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Encyclopedia > Valley
Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley
Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley

In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. A very deep river valley may be called a canyon or gorge. ImageMetadata File history File links Fljótsdalur. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Fljótsdalur. ... Fljótsdalur Fljótsdalur is a valley in east Iceland. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Grand Canyon, Arizona Noravank Monastery complex and canyon in Armenia. ...


The terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect of the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A glaciated valley in the Mount Hood Wilderness showing the characteristic U-shape. ... A 3-D view of a beverage-can stove with a cross section in yellow. ...

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River valleys

Schematic cross section of a typical valley in the Eastern Alps. The shoulders of U or V valleys are often located roughly halfway up the slopes

A valley formed by flowing water, or river valley, is usually V-shaped. The exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it. Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce steep walls and a narrow bottom. Shallower slopes may produce broader and gentler valleys, but in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment and the valley bottom becomes a floodplain. Image File history File links ValleyProfile3. ... Image File history File links ValleyProfile3. ... Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of the Splügen Pass in eastern Switzerland. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... The base level of a river or stream is the lowest point to which it can flow, often referred to as the mouth of the river. ... This picture shows the flood plain following a 1 in 10 year flood on the Isle of Wight. ...


A V-shaped valley is formed by downcutting when the flowing stream erodes its channel at a higher rate than the sides are eroded. The resulting landform is a narrow canyon with fast water and little bank (floodplain) on the river sides. Erosional downcutting by the San Juan River in Utah. ... This picture shows the flood plain following a 1 in 10 year flood on the Isle of Wight. ...


Some broad V examples are:

Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park is a United States National Park located in western Colorado. ... Grand Canyon National Park is one of the United States oldest national parks and is located in Arizona. ... Enns Length 254 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 201 m³/s Area watershed 6000 km² Origin Radstädter Tauern (mountains) Mouth Danube at Mauthausen Basin countries Austria The Enns is a southern tributary of the Danube River and 254 km long. ... The Napfgebiet is the hilly region lying between Berne and Lucerne. ... Lej da Segl and Lej da Silvaplauna, Upper Engadin Piz Roseg and Vadret da Roseg as seen from Fuorcla Surlej The Engadine (German: Engadin, Romansch: Engiadina) is a long mountain valley located in the canton of Graubünden in southeast of Switzerland. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the river in France, Luxembourg & Germany. ...

Glacial valleys

A glaciated valley in the Mount Hood Wilderness showing a characteristic U-shape and the broad shoulders
A glaciated valley in the Mount Hood Wilderness showing a characteristic U-shape and the broad shoulders

A valley carved by glaciers, or glacial valley, is normally U-shaped. If we can see the valley, it means the glacier that formed it is no longer there. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains, often littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice. Floor gradient does not affect the valley's shape, it is the glacier's size that does. Continuously flowing glaciers - espec. in the ice age - and large sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1382x1509, 392 KB) Glacial valley, Mount hood wilderness source:me File links The following pages link to this file: Glacier Glaciated valley Mount Hood Wilderness ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1382x1509, 392 KB) Glacial valley, Mount hood wilderness source:me File links The following pages link to this file: Glacier Glaciated valley Mount Hood Wilderness ... The Mount Hood Wilderness is a protected wilderness area inside the Mount Hood National Forest. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 441 KB) Summary This is a photograph of Glacier National Park in Montana, U.S. This picture was taken by me, Boris D.(BorisFromStockdale). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 441 KB) Summary This is a photograph of Glacier National Park in Montana, U.S. This picture was taken by me, Boris D.(BorisFromStockdale). ... There is also a non-adjoining national park in Canada by the same name. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... This article is about the geological formation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Examples of U-shaped valleys are found in every mountainous region that has experienced glaciation, usually during the Pleistocene ice ages. Most present U-shaped valleys started as V-shaped before glaciation. The glaciers carved it out wider and deeper, simultaneously changing the shape. This proceeds through the glacial erosion processes of (glaciation) and abrasion, which results in large rocky material (glacial till) being carried in the glacier. A material called boulder clay is deposited on the floor of the valley. As the ice melts and retreats, the valley is left with very steep sides and a wide, flat floor. A river or stream may remain in the valley. This replaces the original stream or river and is known as a misfit stream because it is smaller than one would expect given the size of its valley. A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Plucking, in the sense relating to glaciers, is when a glacier erodes away chunks of bedrock to be later deposited as erratics. ... Abrasion on the palm of a right hand, shortly after falling Abrasions on elbow and lower arm, still healing. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... Misfit stream Gleann nan Eun meanders through the valley of the same name in the Scottish Highlands. ...


