kings Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... Tomb Interior of Ramesses IX Neferkare Ramesses IX (also written Ramses and Rameses) (1124 BC – 1106 BC) was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Ramses IXs names appear on the doorway to the tomb This article is about a tomb in the Theban Necropolis. ...


Another notable tomb from this dynasty is KV19 the tomb of Mentuherkhepshef (son of Ramesses IX). The tomb is small and is really just a converted, unfinished corridor, but the decoration is superb and the tomb has been newly restored and open for visitors. Tomb KV19, located in a side branch of Egypts Valley of the Kings, was intended as the burial place of Prince Ramesses Sethherkhepshef, better known as Pharaoh Ramesses VIII, but was later used for the burial of Prince Mentuherkhepshef, the son of Ramesses IX, who died during the reign... The Egyptian Prince Rameses Mentuherkhepeshef was the son of Rameses IX. He is buried in tomb KV19, in the Valley of the Kings, near Thebes, in Egypt. ... Tomb Interior of Ramesses IX Neferkare Ramesses IX (also written Ramses and Rameses) (1124 BC – 1106 BC) was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ...


Twenty-first Dynasty and the decline of the necropolis

By the end of the New Kingdom, Egypt had entered a long period of political and economic decline. The priests at Thebes grew in power and effectively administered Upper Egypt, while kings ruling from Tanis controlled Lower Egypt. Some attempt at using the open tombs was made at the start of the Twenty first Dynasty, with the High Priest of Amun Pinedjem I adding his cartouche to KV4.[53] The Valley began to be heavily plundered, so during the 21st Dynasty the priests of Amen opened most of the tombs and moved the mummies into three tombs in order to better protect them, even removing most of their treasure in order to further protect the bodies from robbers. Later most of these were moved to a single cache near Deir el-Bari (known as TT320), located in the cliffs overlooking Hatshepsut's famous temple, this mass reburial contained an astounding number of royal mummies.[54][55] They were found in a great state of disorder, many placed in other's coffins, and several are still unidentified. Other mummies were moved to the tomb of Amenhotep II, where over a dozen mummies, many of them royal, were later relocated here.[56] Tanis or The ruins of Tanis in 2004 Tanis (Τάνις), the Greek name of ancient Djanet (modern صان الحجر Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar), is a city in the north-eastern Nile delta of Egypt. ... While not regarded as a dynasty per se, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to 945 BC, after this period their influence declined. ... Pinedjem I was the high priest of Amun at Thebes in Ancient Egypt 1070 BC to 1032 and de facto ruler of the south of the country. ... Naturenet | Talk 29 June 2005 16:09 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty. ... Look up Amen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tomb DB320 is located next to Deir el-Bahri, in the Theban Necropolis, opposite modern Luxor contained an extraordinary cache of mummified remains and funeral equipment of more than 50 kings, queens, royals and various nobility. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Tomb KV35 in the Valley of the Kings (Luxor, Egypt) is the tomb of Amenhotep II. It was discovered by Victor Loret in March 1898. ... Aakheperure Great are the forms of Re Nomen Amenhotep Heka Iunu Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis Horus name Ka Nakht Wer Pekhty Strong Bull, Great of Power Nebty name User Fau Sekha Em Wast Powerful of Splendour, Appearing in Thebes Golden Horus Ity Sekhemef em Tau Neb Who seizes...


During the later Third Intermediate Period and later periods, intrusive burials were introduced into many of the open tombs. In Coptic times, some of the tombs were used as churches, stables and even houses. The Third Intermediate Period is a phrase used to refer the period of the history of Ancient Egypt from the death of pharaoh Rameses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-fifth... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ...


Tomb robbers

Almost all of the tombs have been ransacked, including Tutankhamun's, though in its case, it seems that the robbers were interrupted, so very little was removed.[57] Several papyrus have been found that describe the trials of tomb robbers, these date mostly from the late Twentieth Dynasty. One of these (Papyrus Mayer B) describes the robbery of the tomb of Ramesses VI and was probably written in Year 9 of Ramesses IX. Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ...

