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Encyclopedia > Valley Campaign
Stonewall Jackson

The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia during the American Civil War. Employing audacity and lightning movements, Jackson's 17,000 men won several minor battles and successfully engaged three Union armies (over 60,000 men), preventing them from reinforcing the Union offensive against Richmond. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... First Battle of Kernstown Conflict American Civil War Date March 23, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina Result Union victory The First Battle of Kernstown took place on March 23, 1862 in Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through... Battle of McDowell Conflict American Civil War Date May 8, 1862 Place Highland County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of McDowell, also known as the Battle of Sitlingtons Hill, took place on May 8, 1862 in Highland County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jackson... By early May 1862 Union forces in todays West Virginia were positioned to breach the Alleghenies and debouch into Virginias Great Valley at two points more than 100 miles apart. ... Battle of Front Royal Conflict American Civil War Date May 23, 1862 Place Warren County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Front Royal, also known as the Battle of Guard Hill or Cedarville, took place on May 23, 1862 in Warren County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General... First Battle of Winchester Conflict American Civil War Date May 25, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Winchester was a battle of the American Civil War that took place on May 25, 1862 in and around Frederick County, Virginia and Winchester, Virginia. ... Battle of Cross Keys Conflict American Civil War Date June 8, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Cross Keys took place on June 8, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... Battle of Port Republic Conflict American Civil War Date June 9, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Port Republic took place on June 9, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ...

Contents

Background

The spring of 1862 was an anxious time for the Confederacy. Following the successful summer of 1861 (particularly the First Battle of Bull Run [First Manassas]) its prospects declined quickly. Union armies in the Western Theater, under Ulysses S. Grant and others, captured Southern territory and won significant battles at Fort Donelson and Shiloh. And in the East, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's massive Army of the Potomac was approaching Richmond from the southeast in the Peninsula Campaign, Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's large corps was poised to hit Richmond from the north, and Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's army was threatening the Shenandoah Valley. The performance of Jackson in the Valley that spring helped derail the Union plans and re-energized Confederate morale. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Historic Southern United States. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner # Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ...


Initial movements

In November 1861, Jackson commanded the Valley District, with his headquarters at Winchester. Jackson, recently a professor at Virginia Military Institute and suddenly a hero at First Bull Run, was familiar with the valley terrain, having lived there most of his life. His command included the Stonewall Brigade and a variety of militia units. In December, Jackson was reinforced by Brigadier General William W. Loring and 6,000 troops, but his combined force was insufficient for offensive operations. While Banks remain north of the Potomac River, Jackson's cavalry commander, Col. Turner Ashby, raided the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Jackson fought inconclusively with two small union posts at Romney and Bath. Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1802 Government  - Mayor Elizabeth Minor Area  - City  9. ... The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... The Stonewall Brigade of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was one of the most famous combat units in United States history. ... William Wing Loring (December 4, 1818 – December 30, 1886) was a soldier from North Carolina who served in the armies of the United States, the Confederacy, and Egypt. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Turner Ashby (October 23, 1828 - June 6, 1862) was a Confederate cavalry commander, enlisting at rank of Capitan, then attaining rank of Colonel, and finally the rank of Brigadier General. ... Canal at Swains Lock Chesapeake and Ohio Canal map The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, abbreviated as the C&O Canal, and occasionally referred to as the Grand Old Ditch, operated from 1836 until 1924 parallel to the Potomac River in Maryland from Cumberland, Maryland to Washington, DC. The total... The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was one of the oldest railroads in the United States and the first common carrier railroad, with an original line from the port of Baltimore, Maryland, west to the Ohio River at Wheeling and a few years later also to Parkersburg, West Virginia. ... Battle of Hancock Conflict American Civil War Date January 5-6, 1862 Place Washington County, Maryland; Morgan County, West Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Hancock, also known as the Romney Campaign, took place from January 5_6, 1862 in Washington County, Maryland and Morgan County, West Virginia as part of...