Other interesting glacially-carved valleys are the

The terms side valley and tributary valley refer to valleys whose brook or river is confluent to a greater one. ... The Salzach is a river in Austria. ... The Saint Mary River is a tributary of the Saskatchewan River. ... Glacier National Park is a national park in Montana. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked...

Transition forms and valley shoulders

Look from Paria View to a valley in Bryce Canyon/Utah with very striking shoulders

Depending on the topography, the rock types and the climate, a lot of transition forms between V-, U- and plain valleys exist. Their bottoms can be broad or narrow, but characteristic is also the type of valley shoulder. The broader a mountain valley, the lower its shoulders are located in most cases. An important exception are canyons where the shoulder almost is near the top of the valley's slope. In the Alps - e.g. the Tyrolean Inn valley - the shoulders are quite low (100-200 meters above the bottom). Many villages are located here (esp. at the sunny side) because the climate is very mild: even in winter when the valley's floor is completely filled with fog, these villages are in sunshine. Download high resolution version (2000x607, 187 KB)Image taken in April 2004 by Daniel Mayer. ... Download high resolution version (2000x607, 187 KB)Image taken in April 2004 by Daniel Mayer. ... Bryce Canyon National Park is a national park located in southwestern Utah in the United States. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic rock types of North America. ... Grand Canyon, Arizona Noravank Monastery complex and canyon in Armenia. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... The Inn is a river in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ...


In some stress-tectonic regions of the Rockies or the Alps (e.g. Salzburg) the side valleys are parallel to each other, and additionally they are hanging. The brooks flow into the river in form of deep gorges or waterfalls. Usually this fact is the result of a violent erosion of the former valley shoulders. A special genesis we find also at arêtes and glacial cirques, at every Scottish glen, or a northern fjord. For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... The terms side valley and tributary valley refer to valleys whose brook or river is confluent to a greater one. ... A Hanging valley is a tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Garden Wall, an arête in Glacier National Park (U.S.) An arête is a thin, almost knife-like, ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys. ... A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley of glacial origin, formed by glacial erosion at the head of the glacier. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ...


Hanging valleys

Bridal Veil Falls in Yosemite National Park flowing from a hanging valley.

A hanging valley is a tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows. They are most commonly associated with U-shaped valleys when a tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume. The main glacier erodes a deep U-shaped valley with nearly vertical sides while the tributary glacier, with a smaller volume of ice, makes a shallower U-shaped valley. Since the surfaces of the glaciers were originally at the same elevation, the shallower valley appears to be ‘hanging’ above the main valley. Often, waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. [1] Download high resolution version (508x659, 79 KB)Image taken in May 2002 by Daniel Mayer. ... Download high resolution version (508x659, 79 KB)Image taken in May 2002 by Daniel Mayer. ... Yosemite National Park (pronounced Yo-SEM-it-ee, IPA: ) is a national park located largely in Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties, California, United States. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Valley floors

Usually the bottom of a main valley is broad - independent of the U or V shape. It typically ranges from about one to ten kilometres in width and is commonly filled with mountain sediments. The shape of the floor can be rather horizontal, similar to a flat cylinder, or terraced. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... In astronomy, geography, geometry and related sciences and contexts, a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is locally perpendicular to the gradient of the gravity field, i. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... Remants of former floodplains of the San Juan River in Utah stand as stream terraces above the rivers modern level in this 1927 photo. ...


Side valleys are rather V than U-shaped; near the mouth clammies are possible if it is a hanging valley. The location of the villages depends on the across-valley profile, on climate and local traditions, and on the danger of avalanches or landslides. Predominant are places on terraces or alluvial fans if they exist. The terms side valley and tributary valley refer to valleys whose brook or river is confluent to a greater one. ... Bridal Veil Falls in Yosemite National Park flowing from a hanging valley. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... The toe of an avalanche in Alaskas Kenai Fjords. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... A vast alluvial fan blossoms across the desolate landscape between the Kunlun and Altun mountain ranges that form the southern border of the Taklimakan Desert in China’s XinJiang Province. ...


