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Encyclopedia > Valentinian I
Valentinian I
Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
Medallion of Valentinian I
Reign 26 February - 28 March 364 (alone);
26 March 364 - 17 November 375 (emperor of the west, with his brother emperor in the east)
Full name Flavius Valentinianus
Born 321
Cibalis
Died 17 November 375
Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom)
Predecessor Jovian
Successor Valens, Gratian and Valentinian II
Wife/wives 1) Marina Severa
2) Justina
Issue By 1) Gratian;
By 2) Valentinian II
Dynasty Valentinian
Father Gratian the Elder

Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). Valentinian is often referred to as the last great western emperor. He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. ... Valentinian I (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman emperor of the Western Roman Empire (364 - 375) Mechanical non-creative reproduction of pre-copyright image. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ... The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Events Publication of the first blue law by Constantine I of the Roman Empire: trade is forbidden on Sundays; agriculture is allowed The Roman Catholic church is allowed to hold property Births Deaths Categories: 321 ... [[Image: Vinkovci on the map of Croatia |250px|none|]] Coordinates: Country  Croatia County Vukovar-Srijem Mayor Mladen Karlić Area    - City (?) km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 90 m Population    - City (2006) 33,328 Time zone CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Website: vinkovci. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ... Komárom is a city in Hungary on the right bank of the Danube in Komárom-Esztergom county. ... This siliqua of Jovian, ca 363, celebrates his fifth year of reign, as a good omen. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... A coin of Gratian. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... For other uses of the name, see Justina (disambiguation) Justina (d. ... A coin of Gratian. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... The Valentinian Dynasty, consisting of four emperors, ruled the West Roman Empire from 364 to 392 and the East Roman Empire from 364 to 378. ... Gratian was the father of the Roman emperors, Valentinian and Valens and the grandfather of Gratian. ... Events Publication of the first blue law by Constantine I of the Roman Empire: trade is forbidden on Sundays; agriculture is allowed The Roman Catholic church is allowed to hold property Births Deaths Categories: 321 ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... [[Image: Vinkovci on the map of Croatia |250px|none|]] Coordinates: Country  Croatia County Vukovar-Srijem Mayor Mladen Karlić Area    - City (?) km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 90 m Population    - City (2006) 33,328 Time zone CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Website: vinkovci. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Gratian was the father of the Roman emperors, Valentinian and Valens and the grandfather of Gratian. ...

Contents

Life

He had been an officer who served under the emperors Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire. Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... This siliqua of Jovian, ca 363, celebrates his fifth year of reign, as a good omen. ... Iznik (formerly Nicaea) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ...


The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards. Niš (Ниш, the Roman Naissus; see below) is a city in Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), 43. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... Procopius (326 - May 27, 366), was a Roman usurper against Valentinian I, and member of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Events January 2, Alamanni cross frozen Rhine in large numbers, invading Roman Empire October 1 - Pope Damasus I becomes Bishop of Rome. ...


During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons. Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose old form in Old Norse still was Burgundarholmr (the Island of the Burgundians), and from here to mainland Europe. ... Map showing the Saxons homeland in traditional region bounded by the three rivers: Weser, Eider, and Elbe Src: Freemans Historical Geographys. The Saxons or Saxon people are (nowadays) part of the German people with its main areas of settlements in the German States of Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Saxony...


Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success. Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Events Emperor Fei succeeds Emperor Ai as emperor of China. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, land that is today part of Germany. ... Châlons-en-Champagne is a city and commune in France. ... The River Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... Events First Listing of the New Testament by St Athanasius of Alexandria. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Sulz am Neckar is a town in the district of Rottweil, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... The Neckar is a 367 km long river in Germany, a major right tributary of the River Rhine, which it joins at Mannheim. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley A valley (in Scotland, a glen) is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles in area. ... Schwetzingen is a German city lying in the northwest of Baden-Württemberg, around 10 km southwest of Heidelberg and 15 km southeast of Mannheim. ...


Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts. Events 4 May: Spearthrower Owl becomes emperor of Teotihuacan. ... Macrianus was a powerful chief of the Alamannic tribes in Germany. ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ...

Solidus minted by Valens in ca. 376. On reverse, it shows the two brother emperors (Valens and Valentinian) holding together the orb, a symbol of power.
Solidus minted by Valens in ca. 376. On reverse, it shows the two brother emperors (Valens and Valentinian) holding together the orb, a symbol of power.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor. Image File history File links Valens. ... Image File history File links Valens. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy The Antonine Wall, remains of Roman fortlet, Barr Hill, near Twechar Location of Hadrians Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... Events Earthquake in Nicaea Births Deaths Categories: 368 ... Count Theodosius, also known as Flavius Theodosius, a senior military officer serving in the western part of the Roman Empire. ... Valentia was the name of a consular northern province of Roman Britain. ...


In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide. Firmus (d. ... Comes (genitive: comitis) is the Latin word for companion, either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus (compare comitatenses), especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. ...


In 374, the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375. The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known. ... The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... Gabinius was a Roman nomen. ... Komárom is a city in Hungary on the right bank of the Danube in Komárom-Esztergom county. ... The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ...


Reputation

A.H.M. Jones writes that though he was "less of a boor" than his chief rival for election to the imperial throne, "he was of a violent and brutal temper, and not only uncultivated himself, but hostile to cultivated persons", as Ammianus tells us, 'he hated the well-dressed and educated and wealthy and well-born'. He was, however an able soldier and a conscientious administrator, and took an interest in the welfare of the humbler classes, from which his father had risen. Unfortunately his good intentions were often frustrated by a bad choice of ministers, and an obstinate belief in their merits despite all evidence to the contrary."[1] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica 1911, he was a founder of schools, and provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city. Arnold Hugh Martin (A.H.M.) Jones (1904-1970) was a prominent 20th century historian of classical antiquity, particularly of the later Roman Empire. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban...


Valentinian was a Christian but permitted liberal religious freedom to all his subjects, proscribing only some forms of rituals such as particular types of sacrifices, and banning the practice of magic. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical (excepting, of course, his own excesses), Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, some kinds of fortune-telling or magical practices. Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...


Notes

  1. ^ A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284-602: A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986), p. 139.

References

  • De Imperatoribus Romanis account
  • M. Grant, The Roman Emperors, 1985.

External links

Preceded by
Jovian
Roman Emperor
364375
with Valens
Succeeded by
Valens, Gratian and Valentinian II

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This siliqua of Jovian, ca 363, celebrates his fifth year of reign, as a good omen. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... A coin of Gratian. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Valentinian I - LoveToKnow 1911 (990 words)
VALENTINIAN I., Roman emperor of the West from A.D. 364 to 375, was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia.
Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz in the Neckar valley or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter, but his own losses were so considerable that he abandoned the idea of following up his success.
After his death, his son, Valentinian Ii., an infant of four years of age, with his half-brother Gratian a lad of about seventeen, became the emperors of the West.
Roman Emperors - DIR Valentinian I (5552 words)
Valentinian was determined to bring the Alamanni under Roman power once and for all, and spent the winter of 367/8 gathering a huge army for a spring offensive.
Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military.
According to Sozomen, Valentinian was dismissed from the military by Julian, instead of Constantius II, for refusing to perform a pagan ritual at a pagan shrine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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