Main article: Romney Expedition

Banks reacted by crossing the Potomac in late February and moving south to protect the canal and railroad from Ashby. Jackson's command was operating as the left wing of Joseph E. Johnston's army, and when Johnston moved from Manassas to Culpeper in March, Jackson's position at Winchester was isolated. On March 12, 1862, Banks continued his advance to the southwest ("up the Valley") and occupied Winchester. Jackson had withdrawn up the Valley Pike to Strasburg. Banks's orders, as part of the overall strategy for the Peninsula Campaign, were to move farther south and drive Jackson from the Valley. After accomplishing this, he was to withdraw to a position nearer Washington, D.C. A strong advance force under Brigadier General James Shields began the movement south from Winchester on March 17, about the same time that McClellan began his amphibious movement to the Virginia Peninsula. Major General Stonewall Jackson leads The Romney Expedition, painting by John Paul Strain. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Manassas redirects here. ... Culpeper is an incorporated town in Culpeper County, Virginia, United States. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... A drawing etitled the escape of Stonewall Jacksons Army down the valley pike at Strausburg [sic], Va. ... Nickname: Location of Strasburg in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Shenandoah Founded 1761 Incorporated 1871 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Timothy S. Crisman  - Town manager Kevin M. Fauber Area  - Town  3. ... ... James Shields (May 10, 1810 – June 1, 1879) was an American politician and U.S. Army officer who was born in Altmore, County Tyrone, Ireland. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jackson's orders from Johnston were to avoid general combat because he was seriously outnumbered, but at the same time he was to keep Banks occupied enough to prevent the detachment of troops to reinforce McClellan on the Peninsula. As Shields advanced on Strasburg, Jackson withdrew to Mount Jackson, leaving behind a cavalry screen. The Union cavalry erroneously reported to Shields that Jackson had fled from the Valley. Banks concluded that the first part of his mission—to eject Jackson from the Valley—had been accomplished, and he proceeded to move east, back to the vicinity of Washington. Jackson was dismayed at this movement because Banks was doing what Jackson had been directed to prevent. Mount Jackson is a town located in Shenandoah County, Virginia. ...


On March 22, Ashby's cavalry skirmished with outposts that Shields had left at Kernstown, just south of Winchester, and reported to Jackson that there was only a weak union force in the area, fewer than four regiments. In actuality, Shields's force was a full infantry division of almost 9,000 men, much stronger than Jackson's 3,400. is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kernstown is an unincorporated community within the independent city of Winchester, Virginia. ...


Battles

Valley Campaign: Kernstown to McDowell
Valley Campaign: Kernstown to McDowell
First Battle of Kernstown (March 23, 1862)
The Federals, commanded in Shields's absence by Col. Nathan Kimball, stopped Jackson's advance at Kernstown and then counterattacked, turning Jackson’s left flank and forcing him to retreat. Jackson had operated on faulty intelligence that the Federals had fewer men at Kernstown than were present. This was a tactical defeat for Jackson. But it was a strategic victory for the Confederacy, forcing President Abraham Lincoln to keep Banks's forces in the Valley and McDowell's 30,000-man corps near Fredericksburg, subtracting about 50,000 soldiers from McClellan's invasion force. Also, three separate commands were created (one under McDowell, one under Banks, and one under newly arrived Major General John C. Frémont). This meant that there was no single military officer to coordinate their strategic actions, a situation which proved fatal for the Union armies.
Battle of McDowell (May 8 to May 9, 1862)
Jackson combined Richard S. Ewell's large division and Major General Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's small division, bringing his forces to 17,000. He marched on a devious route (see map) to West View, hoping to mask his intentions. Meanwhile, Frémont decided to advance on Staunton, Virginia, and ordered Brigadier General Robert H. Milroy to prepare his brigade at McDowell for that campaign. Had Frémont and Banks combined, Jackson's forces would have been overwhelmed. Therefore, Jackson decided to attack the Union forces piecemeal, first attacking those at McDowell—the brigades of Milroy and Robert C. Schenck. At McDowell on May 8, while Jackson was looking for an opportunity to cross the river and envelop the Union force, Milroy seized the initiative and assaulted the Confederate position on Sitlington’s Hill. The Federals were repulsed after severe fighting, lasting four hours. Afterwards, Milroy and Schenck withdrew to Franklin, setting forest fires to delay any Confederate pursuit.