The foreigner Nesamun took us up and showed us the tomb of King Ramesses VI ... And I spent four days breaking into it, we being present all five. We opened the tomb and entered it. ... We found a cauldron of bronze, three wash bowls of bronze ...[58]

The valley also seems to have suffered an official plundering during the virtual civil war which started in the reign of Ramesses XI. The tombs were opened, all the valuables removed, and the mummies collected into two large caches. One in the tomb of Amenhotep II, contained sixteen, and others were hidden within Amenhotep I's tomb. A few years later most of them were moved to the Deir el-Bahri cache, contained no less than forty royal mummies and their coffins.[59] Only those tombs whose locations were lost (KV62, KV63 and KV46) were undisturbed in this period. Whm Mswt (or Repetition of Births – Era of the Renaissance). ... Menmare Ramesses XI (also written Ramses and Rameses) reigned 1102 BC – 1073 BC or 1069 BC) was the tenth and final king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Aakheperure Great are the forms of Re Nomen Amenhotep Heka Iunu Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis Horus name Ka Nakht Wer Pekhty Strong Bull, Great of Power Nebty name User Fau Sekha Em Wast Powerful of Splendour, Appearing in Thebes Golden Horus Ity Sekhemef em Tau Neb Who seizes... Djeserkare Holy is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world... KV63 is the most recently discovered chamber in Egypts Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis. ... Tomb KV46 in the Valley of the Kings is the tomb of Yuya and his wife Thuya, the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep III. It was the discovered in February 1905, and until the discovery of Tutankhamuns tomb it was the richest tomb found in the...


Tourism

Most of the tombs are not open to the public (16 of the tombs can be opened, but they are rarely open at the same time), and officials occasionally close those that are open for restoration work. The number of visitors to KV62 has led to a separate charge for entry into the tomb. The West Valley has only one open tomb – that of Ay – and a separate ticket is needed to visit this tomb. The tour guides are no longer allowed to lecture inside the tombs and visitors are expected to proceed quietly and in single file through the tombs. This is to minimize time in the tombs, and prevent the crowds from damaging the surfaces of the decoration. Photography is no longer allowed in the tombs.


In 1997, 58 tourists and 4 Egyptians were massacred at nearby Deir el-Bahri by Islamist militants from Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya. This led to an overall drop in tourism in the area.[60] Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... Djeser-Djeseru The Luxor Massacre took place on 17 November 1997, at Deir el-Bahri, an archaelogical site located across the River Nile from Luxor in Egypt. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Al-Gamaa al-Islamiyya (Arabic: ألجماعه الاسلاميه ) (Arabic for the Islamic Group; also transliterated Gamaat Islamiya, Jamaat al Islamiya, al-Jamāah al-Islāmiyah etc. ...


As of 2005, on most days of the week an average of four to five thousand tourists visit the main valley. On the days on which the Nile Cruises arrive the number can rise to nearly ten thousand.[61] These levels are expected to rise to 25,000 by 2015. The West Valley is much less visited, as there is only one tomb that is open to the public. The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...


In January 2006 it was announced that a new visitors centre was to be constructed.[62] Constructed on the old cafeteria, it is planned to open in early 2007.[63] It will have displays and exhibits (including a model of the valley), showing the chronology and iconography of the New Kingdom necropolis. The Metropolitan Museum of Art and National Geographic Society have donated display and educational material. Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as The Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the worlds largest not-for-profit educational and scientific organizations. ...


