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Gnosticism

History of Gnosticism
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A image of a Gnostic cross. ... The History of Gnosticism is subject to a great deal of debate and interpretation. ...

Persian Gnosticism
Mandaeism
Manichaeism Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (Mandaic: mandaiuta) is a blanket term for the religion of the Mandaeans (Classical Mandaic mandaiia, Neo-Mandaic Mandeyānā) who are the followers of Mendā d-Heyyi (Mandaic manda Knowledge of Life). Mandaeism is a monotheistic religion practiced primarily in southern Iraq and the Iranian province of... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...

Syrian-Egyptic Gnosticism
Sethians
Thomasines
Valentinians
Basilideans Syrian-Egyptian Gnostic Schools were ancient Gnostic sects from around the middle east, with some Judaic influences. ... Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... Valentianism was a relgious doctrine named after Valentine, a Roman theologist who lived circa 2nd century A.D., and abandoned Christian Orthodoxy, in order to follow Gnosticism. ... The Basilideans were a Gnostic sect founded by Basilides of Alexandria in the 2nd century. ...

Fathers of Christian Gnosticism
Simon Magus
Cerinthus
Marcion
Valentinius Simon Magus, also known as Simon the Sorcerer and Simon of Gitta, is the name used by the ancient Christian Orthodoxy to refer to someone they identified as a Samaritan (Proto-)Gnostic, and, also according to ancient Christian Orthodoxy, founder of his own religious sect. ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ...

Early Gnosticism
Ophites
Cainites
Carpocratians
Borborites
Thomasines The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The common trait was that these sects would give great importance to the serpent of the biblical tale of Adam and Eve, connecting the Tree of Knowledge (of Good and Evil) to... The Cainites were a Gnostic and Antinomian sect who were known to worship Cain as the first victim of the Demiurge Jehovah, the Old Testament God, who was identified by many groups of gnostics as evil. ... Carpocrates was an early Gnostic from sometime in the second century A.D. who was mentioned by Clement of Alexandria in the Mar Saba letter discovered in 1958 by ancient historian Morton Smith. ... According to Epiphanius of Salamis book Panarion/Adversus Haereses chapter xxv, xxvi and Theodorets Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium the borborites (or barbelos, barbelites, phibionites, stratiotici, coddians etc) were a extraordinarily filthy and evil Gnostic ophite sect. ...

Mediaeval Gnosticism
Paulicianism
Bogomils
Cathars Paulicianism was a Gnostic and Manichaean Christian sect that florished between 650 and 872 in Anatolia, outgoing from Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire. ... Bogomilism is the Gnostic dualistic sect, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the local Slavonic Church reform movement in Bulgaria and Bosnia-Herzegovina between 950 and 1396. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ...

Gnosticism in modern times
Gnosticism in popular culture
Gnosticism includes a variety of ancient religions prevalent in the Mediterranean in the third century CE. Prior to the 20th century, little was known about the various Gnostic movements, due to paucity of original material available to scholars and the public. ... // Literature Harold Bloom explores Gnosticism in his novel The Flight to Lucifer: A Gnostic Fantasy, and, with William Golding, traces Gnosticism in American beliefs in The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation. ...

Gnostic texts
Nag Hammadi Library
Codex Tchacos
Gnosticism and the New Testament
The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered in the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ... The Codex Tchacos is an ancient Egyptian Coptic papyrus document containing early Christian Gnostic texts: The Gospel of Judas The First Apocalypse of James The Letter of Peter to Philip A fragment of Allogenes It is important because it contains the first known surviving text of the Gospel of Judas... This article discusses the relationship between Gnosticism and the New Testament. ...

Related Articles
Gnosis
Pythagoreanism
Neoplatonism and Gnosticism
Esoteric Christianity
Theosophy
Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: gnosis The word gnosis (from the Greek word for knowledge, γνώσις) has several uses. ... Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Winged Self: The purpose of The Winged Self Symbol is to focus thought in the inner Divine perfection of each individual. ... Seal of the Theosophical Society Theosophy is a body of ideas which holds that all religions are attempts by man to ascertain the Divine, and as such each religion has a portion of the truth. ...