Following Jackson's victory at McDowell, there was a two-week lull in combat while forces repositioned and Jackson tried to determine the best way to prevent Banks from leaving the Valley and reinforcing Irvin McDowell or McClellan. Robert E. Lee, military advisor to Jefferson Davis, caused some command confusion by communicating directly with Ewell, bypassing Jackson and Johnston (the overall commander in the theater), and urging him to attack Banks's line of communication. Ewell's orders from Jackson had been to take up a position at Swift Run Gap and counter any advance by Banks. While this disagreement was being worked out, Banks sent Shields and his division to reinforce Irvin McDowell's forces at Fredericksburg, leaving Banks only 8,000 troops, which he relocated to a strong position at Strasburg, Virginia. He detached about 1,000 men under Col. John R. Kenly to Front Royal to watch for a potential Confederate attack in the Luray Valley. Johnston ordered Ewell to leave the Valley to react to Shields's departure, but a combination of Jackson and Lee convinced him that a potential victory in the Valley had more immediate importance than countering Shields. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1191, 534 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1191, 534 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... First Battle of Kernstown Conflict American Civil War Date March 23, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina Result Union victory The First Battle of Kernstown took place on March 23, 1862 in Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Nathan Kimball (February 22, 1822 – January 21, 1898) was a physician, politician, postmaster, and military officer, serving as a general in the Union army during the American Civil War. ... “Flanking” redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military unit. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City* Founded 1728 Incorporated 1781 Government  - Mayor Thomas Tomzak Area  - City  10. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... Battle of McDowell Conflict American Civil War Date May 8, 1862 Place Highland County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of McDowell, also known as the Battle of Sitlingtons Hill, took place on May 8, 1862 in Highland County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jackson... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Edward Allegheny Johnson Edward Johnson (April 16, 1816 – March 2, 1873), also known as Allegheny Johnson (sometimes spelled Alleghany), was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... West Beverley Street in downtown Staunton Staunton (IPA: or STAN-tehn or STANT-en) is an independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the commonwealth of Virginia. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Robert H. Milroy during the war Robert Huston Milroy (June 11, 1816 – March 29, 1890) was a lawyer, judge, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War, most noted for his defeat at the Second Battle of Winchester in 1863. ... Robert Cumming Schenck (1809-1890) Robert Cumming Schenck (October 4, 1809–March 23, 1890) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Franklin is a town located in Pendleton County, West Virginia. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Nathaniel P. Banks, engraving from a Mathew Brady Carte de visite Nathaniel Prentice (or Prentiss)[1] Banks (January 30, 1816 – September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, served as Governor of Massachusetts, Speaker of the House of the United States House of Representatives, and as a Union general in the... Nickname: Location of Strasburg in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Shenandoah Founded 1761 Incorporated 1871 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Timothy S. Crisman  - Town manager Kevin M. Fauber Area  - Town  3. ... Front Royal is a town in Warren County, Virginia, United States. ...

Valley Campaign: Front Royal to Port Republic
Valley Campaign: Front Royal to Port Republic

On May 21, Jackson marched his command east from New Market, combining with Ewell, and proceeded (northward) down the Luray Valley. Their speed of forced marching was typical of the campaign and earned his infantrymen the nickname of "Jackson's foot cavalry". He sent Ashby's cavalry directly north to make Banks think that he was going to attack Strasburg, but his plan was to defeat Kenly's small outpost at Front Royal and quickly attack Banks's line of communication at Harpers Ferry. is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Downtown New Market New Market is a town located in Shenandoah County, Virginia. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ...

Battle of Front Royal (May 23, 1862)
Confederate forces, spearheaded by the "Louisiana Tigers" Brigade and the 1st Maryland Infantry, surprised and overran the pickets of the 1,000-man Union garrison at Front Royal. Driven through the town, the Federals made a stand on Camp Hill and again at Guard Hill after attempting to fire the river bridges. Outnumbered and outflanked, Kenly continued the retreat to Cedarville, where two cavalry charges led by Col. Thomas L. Flournoy broke the roadblock and routed the Union force. Nearly 900 Federals surrendered. Jackson’s victory at Front Royal forced the Union army under Banks at Strasburg into a rapid retreat towards Winchester early on May 24. Although Jackson attempted to pursue, his troops were exhausted and looted Union supply trains, which slowed them down immensely. One column was behind schedule when it reached Middletown, just after Banks's vulnerable column had passed.
First Battle of Winchester (May 25, 1862)
After skirmishing with Banks’s retreating army at Middletown and Newtown on May 24, Jackson’s division continued north on the Valley Pike toward Winchester. There, Banks was attempting to reorganize his army to defend the town. Ewell’s division converged on Winchester from the southeast using the Front Royal Pike. On May 25, Ewell attacked Camp Hill, while the Louisiana Brigade of Jackson’s division outflanked and overran the Union position on Bowers Hill. Panic spread through the Federal ranks, and many fled through Winchester. Banks’s army was soundly defeated and withdrew north across the Potomac River. Jackson attempted pursuit but was unsuccessful.

