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Encyclopedia > Vallenato
Vallenato
Stylistic origins
Cultural origins
Early 1900s Colombia's caribbean region
Typical instruments
Mainstream popularity Northern South America Colombia,Ecuador,and Venezuela
Subgenres
Commercial vallenato - Traditional vallenato - The New Wave of Vallenato - romantic vallenato
Fusion genres
Charanga-vallenata - Vallerengue - vallenato-pop - vallenato-rock - vallenatón
Other topics
Vallenato Legend Festival
Cradle of Accordions Festival

Vallenato, along with cumbia, is the most popular folk music of Colombia. It primarily comes from the Colombia's Caribbean region. Vallenato literally means "born in the valley". The valley influencing this name is located between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía de Perijá in northeast Colombia. The name also applies to the people from the city this genre originated: Valledupar (from the place named Valle de Upar - "Valley of Upar"). In 2006 Vallenato and cumbia were added as a category in the Latin Grammy Awards. Africa is a large and diverse continent, consisting of dozens of countries, hundreds of languages and thousands of races, tribes and ethnic groups. ... The music of Europe includes the music of Western Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe. ... Tairona figure pendants Monument in Santa Marta depicting Taironas. ... This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Accordion (disambiguation). ... playing the Caja Caja, Drum similar to a tambora, its one of the three main or traditional instruments of the Vallenato music. ... Guacharaca is a scraping musical instrument made out of cane. ... Charanga-vallenata is a style of Latin music that combines conjunto, charanga and vallenato-style accordion. ... Spanish: Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata The Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata is one of the most important music festivals in Colombia. ... Monument to the dance and music of cumbia in El Banco. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Caribbean Region The Caribbean Region or Caribbean Coast Region, is a regional sub-division of Colombia, composed of eight Departments located inside or around the Caribbean sea area pertaining to the country. ... The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is a mountain range in northern Colombia. ... Map - Location of Serrania of Perija The Serrania del Perija, Cordilla de Perijá or Sierra de Perijá is a mountain range, an extension of the eastern Andean branch (Cordillera Oriental), in northern South America, between Colombia and Venezuela, ending further north in the Guajira Desert, a total distance of about... Nickname: Location in the Department of Cesar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grammy Award The Latin Grammy Awards were launched in 2000 with a telecast aired on CBS. It was the first primarily Spanish language prime-time program carried on an English-language television network. ...

Contents

Origins

This form of music originated from farmers that, keeping a tradition of Spanish minstrels (Juglares in Spanish), mixed also with the West African-inherited tradition of griots (African version of juglar), who used to travel through the region with their cattle in search of pastures or to sell them in cattle fairs. Because they traveled from town to town and the region lacked rapid communications, these farmers served as bearers of news for families living in other towns or villages. Their only form of entertainment during these trips was singing and playing guitars or gaita flute, and their form of transmitting their news was by singing their messages. A minstrel was a bard who played songs to tell stories about other places or about historical events of the Middle Ages. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Griots, pronounced greeohs, are wordsmiths of West Africa who use poetry, proverbs, and rhythm to teach villagers about their history. ... Gaita is the Spanish and Portuguese name for the bagpipe used in Galicia, Asturias and northern Portugal. ...


The first form of vallenato was played with gaita flutes, guacharaca, and caja, and later adopted other instruments like guitars. These troubadors were later influenced by Europe's instruments: piano and accordion. Shocked with the sound from the accordion, troubadors probably obtained later on accordions from Aruba and Curacao. Vallenato was considered music of the lower class and farmers, but gradually started penetrating through every social group during the mid-20th century. â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Guacharaca is a scraping musical instrument made out of cane. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... For the article about the night club in West Hollywood, California, see: Troubadour (nightclub). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... For other uses, see Accordion (disambiguation). ... For the article about the night club in West Hollywood, California, see: Troubadour (nightclub). ... Curaçao and Bonaire are two Caribbean islands Curaçao [pronounced koo-rah-sow] (population 150,000) is an island in the southern part of the Caribbean Sea, one of the Windward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles, a self-governing part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. ...


Don Clemente Quintero—a prominent member from the region's elite—was a lover of this music, usually accompanied by liquor, was a form of entertainment for this almost isolated region. He then decided to start a parranda (party) inside the very strict Valledupar Social Club with friends, this triggered an acceptance for the music and it became a regular feature at parties, carnivals and reunions, not for dancing, but for listening to these juglares stories. Spirits redirects here. ...