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"Later came Valentinus, he who believed sea and silence to be the beginning of everything." -Quevedo

Valentinius, also called Valentinus (c. 100 - c. 153), was the best known and for a time most successful Christian Gnostic theologian. He founded his school in Rome. Tertullian in Adversus Valentinianos iv, said he was a candidate for Bishop of Rome (the date would be about 143) and that he lost the election by a narrow margin. Tertullian also said he was declared heretical after his death, in 175. "Valentinus has disappeared, yet these are Valentinians who derive from Valentinus. At Antioch alone to this day Axionicus consoles the memory of Valentinus by a full obedience of his rules." (Tertullian, AV). Through him, Gnosticism came nearest to being accepted into the mainstream tradition of Christianity. Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas (born September 17, 1580 - September 8, 1645) was a Spanish writer during the Siglo de Oro. ... -1... For other uses, see number 153. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicized as Tertullian, (ca. ... Christ Giving the Keys to Peter, fresco by Pietro Perugino, 1481–82, commissioned by Pope Sixtus IV, Sistine Chapel, Rome: the act upon which papal authority depends The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See and is more commonly referred to as the Pope. ... Events A revolt of the Brigantes tribe of Britannia was suppresed by Q. Lollius Urbicus Births Emperor Chong of Han China Category: ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ...

Contents


Biography

He was born in Phrebonis in the Nile delta and educated in Alexandria, an important and metropolitan early Christian center. There he may have heard the Christian philosopher Basilides and certainly became conversant with Hellenistic Middle Platonic philosophy and the culture of Hellenized Jews like the great Alexandrian Jewish allegorist and philosopher Philo Judaeus. His Alexandrian followers claimed that Valentinus was a follower of Theudas and that Theudas in turn was a follower of St. Paul of Tarsus. Valentinus claimed that Theudas imparted to him the secret wisdom that Paul had taught privately to his inner circle, which Paul publicly referred to in connection with his visionary encounter with the risen Christ (Romans 16:25; 1 Corinthians 2:7; 2 Corinthians 12:2-4; Acts 9:9-10), when he received the secret teaching from him. Such esoteric teachings were becoming downplayed in Rome after the mid-2nd century. NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article needs to be updated. ... Basilides redirects here. ... Middle Platonism refers to the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato during the first and second centuries A.D. One of the outstanding thinkers of Middle Platonism was Philo Judeaus (Philo the Jew) who synthesized Platos philosophy with Jewish scripture largely through allegorical interpretation of the latter. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE) was an Alexandrian Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Theudas was the name of a Christian Gnostic thinker, who was a follower of Paul of Tarsus. ... Saul, also known as Paul, Paulus, and Saint Paul the Apostle, (AD 3 – 67) is widely considered to be central to the early development and spread of Christianity, particularly westward from Judea. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the epistles, or letters, included in the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... (Redirected from 1 Corinthians) See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... (Redirected from 2 Corinthians) See also: First Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Esotericism is knowledge suitable only for an inner circle of the initiated, advanced or privileged. ...


Valentinus taught first in Alexandria and went to Rome about 136, during the pontificate of Pope Hyginus, and remained until the pontificate of Pope Anicetus. He became so prominent among the Christian community that, according to Tertullian Adversus Valentinianos iv, Valentinus was a candidate for bishop of Rome (the date would be about 143) and that he lost the election by a narrow margin: This article needs to be updated. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Hyginus (feast day: January 11) was Pope from about 138 to about 140. ... Anicetus was pope from about 154 to about 167 (the Vaticans list cites 150 or 157 to 153 or 168). ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicized as Tertullian, (ca. ...

"Valentinus expected to become bishop because he had great abilities of mind and tongue, but another was preferred for the position because he suffered as a martyr. Angry at this, Valentinus broke with the legitimate church."[1] (The attributed motivation is part of Tertullian's sarcastic rhetoric.)

