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Encyclopedia > Valerian (emperor)
Valerian
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Valerian on a coin celebrating
goddess Fortuna
Reign 253-260 (with Gallienus)
Full name Caesar Publius Licinius Valerianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus
Born c. 200
Died After 260
Place of death Bishapur
Predecessor Aemilianus
Successor Gallienus (alone)
Wife Egnatia Mariniana
Issue Gallienus &
Valerianus Minor
Father Senatorial

Publius Licinius Valerianus[1] (c. 200 - after 260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Valerian. ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind, as modern depictions... For the book see 253 (book). ... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... Ruins of Bishapur Sassanian relief, Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... Aemilianus celebrating peace-maker Mars god of war. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... Egnatia Mariniana probably was the wife of Roman Emperor Valerian and mother of Emperor Gallienus. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... Valerianus Minor was likely killed in between the time his brother Gallienus and his father Valerian I were killed, between 260-268 AD, so that there was no chance to usurp the throne from the usurpers was given. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For the book see 253 (book). ...

Contents

Life

Origins and rise to power

Coin of Egnatia Marininiana, wife of Valerian and mother of Gallienus.
Coin of Egnatia Marininiana, wife of Valerian and mother of Gallienus.

Unlike the majority of the pretenders during the Crisis of the Third Century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but for his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana, who gave him two sons: later emperor Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Egnatia Mariniana probably was the wife of Roman Emperor Valerian and mother of Emperor Gallienus. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Egnatia Mariniana probably was the wife of Roman Emperor Valerian and mother of Emperor Gallienus. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... Valerianus Minor was likely killed in between the time his brother Gallienus and his father Valerian I were killed, between 260-268 AD, so that there was no chance to usurp the throne from the usurpers was given. ...


In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate, though he declined to accept the post. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops had killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own. Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Events July 1 – In the Battle of Abrittus, the Goths defeat the Romans; emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus are killed. ... Bust of Traianus Decius. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Trebonianus Gallus on a coin celebrating Aeternitas. ... Aemilianus celebrating peace-maker Mars god of war. ... For the book see 253 (book). ...


Rule and fall

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus his colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Sassanid vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ...

A bas relief of Emperor Valerian kneeling before Shapur I found at Naghsh-e Rostam, Shiraz, Iran.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the province of Syria to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated in the Battle of Edessa and taken prisoner by the Persians. Valerian's capture was a humiliating defeat for Romans. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 599 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 599 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bas-relief (pronounced bah-relief, French for low relief) is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal creating a sculpture portrayed as a picture. ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... Events Pope Sixtus II succeeds Pope Stephen I Births Saint Gregory the Illuminator, founder and patron saint of the Armenian Church (approximate date) Deaths Pope Stephen I Categories: 257 ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Valerian (david neiman was here) captured by the Alamanni (possibly 260) The Franks who invaded the Roman Empire near Cologne in 257, reach Tarraco in Hispania Pope Dionysius elected. ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Roman legionaries, 1st century. ... Valerian (david neiman was here) captured by the Alamanni (possibly 260) The Franks who invaded the Roman Empire near Cologne in 257, reach Tarraco in Hispania Pope Dionysius elected. ... Combatants Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Commanders Shapur I Valerian Strength 40,000 70,000 including Praetorian Guard Casualties Minimal Heavy The Battle of Edessa took place between the armies of the Roman Empire under the command of Emperor Valerian and Sassanid forces under King Shapur I in 259. ...


Valerian's massacre of 258

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia article on Valerian: Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

"In 258, by a new and absolutely merciless edict, bishops, priests, and deacons were executed immediately, men of senatorial and equestrian rank were punished with degradation and confiscation of goods to be followed by death if they refused to offer heathen sacrifice, women were threatened with confiscation of their property and exile, and Christians in the imperial household were sent in chains to perform forced labour on the imperial domains. In this persecution Christian Rome and Carthage lost their leaders: Pope Sixtus was seized on 6 August, 258, in one of the Catacombs and was put to death; Cyprian of Carthage suffered martyrdom on 14 September. Another celebrated martyr was the Roman deacon St. Lawrence. In Spain Bishop Fructuosus of Tarragona and his two deacons were put to death on 21 January, 259. There were also executions in the eastern provinces (Eusebius, VII, xii). Taken altogether, however, the repressions were limited to scattered spots and had no great success."

Sixtus was a Roman name, originally meaning sixth (child), but later being used for any child, regardless of order. ... This page does not concern Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow. ... This page concerns the Christian martyr. ... Saint Fructuosus of Tarragona ( Sant Fructuós) (died 259) was a bishop and Christian saint and martyr, the outstanding name in the early history of Christianity in Hispania. ...