Alfonso Lopez Michelsen, a prominent Colombian politician, showed interest in the region as his ancestors and wife were born there. While a Senator, he pushed for the creation of the Cesar Department and became, in 1966, its first governor. Once in office and together with writer and reporter Consuelo Araujo Noguera and vallenato composer Rafael Escalona, they created the Vallenato Legend Festival. Alfonso López Michelsen (b. ... Motto: Capital Valledupar Governor Area 22,905 km² Population  - Total (2003)  - Density   1,050,303 46 people/km² Adjective Cesar is a department of Colombia. ... Spanish: Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata The Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata is one of the most important music festivals in Colombia. ...


During one of the early versions of this festival, Daniel Samper, an influent cachaco (denomination given in northern Colombia to people from Bogota) journalist, started dancing vallenato with his wife. Such practice was not common and generally not accepted by local vallenato followers, but later it became a tradition that spread to parties, concerts, and nightclubs. Today, Colombians commonly dance along vallenato, and newer compositions have become more rhythmical and hence more suitable for it.


Instruments

Vallenato traditional instruments.
Vallenato traditional instruments.

Its three traditional instruments are: Image File history File links Combovallenato. ... Image File history File links Combovallenato. ...

  • the caja vallenata: a small drum held between the knees and played with bare hands. It was used by the African slaves brought by the Europeans. Similar to a tambora drum.
  • the guacharaca: a wooden, ribbed stick similar to a sugar cane, accompanied by a fork that when rubbed together emits a scraping sound. It's about 18 inches (45 cm) long and one inch (3 cm) in diameter. It was used by the Indians to imitate the guacharaco's singing; a bird from this region to hunt and perform dancing rituals.
  • the accordion: three-line button, German-origin accordion. It has 3 reed per note and it comes in different tones, ADG, GCF, BbEbAb "5 Letras". Accordions in Colombia and Panama sometimes have custom made tones especially made for Vallenato and Cumbia

This article is about the South American drum. ... The Tambora (from the Spanish word tambor (drum)) is an Afro-Caribbean musical instrument. ... Guacharaca is a scraping musical instrument made out of cane. ... For other uses, see Accordion (disambiguation). ...

The four rhythms

Vallenato consists of four beats or "airs" that are differentiated through their rhythmic structure and the melody chord structure the accordionist gives it. These are son, paseo, merengue, and puya. The son and the paseo have a 2/4 time and the merengue and the puya a 6/8 time.

  • Son is played with heavy accentuation and cadence stressed on the low notes of the accordion on its left hand side. It's normally mournful and slow.
  • Paseo is thought to be an off-shoot of the son. Its speed can vary and today is the most widely recorded air.
  • Puya's main difference from the merengue is the length of its lyrics. In the last 40 years, accordion players have begun to play it faster, and each of the three instruments used in vallenato has a solo. It is considered the oldest of the four "airs," with roots in an ancient Indian dance of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
  • Merengue is often confused with a Dominican genre with the same name, probably brought by related African tribal groups. It has a more narrative style and was often used to play décimas, a 10-line format with internal rhymes brought by the Spanish in the 16th century.

A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Decima is a style of octosyllabic, 10-line poetry. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...

Piqueria

Piqueria is a battle among singers similar to the essence of Rap music, usually accompanied by the rhythm of instruments.
Rap redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ...


Vallenato Festivals

The Vallenato Legend Festival: Every year by the end of April, in the city of Valledupar, the Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata (Vallenato Legend Festival) is celebrated. During the festival a contest takes place in which the best vallenato interpreters fight for the title of Rey Vallenato (Vallenato accordion King), "verseadores", new song composers, "guacharaqueros" and "cajeros" are also awarded within three categories; professional, aficionado and infant. The festival also includes record industry's orchestras shows.
Spanish: Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata The Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata is one of the most important music festivals in Colombia. ...


Accordions' Craddle Festival: (Festival cuna de acordeones) This festival is celebrated every year since 1979, in Valledupar's neighboring town of Villanueva, in La Guajira. The Festival is similar to the Vallenato Legend Festival format, but also includes a category for the elderly accordion players over sixty years old.
Villanueva is the name of a number of communities and other locations: Villanueva, Misamis Oriental, the Philippines Villanueva, Zacatecas, Mexico Villanueva, New Mexico, USA Villanueva is the name of a New Mexico State Park Also: Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain Villanueva de la Fuente, Spain Villanueva is the name... Motto: Capital Riohacha Governor Area 20,848 km² Population  - Total (2003)  - Density   524,619 20 people/km² Adjective guajiro Image:El grone. ...