See also

The Valley of the Queens, also known as Biban el-Harim (Arabic: ‎), Biban el-Sultanat (Arabic: ‎), and Wadi el-Melikat (Arabic: ‎), is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. ... The Royal Wadi (known locally as Wadi Abu Hassah el-Bahari) at Amarna is a where the Royal Family of Amarna were to be buried. ... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Reeves and Wilkinson (1996), p. 6
  2. ^ Maspero (1913), p. 182
  3. ^ Theban Mapping Project. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  4. ^ Siliotti (1997), p.13
  5. ^ Egypt's "King Tut beard" Caused by Tomb Toxins?. National Geographic. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  6. ^ Ancient Thebes and its necropolis. UNESCO Work Heritage Sites. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  7. ^ a b c Geography and Geology of the Valley. Theban Mapping Project. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  8. ^ Sampsell (2003), p. 78
  9. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 194
  10. ^ Amarna Royal Tombs Project. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  11. ^ a b c Historical Development of the Valley of the Kings in the New Kingdom. Theban Mapping Project. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  12. ^ Dodson (1991), pp. 5-7
  13. ^ Reeves and Wilkinson (1996), p. 17
  14. ^ Baines and Malik (2000), p. 99
  15. ^ Strudwick & Strudwick (1999) p.94
  16. ^ Reeves and Wilkinson (1996), p. 89
  17. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 186
  18. ^ a b Siliotti (1997), pp.12-13
  19. ^
  20. ^ Reeves and Wilkinson (1996), p. 116
  21. ^ Introduction to the Deir el-Medina Database. The Deir el-Medina Database. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  22. ^ a b Reeves and Wilkinson (1996), p. 51
  23. ^ Baillet (1920-1926)
  24. ^ Discovers of Ancient Egypt. Egyptian Civilization & Mythology course. University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  25. ^ F.L. Norden: Voyage d'Egypte et de Nubie, 1755 (Norwegian). Midtøsten i Universitetsbiblioteket. Universitetet i Oslo (1755). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  26. ^ Brief biography of Richard Pococke. Center for Middle Eastern Studies. UC Berkeley. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  27. ^ Siliotti (1997), p. 16
  28. ^ Description de l'Égypte – text of the 2nd edition (French). Bibliotheque nationale de France. Gallicia. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  29. ^ Bernardino Drovetti. Travellers In Egypt. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  30. ^ Project Amenmesse Homepage. Amenmesse Project. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  31. ^ Another new tomb in the Valley of the Kings: ‘KV64’. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  32. ^ Nicholas Reeves interview. Archaeology Magazine. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  33. ^ a b Vergano, Dan (2006-08-14). Egyptian tomb digs up controversy. USA Today. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  34. ^ Strudwick and Strudwick (1999), p. 117
  35. ^ Wilkinson (1993), pp 10-20
  36. ^ Strudwick and Strudwick (1999), p. 98
  37. ^ Reeves and Wilkinson (1996), p. 25
  38. ^ Rossi (2001), p.75
  39. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 198
  40. ^ Donald P. Ryan (1995). Further Observations Concerning the Valley of the Kings. Valley of the Sun Kings: New Explorations in the Tombs of the Pharaohs. Pacific Lutheran University. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  41. ^ El-Aref, Nevine (2004-02-11). Sleuthing in a royal tomb. Al-Ahram Weekly Online. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  42. ^ INTERIM REPORT ON THE RE-CLEARANCE AT THE ROYAL TOMB OF AMENOPHIS III. Research in Egypt 1966-1991. Institute of Egyptology at Waseda University (1991). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  43. ^ Davis (2001), p.XV
  44. ^ Egypt offers first look at newly discovered tomb: First such discovery in Valley of the Kings since Tutankhamun’s in 1922. MSNBC (2006-02-10). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  45. ^ Christian Leblanc. The Tomb of Ramesses II and Remains of His Funerary Treasure. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  46. ^ Recherches et travaux dans la tombe de Ramses II: Aujourďhui (French). Recherches et Travaux Tombe Ramses. L'Institut d'Egyptologie Thébaine du Musée du Louvre. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  47. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 202
  48. ^ Davis (2001), p.1
  49. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 206
  50. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 196
  51. ^ KV 9 (Rameses V and Rameses VI). Theban Mapping project. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  52. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 198
  53. ^ Reeves and Wilkinson (1996), p. 208
  54. ^ CACHETTE of the Royal Mummies. Russian Academy of Sciences Centre for Egyptological Studies. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  55. ^ The Finding of the Pharaohs. TravellersInEgypt.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  56. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 221
  57. ^ Valley of the Kings, finds in the Petrie Museum. Digital Egypt. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  58. ^ Reeves and Wilkinson (1996), p. 192
  59. ^ Weigall (1910), p. 191
  60. ^ Tourists massacred at temple. BBC News (1997-11-17). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  61. ^ The Valley Today. Theban Mapping Project. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  62. ^ First World Visitors Center opens in Valley of Kings. Egyptian State Information Service (2006-01-10). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  63. ^ August 2006 Progress report. Theban Mapping Project. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ...