The Catholic Encyclopedia says Marcion may have been a candidate also at the same time. Tertullian— who developed heretical Montanist tendencies himself— reported that Valentinus was declared a heretic around 175 A.D. after his death. Tertullian also stated that Valentinus was personally acquainted with Origen. There is no evidence that Valentinus was ever cast out of the developing orthodox Pauline church, but he was controversial. According to a later tradition, he withdrew to Cyprus, where he continued to teach and draw adherents. He died probably about 160 or 161. Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century AD, named after its founder Montanus. ... Origen (ca. ...


The Christian heresiologists also wrote details about the life of Valentinus which the scientific community today considers unreliable. As mentioned above, Tertullian claimed that Valentinus was a candidate for bishop of Rome and that he lost the election by a narrow margin, after which he turned to heresy in a fit of pique. Epiphanius wrote that Valentinus gave up the true faith after he had suffered a shipwreck in Cyprus and became insane. In addition to seeming improbable, these descriptions are also conflicting. Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ...


Valentinus was among the early Christians who attempted to align Christianity with Platonism, drawing dualist conceptions from the Platonic world of ideal forms (pleroma) and the lower world of phenomena (kenoma). Of the mid-2nd century thinkers and preachers who were declared heretical by Irenaeus and later mainstream Christians, only Marcion is as outstanding as a personality. The contemporary orthodox counter to Valentinus was Justin Martyr. Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... It has been suggested that Combative dualism be merged into this article or section. ... Pleroma (Greek πληρωμα) generally refers to the totality of Gods powers. ... Valentinius, a mid-2nd century Gnostic thinker and preacher, was among the early Christians who attempted to align Christianity with neo-Platonism. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Saint Justin Martyr (Justin the Martyr a. ...


While Valentinus was alive he made many disciples, and his system was the most widely diffused of all the forms of Gnosticism. Among the more prominent disciples of Valentinus, who, however, did not slavishly follow their master in all his views, were Bardasanes, invariably linked to Valentinus in later references, as well as Heracleon, Ptolemy and Marcus. Many of the writings of these Gnostics, and a large number of excerpts from the writings of Valentinus, existed only in quotes displayed by their orthodox detractors, until 1945, when the cache of writings at Nag Hammadi revealed a Coptic version of the Gospel of Truth, which, according to Irenaeus, was the same as the Gospel of Valentinus mentioned by Tertullian in his diatribe Adversus Valentinianos. Bar Daisan (154-222), also latinized as Bardesanes, was a Syrian gnostic and an outstanding scientist, scholar, and poet. ... Heracleon, a Gnostic who flourished about AD 125, probably in the south of Italy or in Sicily, and is generally classed by the early heresiologists with the Valentinian school of heresy. ... Ptolemy the Gnostic (not the same person as the astronomer and geographer, nor the Egyptian ruler) was a disciple of the Gnostic Valentinius, known to us for writing a letter to a wealthy non-Gnostic lady named Flora. ... The town of Nag Hammadi in Egypt Nag Hammâdi (Arabic نجع حمادي; transliterated: Naj Hammādi) (26°03′N 32°15′E), is a town in the middle of Egypt, called Chenoboskion in classical antiquity, about 80 kilometres north-west of Luxor with some 30,000 citizens. ... The Gospel of Truth is one of the texts from the New Testament apocrypha found in the Nag Hammadi codices. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicized as Tertullian, (ca. ...


In a text known as Pseudo-Anthimus, Valentinus is quoted as teaching that God is three hypostases (hidden spiritual realities) and three prosopa (persons) called the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit: See: Hypostasis (linguistics) Hypostasis (religion) Hypostasis (organization) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

"Now with the heresy of the Ariomaniacs, which has corrupted the Church of God...These then teach three hypostases, just as Valentinus the heresiarch first invented in the book entitled by him 'On the Three Natures'. For he was the first to invent three hypostases and three persons of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and he is discovered to have filched this from Hermes and Plato." (Source: AHB Logan. Marcellus of Ancyra (Pseudo-Anthimus), 'On the Holy Church': Text, Translation and Commentary. Verses 8-9. Journal of Theological Studies, NS, Volume 51, Pt. 1, April 2000, p.95 ).