The Washington politicians, reacting to Banks's ejection from the Valley, made a fatal mistake. Lincoln and Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton decided that the defeat of Jackson was an immediate priority (even though Jackson's orders were solely to keep Union forces occupied away from Richmond). They ordered Irvin McDowell to send 20,000 men (under Shields and Maj. Gen. Edward Ord) to Front Royal and Frémont to move to Harrisonburg. If both forces could converge at Strasburg, Jackson's only escape route up the Valley would be cut. The immediate repercussion of this move was to abort McDowell's coordinated attack with McClellan on Richmond. Battle of Front Royal Conflict American Civil War Date May 23, 1862 Place Warren County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Front Royal, also known as the Battle of Guard Hill or Cedarville, took place on May 23, 1862 in Warren County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... The Louisiana Tigers was the common nickname for a brigade of infantry in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Middletown is a town located in Frederick County, Virginia. ... First Battle of Winchester Conflict American Civil War Date May 25, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Winchester was a battle of the American Civil War that took place on May 25, 1862 in and around Frederick County, Virginia and Winchester, Virginia. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... Edward Ord Edward Otho Cresap Ord (October 18, 1818 – July 22, 1883) was the designer of Fort Sam Houston, and a U.S. Army officer who saw action in the Seminole War, the Indian Wars, and the Civil War. ... Nickname: Location in Virginia Coordinates: , County Independent City Founded 1737 Government  - Mayor Rodney Eagle[1] Area  - City 45. ...


On May 30, Jackson left the Stonewall Brigade to keep Banks in check north of the Potomac, while he withdrew from Harpers Ferry. Although both Shields and Frémont were closer to Strasburg than Jackson, they proceeded slowly. Shields recaptured Front Royal from a small Confederate force and then dawdled without explicit orders; Frémont was delayed by Ashby's cavalry and did not press forward vigorously; both were delayed by poor roads, while Jackson's troops had the use of the Valley Pike. Jackson was able to escape Strasburg on June 1 before the Union forces could trap him. is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On June 2, Union forces pursued Jackson—McDowell up the Luray Valley and Frémont up the Valley Pike. Banks crossed the Potomac and followed. For the next five days, frequent clashes occurred between Turner Ashby's cavalry (screening the rear of Jackson's march) and lead Union cavalry. A single Union cavalry brigade reached the rear guard of Jackson's column and routed it, but Ashby rallied up some survivors and held the guard back. He also burned some bridges across the South Fork of the Shenandoah River, delaying the Union pursuit and keeping Shields's and Frémont's forces separated. When contact was reestablished on June 6, Ashby was killed on Chestnut Ridge near Harrisonburg in a skirmish with Frémont. This was a significant loss for the Confederacy since Ashby (the "Black Knight") was one of its most promising cavalry generals. is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The South Fork Shenandoah River is one of two forks that unite to form the Shenandoah River in northwestern Virginia in the United States. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jackson's army took up defensive positions in Cross Keys and Port Republic, where the final battles would be fought over two days. On June 8, a raid by Shields's cavalry on Port Republic almost captured the Confederate trains and Jackson himself. is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Battle of Cross Keys (June 8, 1862)
Frémont's army encountered Ewell’s division at Cross Keys on June 8. Brig. Gen. Julius Stahel’s brigade, attacking on the Union left, was stunned by a surprise volley from Isaac R. Trimble's command and driven back in confusion. After feeling out other parts of the Confederate line, Frémont withdrew under protection of his batteries. Jackson resisted a full assault on Frémont; his close call with the cavalry on June 8 convinced him that Shields was the more serious threat. The next day, Trimble’s and John M. Patton’s brigades held Frémont back, while the rest of Ewell’s force, using a temporary bridge, crossed the river to assist in the defeat of Brig. Gen. Erastus B. Tyler's command at Port Republic.
Battle of Port Republic (June 9, 1862)
Jackson concentrated his forces east of the South Fork of the Shenandoah against the isolated brigades of Erastus Tyler and Samuel Carroll of Shields’s division (Tyler was commanding in Shields's absence). Confederate assaults across the bottomland were repulsed with heavy casualties, but a flanking column turned the Union left flank. Union counterattacks failed to reestablish the line, and Tyler was forced to retreat. Confederate forces at Cross Keys marched to join Jackson at Port Republic, burning the North River Bridge behind them. Frémont's army arrived too late to assist Tyler and Carroll, and they watched helplessly from across the rain-swollen river.