Bibliography

  • Baines, John; Jaromir Malik. Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt. ISBN 0-8160-4036-2, 2000. 
  • Baillet, Jules (1920-1926). Inscriptions grecques et latines des tombeaux des rois ou Syringes à Thèbes. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire, Mémoires publiés par les membres. 
  • Davis, Theodore M. (2001). The Tomb of Siphtah with The Tomb of Queen Tiyi. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-7156-3073-3. 
  • Dodson, Aidan (1991). Egyptian Rock-cut Tombs. Buckinghamshire: Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-7478-0128-2. 
  • Maspero, Gaston (1913). Manual of Egyptian Archaeology, Sixth English Edition. H. Grevel and Co. ISBN 1-4219-4169-4. 
  • Reeves, Nicholas (1990). Valley of the Kings: The Decline of a Royal Necropolis. Keegan Paul. ISBN 0-7103-0368-8. 
  • Reeves, Nicholas; Richard H. Wilkinson (1996). The Complete Valley of the Kings. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05080-5.  – Details of all the major tombs, their discovery, art and architecture
  • Romer, John (1981). Valley of the Kings. Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-0993-0.  – Covers the history of the exploration of the Valley in chronological order
  • Rossi, Corinna (2001). "Dimensions and Slope in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasty Royal Tombs". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 87: 73-80. ISSN 0307-5133. 
  • Sampsell, Bonnie M. (2003). A Traveler's Guide to the Geology of Egypt. Cairo: American University Press. ISBN 977-424-785-X. 
  • Siliotti, Alberto (1997). Guide to the Valley of the Kings. Barnes and Noble. ISBN 88-8095-496-2.  – A good introduction to the valley and surroundings
  • Strudwick, Nigel; Helen Strudwick (1999). Thebes in Egypt. Cornell University. ISBN 0-8014-8616-5. 
  • Weeks, Kent R.; Araldo De Luca (photographs) (2001). Valley of the Kings. Friedman/Fairfax. ISBN 88-8095-712-0.  – Spectacular photography of the best tombs
  • Weeks, Kent R. (2000). KV 5: A Preliminary Report on the Excavation of the Tomb of the Sons of Ramesses II in the Valley of the Kings. Cairo: American University Press. ISBN 977-424-574-1. 
  • Weigall, Arthur (1910). A Guide to the Antiquities of Upper Egypt. London: Mentheun & Co. ISBN 1-4253-3806-2. 
  • Wilkinson, Richard H. (1994). Valley of the Sun Kings: New Explorations in the Tombs of the Pharaohs. Tucson: University of Arizona Egyptian Expedition. ISBN 0-9649958-0-8.  – chapters by archaeologists working in the valley from an international conference on the Valley of the Kings
  • Wilkinson, Richard H. (1993). "The paths of Re: Symbolism in the royal tombs of Wadi Biban El Moluk". KMT 4 (3). 

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Valley of the Kings - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2857 words)
4 Exploration of the Valley of the Kings
King Tutankhamun's tomb was the first royal tomb to be discovered that was still largely intact (although tomb robbers had entered it), and was, until the excavation of KV63 in 2006, considered the last major discovery in the valley.
The Valley began to be heavily plundered, so during the 21st Dynasty the priests of Amen opened most of the tombs and moved the mummies into three tombs in order to better protect them, even removing most of their treasure in order to further protect the bodies from robbers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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