Since Valentinus had used the term hypostases, his name came up in the Arian disputes in the fourth century. Marcellus of Ancyra, who was a staunch opponent of Arianism but also denounced the belief in God existing in three hypostases as heretical (and was later condemned for his views), attacked his opponents (On the Holy Church, 9) by linking them to Valentinus: Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles Hermes (Greek IPA ), in Greek mythology, is the god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators, literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures and invention and commerce in general, of liars, and of... Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Alistair Logan (AHB Logan) is a professor of Biblical Studies at the University of Exeter in England. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Marcellus of Ancyra (? - c. ...

"Valentinus, the leader of a sect, was the first to devise the notion of three subsistent entities (hypostases), in a work that he entitled On the Three Natures. For, he devised the notion of three subsistent entities and three persons — father, son, and holy spirit." [2]

This teaching was later adapted in the doctrine of the Trinity of Nicene Christianity. For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325 AD, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ...


Valentinus' detractors

Shortly after Valentinus' death, Irenaeus began his massive work Adversus Haeresis with a highly-colored and negative view of him and his teachings that occupies most of his first book. A modern student, M.T. Riley, observes that Tertullian's adversarial diatribe Adversus Valentinianos retranslated some passages from Irenaeus, without adding original material [3]. Later, Epiphanius of Salamis discussed and dismissed him (Haer., XXXI). As with all the non-traditional early Christian writers, Valentinus has been known largely through quotations in the works of his detractors, though an Alexandrian follower also preserved some fragmentary sections as extended quotes. A Valentinian teacher Ptolemy refers to "apostolic tradition which we too have received by succession" in his Letter to Flora. Ptolemy is known only for this letter to a wealthy Gnostic lady named Flora, a letter itself only known by its full inclusion in Epiphanius' Panarion; it relates the Gnostic view of the Law of Moses, and the situation of the Demiurge relative to this law. The possibility should not be ignored that the letter was composed by Epiphanius, in the manner of composed speeches that ancient historians put into the mouths of their protagonists, as a succinct way to sum up. An engraving of Saint Irenaeus (ca. ... Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ... Ptolemy the Gnostic (not the same person as the astronomer and geographer, nor the Egyptian ruler) was a disciple of the Gnostic Valentinius, known to us for writing a letter to a wealthy non-Gnostic lady named Flora. ... Until the discovery of Gnostic works among the hidden cache at Nag Hammadi, few authentic Gnostic works survived. ... Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written...


The Gospel of Truth

In this situation, it opened a new field in Valentinian studies when the Nag Hammadi library was discovered in Egypt in 1945. Among the very mixed bag of works branded as "gnostic" was a series of writings which could very well be associated with him, particularly the Coptic text called the Gospel of Truth which had been specifically named as his by Irenaeus (Adversus Haeresis 3.11.9). It is a declaration of the unknown name of the Father, possession of which enables the knower to penetrate the veil of ignorance that has separated all created beings from the Father. And Jesus Christ as Savior has revealed that name through a variety of modes laden with a language of abstract elements. Clyde Curry Smith states "The notions are finally too esoteric for popular consumption, and the followers of Valentinus can only have been the learned." The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered in the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ...


Theological system

Valentinus professed to have derived his ideas from Theodas or Theudas, a disciple of St. Paul, but his system is obviously an attempt to amalgamate Greek and Oriental speculations of the most fantastic kind with Christian ideas. He was especially indebted to Plato. From him was derived the parallel between the ideal world (the pleroma) and the lower world of phenomena (the kenoma). Valentinus drew freely on some books of the New Testament, but used a strange system of interpretation by which the sacred authors were made responsible for his own cosmological and pantheistic views. In working out his system he was thoroughly dominated by dualism. It has been suggested that Combative dualism be merged into this article or section. ...