Historic siting of villages within the mainstem valleys, however, have chiefly considered the potential of flooding. A mainstem is defined as the principal river within a given drainage basin, in the case where a number of tributaries discharge into a larger watercourse. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ...


Hollows

A hollow is a small valley or dry stream bed. This term is commonly used in New England, Arkansas, Missouri and Pennsylvania to describe such geographic features. Also used in Southern Appalachia, but pronounced "holler." Hollows may be formed by river valleys such as Mansfield Hollow or they may be relatively dry clefts with a notch-like characteristic in that they have a height of land and consequent water divide in their bases. A hollow such as this is Boston Hollow. Tourists in Europe can further visit a lot of karst, stalactite and ice hollows (e.g. in Slovenia and Austria). The bed of this stream is made up of rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Boston Hollow is a deep ravine in Ashford, Connecticut. ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... Water droplet coming out of the central canal of a stalactite A stalactite (Greek stalaktites, (Σταλακτίτης), from the word for drip and meaning that which drips) is a type of speleothem(secondary mineral) that hangs from the ceiling or wall of limestone caves. ...


Famous valleys

A valley in the Blue Mountains
A valley in the Blue Mountains

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... A panoramic view of the Blue Mountains The Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, are situated approximately 100 kilometres west of Sydney. ... The California Central Valley Part of the Valley as seen from overhead A typical Central Valley scene at ground level The California Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U.S. state of California. ... The Copper Canyon The Copper Canyon (Spanish: Barranca del Cobre) is a canyon system in the Sierra Tarahumara in the southwestern part of the state of Chihuahua in Mexico. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest (after the Volga). ... Stift Melk, Wachau (Wachau is also the name of a municipality in the district of Kamenz in Saxony, Germany: see Wachau, Saxony). ... The Iron Gate (Romanian: PorÅ£ile de Fier, Serbian: Гвоздена врата / Gvozdena vrata, Hungarian: Vaskapu, Turkish: Demirkapi, German: Eisernes Tor, Bulgarian: Железни врата) is a gorge on the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Death Valley (disambiguation). ... Glen Coe is a glen in the Highlands of Scotland. ... This article is about the canyon in the southwestern United States. ... The Great Glen, also known as Glen Albyn or Glen Mor is a series of valleys in Scotland running 100 kilometres from Inverness on the Moray Firth to Fort William at the head of Loch Linnhe. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Loire Valley (French: Vallée de la Loire) is known as the Garden of France and the Cradle of the French Language. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Napa County is in north-central California Napa Valley is most famous for its wine. ... The regional districts that comprise the Okanagan are shown in red. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... USGS image A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. ... Length 800 km Elevation of the source 1753 m Average discharge 1800 m³/s Area watershed 100,200 km² Origin  Rhône glacier Mouth  Mediterranean Sea Basin countries Switzerland, France The River Rhône (French Rhône, Occitan Ròse, Franco-Provençal Roun, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten... The Matterhorn (German) or Cervino (Italian), (French: Mont Cervin or Le Cervin) is perhaps the most familiar mountain in the European Alps. ... This article is about the French city. ... The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of Texas. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Vineyards of Sonoma Valley Sonoma Valley is the birthplace of the California wine industry. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Phoenix metropolitan area, also known as the Valley of the Sun, is a metropolitan area that includes Phoenix, Arizona. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... The Santa Clara Valley is a valley just south of the San Francisco Bay in northern California in the United States. ... For the Nintendo 64 game, see Space Station Silicon Valley. ... The South Wales Valleys are a number of industrialised valleys in South Wales. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...