Other Vallenato festivals:

  • Nationally: Vallenato Festival in Bogotá;

Bogota redirects here. ...

Vallenato composers, singers and juglares

Thanks to the Vallenato Legend Festival this musical genre became known through the region including regions of Venezuela, and when a popular TV Soap Opera, "Escalona", based on the life of Vallenato composer, Rafael Escalona was aired on national television (Carlos Vives characterized Escalona in this soap opera), Vallenato became widely known in Colombia and internationally. Some renowned traditional vallenato composers are Alejo Duran, Enrique Díaz, Emiliano Zuleta and Rafael Escalona. Other well-known Colombian musicians who sing vallenatos are Diomedes Díaz, Jorge Oñate, Ivan Villazon, Nicolas "colacho" Mendoza (accordion player and composer), Juan Humberto "Juancho" Rois (accordion player and composer), Omar Geles (accordion player and composer), Israel Romero and Lisandro Meza among others. Carlos Vives (born 1961) is a Colombian singer and composer. ... Born Gilberto Alejandro Duran Diaz, in Colombia, he was a legendary composer of vallenatos. ... Emiliano Zuleta Baquero was a Colombian vallenato composer, acordeon player and singer, popularly known as El viejo Mile (The Old Mile). ... Rafael Escalona was born in Patillal, a village close to the city of Valledupar, Colombia. ... Diomedes Díaz (born May 26, 1957) is a Colombian Vallenato singer. ... Jorge Oñate born March 31, 1949 in the town of Los Robles La Paz, near the city of Valledupar in northern Colombia, is one of the most renown singers and composers of the vallenato musical genre. ... Iván Francisco Villazón Aponte was born October 25, 1959 in the city of Valledupar, Colombia. ... Nicolas Mendoza Daza, also known as Colacho Mendoza (Born April 15, 1936 - Died September 27, 2003), was born in a small village called Sabanas de Manuela in the municipality of Barrancas, La Guajira Department, in northern Colombia. ...


The current ambassador of the genre is multiple-time Grammy Award-winner Carlos Vives, who has progressively helped vallenato gain popularity worldwide by combining traditional vallenato music with pop/rock music, subgenre that has come to be known as "vallenato-pop". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carlos Vives (born 1961) is a Colombian singer and composer. ...


Vallenato musical orchestras and groups

The traditional vallenato developed into a more orchestra type of musical group. Through out the years, some groups started adding instruments and a group chorus to support the main singer, popularly and sarcasticly known as "ay omberos". With these changes. Some of the instruments added or used by some orchestras were: the bass guitar, the congas drums, a Timbal set, drum kit, maracas, guache, electric piano, spanish guitars, tambourine, cowbell, electric guitar, Saxophone, piano accordion, violins, among others. These groups also started fusioning local genres to the vallenato, usually with cumbia, porro sabanero, gaitas (group of gaita flute interpreters), merecumbe and joropo. Some groups seeking a wider audience started mixing vallenato with other international genres, like salsa, merengue, rock, classical music, reggae, reggaeton, ranchera, techno music, house music. Some of these mixes didn't become very popular because of its awkward sound. There are a range of musical instruments that can be collectively be regarded as bass instruments since they are in the bass range. ... Conga is a drum, a type of music, and a type of dance (Conga Line). ... This article is about the musical instrument. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... Maracas are simple percussion instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried gourd shell (cuia - kOO-ya) filled with seeds or dried beans. ... An electric piano (e-piano) is an electric musical instrument whose popularity started in the late 1960s, was at its greatest during the 1970s and still is big today. ... classical guitar A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the guitar family. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... The cowbell is a percussion instrument. ... An electric guitar An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Piano accordion A piano accordion is a type of accordion having a right-hand keyboard similar to a piano. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... Monument to the dance and music of cumbia in El Banco. ... The porro (or porro palitiao) is a cumbia rhythm that developed into its own sub-genre. ... Venezuelan Joropo. ... Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad. ... Merengue is a type of lively, joyful music and dance that comes from the Dominican Republic [1]. It is popular in the Dominican Republic. ... This article is about the genre. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ... The ranchera is a genre of the traditional music of Mexico. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ...