He assumed, as the beginning of all things, the Primal Being or Bythos, who after ages of silence and contemplation, gave rise to other beings by a process of emanation. The first series of beings, the aeons, were thirty in number, representing fifteen syzygies or pairs sexually complementary. Through the weakness and sin of Sakla (or Sophia), one of the lowest aeons, the lower world with its subjection to matter is brought into existence. Man, the highest being in the lower world, participates in both the psychic and the hylic (material) nature, and the work of redemption consists in freeing the higher, the spiritual, from its servitude to the lower. This was the word and mission of Christ and the Holy Spirit. The Christology of Valentinus is confusing in the extreme. He seems to have maintained the existence of three redeeming beings, but Christ the Son of Mary did not have a real body and did not suffer. The system of Valentinus was extremely comprehensive, and was worked out to cover all phases of thought and action. Bythos was the name given by some Gnostics to the monadic first being and originator of the spiritual world of the Pleroma. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Syzygy may refer to any one of several different concepts or things, many of which ultimately derive their meaning from the Greek σύζῠγος (syzygos), yoked together. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Valentinians

Main article: Valentianism

"Valentinians" is the name for the school of Gnostic philosophy tracing back to Valentinius. It one of the major gnostic movements, having widespread following throughout the Roman world and provoking voluminous writings by Catholic heresiologists. They are often depicted as holding matter to be essentially evil, and the human body especially. Indeed they are often described as being little more than a Christian heresy with extreme, negative views on matter. Notable Valentinians included Heracleon, Ptolemy, Florinus, and Axionicus. Valentianism was a relgious doctrine named after Valentine, a Roman theologist who lived circa 2nd century A.D., and abandoned Christian Orthodoxy, in order to follow Gnosticism. ... Matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... Evil is a term describing that which is regarded as morally bad, intrinsically corrupt, wantonly destructive, inhumane, or wicked. ... Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Heracleon, a Gnostic who flourished about AD 125, probably in the south of Italy or in Sicily, and is generally classed by the early heresiologists with the Valentinian school of heresy. ... Ptolemy the Gnostic (not the same person as the astronomer and geographer, nor the Egyptian ruler) was a disciple of the Gnostic Valentinius, known to us for writing a letter to a wealthy non-Gnostic lady named Flora. ...


References

  • Francis Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity, From 330 B.C. to 330 A.D. (1914), reprinted in two volumes bound as one, University Books New York, 1964. LC Catalog 64-24125.
  • Valentinus and the Valentinian Tradition - an extremely comprehensive collection of material on Valentinian mythology, theology and tradition (from the Gnosis Archive website).
  • Valentinus - A Gnostic for All Seasons Excellent introductory essay by Stephan A. Hoeller (from the Gnosis Archive website).
  • Patristic Material on Valentinus Complete collection of patristic sources mentioning Valentinus, including the works of Tertullian. Use the index search function to search the texts for specific references (again at the Gnosis Archive website).
  • Catholic Encyclopedia Valentinus
  • Early Christian Writings: Valentinus, introductions and e-texts
  • Religious Texts Index: Valentinus
  • Valentinus and Valentinians in the 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica

This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia (also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia today) is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the The Encyclopedia Press, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. // History The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11...


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NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Valentinius (1301 words)
Epiphanius wrotes that Valentinius gave up the true faith after he had suffered a shipwreck in Cyprus and become insane.
Valentinius was among the early Christians who attempted to allign Christianity with neo-Platonism, drawing dualist conceptions from the Platonic world of ideal forms (pleroma) and the lower world of phenomena (kenoma).
The apocryphal "Saint Valentine", no longer in the Roman Catholic calendar, but for whom Saint Valentine's Day was dedicated, is more likely to have been a cover for the real Valentinus, whose position on conjugal love was markedly different from the horror of sexuality found in the mainstream Patristic literature.
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