Rift valleys

Main article: Rift valley

Rift valleys, such as the Great Rift Valley, are formed by the expansion of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. African Rift Valley. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Extraterrestrial valleys

The other terrestrial planets and the moons of our Solar System can also have valley-like features. Lunar valleys can be formed from a linked chain of impact craters. Smaller valleys, known as rilles, may have originated from lava flows or from the contractions of cooling lava sheets. The inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, their sizes to scale. ... -1... The Moons surface is covered in many interesting features. ... Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... A rille is grasso is an idiot to describe any of the long, narrow depressions in the lunar surface that resemble channels. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Besides the lunar craters, the details of lunar mountain ranges have been well known for more than 300 years (e.g. J.H. Schröter's Selenotopographische Fragmente of 1791). A lot of linear phenomena like Rheita or Schröter valley and the famous Vallis Alpes (see also below) were observed with details less than 1 km (which corresponds to a coin seen from 5-10 km distance)—but the geological genesis was debated until the Apollo 11 mission in 1969. Astronomers have long been able to observe some highlands and mountains on Mars, and therefore guessed that there may be valleys, as well. In the 1970s this interpretation was proven correct by results from space probes. Valleys have also been found on Mercury and on the volcanic surfaces of Venus and Io. Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... Johann Hieronymus Schröter (August 30, 1745 – August 29, 1816) was a German astronomer. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Vallis Rheita is a linear valley on the near side of the Earths moon. ... Vallis Alpes (latin forAlpine Valley) is a spectacular lunar valley feature that bisects the Montes Alpes range. ... The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 1st  - Total 30,659 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Inverness ISO 3166-2 GB-HLD ONS code 00QT Demographics Population Ranked 7th  - Total (2005) 213,590  - Density 8 / km² Politics The Highland Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe. ... [[Link titleBold text // ]] This article is about the planet. ... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ...


The largest valley in our solar system is the Valles Marineris formation on Mars. The Valles (which were first detected in 1877 by Schiaparelli) are a huge canyon system spanning 4,500 x 600 km in area and having a depth up to 8 km. These enormous dimensions are 4-8 times greater than those of the American Grand Canyon. The Valles is currently understood to have been created by tectonic forces like the main grabens on Earth, rather than by running water. Later, though, it may have been expanded considerably by erosion, possibly including the action of surface water. This article is about the Solar System. ... Valles Marineris cuts a wide swath across the face of Mars Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valley, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971-72 which discovered it. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Mars by Giovanni Schiaparelli. ... Grand Canyon, Arizona Noravank Monastery complex and canyon in Armenia. ... This article is about the canyon in the southwestern United States. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... USGS image A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. ...


Icy moons of the gas planets Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune were also photographed by the two Voyagers as well as by other space probes. Some linear ruptures in the ice or apparent low areas between hills have been interpreted by astrogeologists as tectonic structures or valleys similar to grabens or active geologic rifts on Earth. This article is about water ice. ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... Voyager Project redirects here. ... Astrogeologist and NASA astronaut Harrison Jack Schmitt collecting lunar samples during the Apollo 17 mission Astrogeology is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites. ... USGS image A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rift valley. ...


See also

A view of Orosí, Costa Rica.
A view of Orosí, Costa Rica.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1136x852, 178 KB) Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1136x852, 178 KB) Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Orosí seen from the South Orosí is a village in Costa Rica, about 30 km South East of the capital San José. It has a population of about 9000 and is one of the few colonial towns to survive Costa Ricas frequent earthquakes, with one of the oldest churches... Grand Canyon, Arizona Noravank Monastery complex and canyon in Armenia. ... In geography a vale is a wide river valley, usually with a particularly wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ... Gully in El Paso County, Colorado, USA. A gully is a landform created by running water eroding sharply into a hillside. ... “Precipice” redirects here. ... Many now-familiar glacial landforms were created by the movement of huge sheets of ice called continental glaciers during the Pleistocene Epoch (more commonly called the Ice Age. ... The terms side valley and tributary valley refer to valleys whose brook or river is confluent to a greater one. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... An Australian based componey that produces Geothermal Power uning Hot Dry Rocks (HDR) It is supported by the Australian goverment Geodynamics Category: ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. ... This is a list of mountain ranges organized alphabetically by continent. ... This is a directory of lists of geological features on other planets, moons and asteroids. ... The Moons surface is covered in many interesting features. ... This is a list of all the named mountains on Mars. ... This is a list of lineae on Europa. ... This is a list of the informal names given to surface features of Saturns moon Titan. ... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ... Rupes is the Latin word for cliff. It is used in planetary geology to refer to escarpments on other planets and moons. ...

References

  1. ^ Glossary of Glacier Terminology. U.S. Geological Survey (May 28, 2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-24.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Extraterrestrial valleys


 
 

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