La Nueva Ola (The New Wave)

Is considered the new generation of Vallenato groups and orchestras that have created a distinctive sound for themselves while keeping some of the essence of their predecessors. Kaleth Morales is considered leading artist of this young wave of vallenato musical groups, even after his sudden death in a car accident in August 24, 2005. Kaleth Miguel Morales Troya (June 9, 1984 – August 24, 2005) was a Colombian vallenato singer and songwriter, best known as the leader of the Nueva Ola (New Wave) movement in Vallenato, with singles such as Vivo en el Limbo. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some renowned vallenato orchestras

US President Bill Clinton and daughter Chelsea during a visit to Cartagena, Colombia, where they were greeted by a Vallenato children group.
US President Bill Clinton and daughter Chelsea during a visit to Cartagena, Colombia, where they were greeted by a Vallenato children group.
  • Los Inquietos
  • Diomedes Diaz musical group
  • Los Hermanos Zuleta musical Group
  • Ivan Villazon musical group
  • Jorge Onate musical group
  • Alfredo Gutierrez musical group
  • Binomio de Oro de America musical group
  • Los Diablitos del Vallenato musical group
  • Carlos Vives y la provincia musical group
  • Silvestre Dangond & Juancho De la Espriella musical group
  • Peter Manjarres musical group
  • Jorge Celedon & Jimmy Zambrano musical group
  • Embajadores del Vallenato musical group
  • Los Chiches Musical group
  • Las Diosas del vallenato female musical group

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Diomedes Díaz (born May 26, 1957) is a Colombian Vallenato singer. ... Los Hermanos Zuleta (Spanish for The Zuleta Brothers) are a renowned vallenato musical group that won the Latin Grammy Awards of 2006. ... Iván Francisco Villazón Aponte was born October 25, 1959 in the city of Valledupar, Colombia. ... Jorge Oñate born March 31, 1949 in the town of Los Robles La Paz, near the city of Valledupar in northern Colombia, is one of the most renown singers and composers of the vallenato musical genre. ... Carlos Vives (born 1961) is a Colombian singer and composer. ... Silvestre Francisco Dangond Corrales aka Silvestrong (Born May 12, 1980 in Urumita, La Guajira) is a Colombian Vallenato singer, composer and Timbales player. ... Singer Silvestre Dangond and Juancho De la Espriella preforming live on stage. ...

See also

Modern Colombian music is a mixture of African, native Indigenous and European (especially Spanish) influences, as well as more modern American and Caribbean musical forms, such as Trinidadian, Cuban, and Jamaican. ... Spanish: Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata The Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata is one of the most important music festivals in Colombia. ...

References

  • (Spanish) musica vallenata
  • (Spanish) musica vallenata
  • (Spanish) Vallenato
  • (Spanish) Valledupar.com; el Vallenato

External links

  • (Spanish) Vallenato Legend Festival website

  Results from FactBites:
 
VALLENATO, description of this colombian music style (english & german) (638 words)
Originally, Vallenato was played using only accordion, guacharaca (something like the güiro but made of the boughs of the corozo palm, also called corojo), caja vallenata (a drum, a little bigger than a bongo using an x-ray sheet instead of the leather pad) and vocals.
Today Vallenato bands are as big as Salsa orchestras, and include additionally congas, timbales, electric guitar, electric bass, a metal güira instead of the guacharaca, and a bg.
Im traditionellem Vallenato wird der Gesang nur von Caja (Trommel, etwa doppel so groß wie ein Bongó, deren Fell aus einer Röntgen Aufnahmeplatte besteht), Guacharaca (Instrument aus einem Ast der Corozo-Palme (auch Corojo genannt) mit Schlitzen, vom prinzip her wie Güiro) und Knopf-Akkordeon begleitet.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Vallenato (732 words)
Vallenato means, literally, "born in the valley", this valley is located between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía de Perijá in northeast Colombia.
The traditional merengue vallenato, has a beat of 6/8, a derived rhythm, since the original beats were 4/4, 3/3 and 2/2from this point of view the merengue vallenato is the most complex air and at the same time the most original of the four traditions.
The new school of Vallenato began by recovering the classics from Valle of Upar, the region where Vallenato is spawned, and mixing it with the language of Rock.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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