Battle of Cross Keys Conflict American Civil War Date June 8, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Cross Keys took place on June 8, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Isaac R. Trimble Isaac Ridgeway Trimble (May 15, 1802 – January 2, 1888) was a U.S. Army officer, a civil engineer, a prominent railroad construction superintendent and executive, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Mercer Patton (August 10, 1797 – October 29, 1858) was a nineteenth century politician and lawyer from Virginia. ... Battle of Port Republic Conflict American Civil War Date June 9, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Port Republic took place on June 9, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...

Aftermath

After Jackson's victories at Cross Keys and Port Republic, the Union forces were withdrawn. Jackson joined Lee on the Virginia Peninsula for the Seven Days Battles (where he delivered an uncharacteristically lethargic performance, perhaps because of the strains of the Valley Campaign). He had accomplished his mission, withholding over 50,000 needed troops from McClellan (who felt that the Confederate Army outnumbered him, although the entire Army of Northern Virginia had about 60,000, including Jackson). With the success of his Valley Campaign, Stonewall Jackson became the most celebrated soldier in the Confederacy (until he was eventually eclipsed by Lee), and his victories lifted the morale of the public. In a classic military campaign of surprise and maneuver, he pressed his army to travel 646 miles (1,040 km) in 48 days of marching and won five significant victories with a force of about 17,000 against a combined force of 60,000. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...


On the Union side, a command shakeup resulted from the embarrassing defeat by a smaller force. McDowell's corps remained in the Valley, with only one division (under George A. McCall) able to join McClellan on the Peninsula. Lincoln was disillusioned by the command difficulties of controlling multiple forces in this campaign and created a single new army, the Army of Virginia, under Maj. Gen. John Pope, incorporating the units of Banks, Frémont, McDowell, and several smaller ones from around Washington and western Virginia. This army was soundly defeated by Lee and Jackson in the Northern Virginia Campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run. George Archibald McCall (March 16, 1802 – February 25, 1868) was a U.S. Army officer who became a brigadier general and prisoner of war during the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing For other uses, see Bull Run...


References

Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. ...

External links

  • Valley Campaign is at coordinates 39°08′22″N 78°12′06″W / 39.1394, -78.2016 (Valley Campaign)Coordinates: 39°08′22″N 78°12′06″W / 39.1394, -78.2016 (Valley Campaign)