Death in captivity

An early Christian source, Lactantius, maintained that for some time prior to his death Valerian was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human footstool by Shapur when mounting his horse. According to this version of events, after a long period of such treatment Valerian offered Shapur a huge ransom for his release. In reply, according to one version, Shapur was said to have forced Valerian to swallow molten gold (the other version of his death is almost the same but it says that Valerian was killed by being flayed alive) and then had the unfortunate Valerian skinned and his skin stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the main Persian temple. It was further alleged by Lactantius that it was only after a later Persian defeat against Rome that his skin was given a cremation and burial.[2] The role of a Chinese prince held hostage by Shapur I, in the events following the death of Valerian has been frequently debated by historians, without reaching any definitive conclusion. Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ...

The Humiliation of Emperor Valerian by Shapur I, pen and ink, Hans Holbein the Younger, ca. 1521

Some modern scholars believe that, contrary to Lactantius' account, Shapur I sent Valerian and some of his army to the city of Bishapur where they lived in relatively good condition. Shapur used the remaining soldiers in engineering and development plans. Band-e Kaisar (Caesar's dam) is one of the remnants of Roman engineering located near the ancient city of Susa.[3] In all the stone carvings on Naghshe-Rostam, in Iran, Valerian is respected by holding hands with Shapur I, in sign of submission. Download high resolution version (839x877, 160 KB)The Humiliation of the Emperor Valerian by the Persian King Sapor The Humiliation of Emperor Valerian by ShapurI, pan and ink, Hans Holbein the Younger, c. ... Download high resolution version (839x877, 160 KB)The Humiliation of the Emperor Valerian by the Persian King Sapor The Humiliation of Emperor Valerian by ShapurI, pan and ink, Hans Holbein the Younger, c. ... Valerian on a coin celebrating goddess Fortuna, associated with health and wealth. ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Ruins of Bishapur Sassanian relief, Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ...


It is generally supposed that some of Lactantius' account is motivated by his desire to establish that persecutors of the Christians died fitting deaths[4]; the story was repeated then and later by authors in the Roman Near East "fiercely hostile" to Persia[5]. Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ...


Other modern scholars tend to give at least some credence to Lactantius' account.[6]


Valerian and Gallienus' joint rule was threatened several times by usurpers. Despite several usurpation attempts, Gallienus secured the throne until his own assassination in 268. Usurpers were a common feature of the late Roman Empire, especially from the so-called crisis of the third century onwards, when political instability became the rule. ... This article is about the year 268. ...


Owing to imperfect and often contradictory sources, the chronology and details of this reign are very uncertain.


Family

  • Gallienus
  • Valerianus Minor was the son of the Roman Emperor Valerian I. He was probably killed by usurpers, some time between the capture of his father in AD 260 and the assassination of his brother Gallienus in 268.

Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ...

See also

ΧÉThe Gallienus usurpers were the usurpers who claimed imperial power during the reign of Gallienus (253–268). ...

References

  1. ^ Valerian full title was IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS VALERIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Unconquered Augustus".
  2. ^ Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum, v; Wickert, L., "Licinius (Egnatius) 84" in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie 13.1 (1926), 488-495; Parker, H., A History of the Roman World A.D. 138 to 337 (London, 1958), 170. From [1].
  3. ^ Abdolhossein Zarinkoob "Ruzgaran: tarikh-i Iran az aghz ta saqut saltnat Pahlvi" pp. 195
  4. ^ Meijer, Fik (2004). Emperors don't die in bed. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31202-7. 
  5. ^ Isaacs, Benjamin. The Near East under Roman Rule. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 440. ISBN 90-04-09989-1. 
  6. ^ Reiner, Erica. "The Reddling of Valerian." The Classical Quarterly 56:0101, 325-329, Cambridge University Press, 5/2006.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... Pauly-Wissowa is the name commonly used for the Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1894ff, a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Preceded by
Aemilianus
Roman Emperor
253–260
with Gallienus
Succeeded by
Gallienus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Valerian - Herbal Index - herbindex.net (1201 words)
Valerian, native to the Americas, Asia, and Europe has been used to ease insomnia, stressrelated anxiety, and nervous restlessness for thousands of years, with particular popularity in Europe starting in the 17th century.
Valerian is a popular treatment alternative to benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and alprazolam) and other commonly prescribed medications for sleep problems because it is considered to be both safe and gentle.
Valerian should not be combined with barbiturates (medications, such as pentobarbital, prescribed for sleep disorders or seizures), and should be used with caution, if at all, by people taking benzodiazepines (antianxiety and sleep inducing medications including alprazolam, diazepam, and lorazepam) or other sedative medications (such as antihistamines).
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