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Further reading

  • Allen, William, Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign: From November 4, 1861 to June 17, 1862, Smithmark Publishers, 1995, ISBN 0831714328.
  • Hotchkiss, Jedediah, Make Me a Map of the Valley: The Civil War Journal of Stonewall Jackson's Topographer, Southern Methodist University Press, 1988, ISBN 0870742701.
  • Martin, David G., Jackson's Valley Campaign: November 1861 – June 1862, Combined Books, 1994, ISBN 0938289403.
  • Miller, William J., Mapping for Stonewall: The Civil War Service of Jed Hotchkiss, Elliott & Clark Publishing, 1993, ISBN 1880216116.
  • Tanner, Robert G., Stonewall in the Valley: Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign Spring 1862, Stackpole Books, 1996, ISBN 0811720640.
Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Kansas, which entered the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... The fugitive slave laws were statutes passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another or into a public territory. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... John Brown, ca. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ... Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American individualist anarchist political philosopher, abolitionist, and legal theorist of the 19th century. ... Harriet Tubman (c. ... This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Navy Department Seal The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861 responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. ... President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military operations in the Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War. ... 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... Union Forces Campaign Streamer Confederate Forces Campaign Streamer American Civil War Campaigns are categorized in various ways. ... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Stones River Conflict American Civil War Date December 31, 1862 – January 3, 1863 Place Murfreesboro, Tennessee Result Both sides claimed victory, but the Confederate Army withdrew The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro (in the South, simply the Battle of Murfreesboro), was fought from December... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... Battle of Hoovers Gap Conflict American Civil War Date June 24– 26, 1862 Place Bedford County, Tennessee and Rutherford County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Hoovers Gap was the principal battle fought in the Tullahoma Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan Morgans Raid was a highly publicized incursion by Confederate cavalry into the Northern states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. ... The Bristoe Campaign was a series of battles fought in Virginia during October and November, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet and Ambrose Burnside, principal commanders of the Knoxville Campaign The Knoxville Campaign[1] was a series of American Civil War battles and maneuvers in East Tennessee during the fall of 1863. ... The Red River Campaign or Red River Expedition consisted of a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864. ... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March... Western Theater campaigns of 1864–65 The Franklin-Nashville Campaign, also known as Hoods Tennessee Campaign, was a series of battles in the Western Theater, fought in the fall of 1864 in Alabama, Tennessee, and northwestern Georgia during the American Civil War. ... Maj. ... This article is about the historical event. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... The Battles of the American Civil War can be organized in a variety of, including chronologically, alphabetically by state, by winner, by casualty statistics, etc. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Robert Anderson P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 soldiers 500 soldiers Casualties 1 dead 5 injured 4 injured The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12 – April 13, 1861), was a relatively minor military engagement at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Combatants United States of America State of Missouri Confederate States of America Commanders Nathaniel Lyon Samuel D. Sturgis Franz Sigel Sterling Price Ben McCulloch Strength Army of the West Missouri State Guard and McCulloch’s Brigade Casualties 1,235 1,095 The Battle of Wilsons Creek, also known as... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner # Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Samuel R. Curtis Earl Van Dorn Strength Army of the Southwest,≈10,500 men Army of the West, ≈16,000 men Casualties 1,349 (mostly killed and wounded) 4,600 (mostly captured) The Battle of Pea Ridge (also known as... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, 2 tenders Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Officer David G. Farragut and Maj. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing For other uses, see Bull Run... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Don Carlos Buell Braxton Bragg Strength Army of the Ohio Army of Mississippi Casualties 4,211 3,196 The Battle of Perryville, also known as Battle at Perryville and Battle of Chaplin Hills, was an important but largely neglected encounter... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties and losses 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed, 14... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 For the French and Indian War battle, see Battle of the Wilderness 1755. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 100,000 52,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman James B. McPherson† John B. Hood Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 3,641 8,499 The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War... Combatants United States of America (U.S. Navy) Confederate States of America (Confederate States Navy) Commanders David Farragut (navy) Gordon Granger (army) Franklin Buchanan (navy) Dabney H. Maury (army) Strength 14 wooden ships (including 2 gunboats) 4 ironclad monitors 5,500 Land Force Troops Three gunboats, One ironclad, 2,000... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John McAllister Schofield John Bell Hood Strength IV and XXIII Corps (Army of the Ohio and Army of the Cumberland) Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,326 6,261 Franklin-Nashville Campaign Allatoona – Decatur – Johnsonville – Columbia – Spring Hill – 2nd Franklin – 3rd... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George H. Thomas John Bell Hood Strength IV Corps, XXIII Corps, detachment of Army of the Tennessee, provisional detachment, and Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,900 approximately 13,000 The Battle of Nashville was a two-day battle... Battle of Five Forks Conflict American Civil War Date April 1, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865, was the final Union offensive in the American Civil War. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (pronounced IPA: ) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), was a Louisiana-born general for the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Jubal Early (disambiguation). ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821–October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Josiah Gorgas Josiah Gorgas (July 1, 1818 – May 15, 1883) was one of the few Northern-born Confederate generals in the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 – April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29,[2] 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... John Singleton Mosby John Singleton Mosby (December 6, 1833 – May 30, 1916), also known as the Gray Ghost, was a Confederate partisan Ranger (guerrilla fighter) in the American Civil War. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... William Clark Quantrill of Quantrills Raiders William Clarke Quantrill (July 31, 1837 – June 6, 1865), was a Confederate guerrilla leader during the American Civil War. ... Raphael Semmes (September 27, 1809 – August 30, 1877) was an officer in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1860 and the Confederate States Navy from 1860 to 1865. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Joseph Wheeler Joseph Wheeler (September 10, 1836 – January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... James Seddon James Alexander SeddonBorn 9/1/1988 James seddon is a pupil at sutton high and isnt a very good one. ... This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... Anderson after the War Robert Anderson (June 14, 1805 – October 26, 1871) was a Union Army officer in the American Civil War, known for his command of Fort Sumter at the start of the war. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Samuel Francis du Pont by Daniel Huntington 1867-68, oil on canvas National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC Samuel Francis du Pont (September 27, 1803 – June 23, 1865) was an officer in the United States Navy who achieved the rank of rear admiral. ... David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the first senior officer of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... Image:Brandon Roseli. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Henry Jackson Hunt during the Civil War Henry Jackson Hunt (September 14, 1819 – February 11, 1889) was Chief of Artillery in the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and civil engineer involved in coastal construction, including several lighthouses. ... Montgomery C. Meigs Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (IPA: ) (May 3, 1816 – January 2, 1892) was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, construction engineer for a number of facilities in Washington, D.C., and Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of David Dixon Porter during the Civil War David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States admiral who became one of the most noted naval heroes of the Civil War. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Charles Francis Adams (August 18, 1807, Boston - November 21, 1886, Boston), the son of John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat and writer. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... This article is about John Ericsson, the Swedish-American inventor. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Allan Pinkerton from Harpers Weekly, 1884 Allan Pinkerton (August 25, 1819 – July 1, 1884) was a U.S. detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton Agency, the first detective agency of the United States. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868), was one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... Benjamin Franklin Bluff Wade (October 27, 1800 – March 2, 1878) was a U.S. lawyer and United States Senator. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... During the American Civil War, Confederate States of America raiders (the most famous being the CSS Alabama) were built in Britain and did significant damage to Union naval forces. ... In United States history, carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ... A Bureau agent stands between an armed group of Southern whites and a group of freed slaves in this 1868 picture from Harpers Weekly On March 3, 1865, Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmens Bureau, was a federal agency that... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... The state of Alabama was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War after seceding from the United States of America on January 11, 1861. ... The Arizona Territory was disputed during the American Civil War, with both the slave-holding Confederate States of America and the United States Federal government claiming ownership and territorial rights. ... The state of Arkansas was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, and provided a source of troops, supplies, and military and political leaders for the fledgling country. ... Californias involvement in the American Civil War included sending gold east, recruiting or funding a limited number of combat units, maintaining numerous fortifications, and sending east some soldiers who became famous. ... The Colorado Territory was formally created in 1861 shortly before the attack on Fort Sumter sparked the American Civil War. ... President Lincoln insisted that construction of the U.S. Capitol continue during the Civil War. ... The Battle of Olustee was the only major Civil War battle fought in Florida. ... On January 18, 1861, Georgia seceded from the Union, keeping the name State of Georgia and joined the newly-formed Confederacy in February. ... Illinois infantry regimental flag (77th IL is shown) The state of Illinois during the American Civil War was a major source of troops for the Union army (particularly for those armies serving in the Western Theater), as well as military supplies, food, and clothing. ... The state of Iowa played a role during the American Civil War in providing food, supplies, and troops for the Union army, although its contribution was overshadowed by larger and more populated eastern states. ... At the commencement of the Civil War, the Kansas government had no well-organized militia, no arms, accoutrements or supplies, nothing with which to meet the demands, except the united will of officials and citizens. ... Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. ... The state of Louisiana during the American Civil War was a part of the Confederate States of America. ... See also: American Civil War and Origins of the American Civil War Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the North and South. ... William Lloyd Garrison In the years leading up to the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center of abolitionist activity within the United States. ... Michigan made a substantial contribution to the Union during the American Civil War. ... Mississippi was the second state to secede from the Union on January 9, 1861. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Missouri in the Civil War was a border state that sent men, generals, and supplies to both opposing sides, had its star on both flags, had state... George B. McClellan The state of New Jersey in the United States provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union during the American Civil War. ... As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico... The Southern United States state of North Carolina provided an important source of soldiers, supplies, and war materiel to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... During the American Civil War, the State of Ohio played a key role in providing troops, military officers, and supplies to the Union army. ... State Flag of Pennsylvania During the American Civil War, the commonwealth of Pennsylvania played a critical role in the Union, providing a huge supply of military manpower, materiel, and leadership to the Federal government. ... South Carolina had long before the American Civil War been a region that heavily supported individual states rights and the institution of slavery. ... The American Civil War, to a large extent, was fought in cities and farms of Tennessee—only Virginia had more battles. ... Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, 1861, replacing its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. ... Virginia began a convention about secession on February 13, 1861 after six states seceded to form the Confederate States of America on February 4. ... Flag of Vermont During the American Civil War, the State of Vermont continued the military tradition started by the Green Mountain Boys of Revolutionary War fame, contributing a significant portion of their eligible men to the war effort. ... West Virginia was formed and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia). ... With the outbreak of the American Civil War, the northwestern state of Wisconsin raised 91,200 soldiers for the Union Army, organized into 53 infantry regiments, 4 cavalry regiments, a company of Berdan’s sharpshooters, 13 light artillery batteries and 1 unit of heavy artillery. ... Woodblock sketch of Lowes balloon with McClellans Army of the Potomac as depicted in Harpers Weekly. ... For other uses, see Bushwhackers (disambiguation). ... U.S. Army Cavalry Sergeant, 1866 Cavalry was a branch of army service in a process of transition during the American Civil War. ... M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery. ... Military leadership in the American Civil War was influenced by professional military education and the hard-earned pragmatism of command experience. ... Naval battles of the American Civil War were a common occurrence just as they are with many wars. ... The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ... U.S. Army Signal Corps station on Elk Mountain, Maryland, overlooking the Antietam battlefield. ... The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was a United States Congressional investigating committee created to handle issues surrounding the American Civil War. ... The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... A political general was a general without significant military experience who was given a high position in command due to political connections or to appease certain political blocks. ... Frémont (left), 1856 Republican parade banner The Radical Republicans were the remaining faction of American politicians within the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction following an 1864 exodus of pro-Lincoln Republicans into the creation of the National Union Party. ... James Murray Mason John Slidell The Trent Affair, also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair, was an international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... This is a timeline of significant events leading to the American Civil War. ... This is a list of topics relating to the American Civil War. ... There have been numerous alternative names for the American Civil War that reflect the historical, political, and cultural sensitivities of different groups and regions. ... Combatants Anti-Union rioters United States of America Commanders Unknown John E. Wool Casualties 100 civilians The New York Draft Riots (July 13 to July 16, 1863; known at the time as Draft Week[1]) were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of... Two photographers having lunch in the Bull Run area before the second battle, 1862. ... Confederate railroads During the American Civil War, the Confederacy depended heavily on railroads to get supplies to their lines. ... A number of cases were tried before the Supreme Court of the United States during the period of the American Civil War. ... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...

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Sheridan's 1864 Valley Campaign (635 words)
In what became the larges battle in the Valley up until this time, poured his forces west through the Berryville Canyon and attacked Early’s scatter forces just east of Winchester in what has gone down in history as the Battle of Opequon or Third Winchester on September 19, 1864.
In a campaign of destruction known locally as the The Burning more than 2,000 barns and mills were burnt.
Early on the morning of October 19th the Southerners surprised the Federals and carried the field before being overwhelmed late in the afternoon in a brilliant counterattack.
Valley Campaign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1928 words)
The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War.
With the success of his audacious Valley Campaign, Stonewall Jackson became the most celebrated soldier in the Confederacy (until he was eventually eclipsed by Lee) and lifted the morale of the public.
This was the army soundly defeated by Lee and Jackson in the Northern Virginia Campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run.
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