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Encyclopedia > Vaisheshika
Indian philosophy
Hindu philosophy

Samkhya
Nyaya
Vaisheshika
Yoga
Purva Mimamsa
The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Carvaka philosophy See also Important publications in Indian philosophy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hindu philosophy (one of the main divisions of Indian philosophy) is traditionally seen through the prism of six different systems (called darshanas in Sanskrit) that are listed here and make up the main belief systems of Hinduism. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yÉ™) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ... // The Intention of Yoga The ultimate intention of Yoga is attainment of liberation (moksha) from worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara). ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ...

Uttara Mimamsa

Carvaka
Jain
Buddhist
Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA []) is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of philosophy of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita (total six). ... Vishisthadvaita is a qualified monism in which God alone exists but admits plurality. ... Dvaita, a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu theology), made popular by Shri Madhvacharya, stresses strict distinction between God (expressed as Vishnu) and souls. ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka, and also known as Lokayata, is a thoroughly materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (c. ...


Logic The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ...

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Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. Historically, it has been closely associated with the Hindu school of logic, Nyaya. A Hindu (also spelt Hindoo) is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hindu religion. ... Philosophy, (Greek: Φιλοσοφία, philo-sophia, love of wisdom) // Meaning and use of Philosophy The word once included all forms of knowledge, and all methods for attaining it. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yÉ™) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ...


Vaisesika espouses a form of atomism and postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms. Originally proposed by the sage Kanāda (or Kana-bhuk, literally, atom-eater) in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE (?). Atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small, indestructible elements. ... Properties An atom (Greek άτομον from ά: non and τομον: divisible) is a submicroscopic structure found in all ordinary matter. ... Kan can refer to: one of the Bacabs of Mayan mythology the Wade-Giles spelling of the Pinyin Gan. ...

Contents


Overview

Although the Vaishesika system developed independently from the Nyaya, the two eventually merged because of their closely related metaphysical theories. In its classical form, however, the Vaishesika school differed from the Nyaya in one crucial respect: where Nyaya accepted four sources of valid knowledge, the Vaishesika accepted only perception and inference. Vaishesika atomism also differs from the atomic theory of modern science: according to the Vaishesikas, the functioning of atoms was guided or directed by the will of the Supreme Being. This is therefore a theistic form of atomism.


An alternative view would qualify the above in that the holism evident in the ancient texts mandate the identification of six separate traditional environments of philosophy, consisting of three sets of two pairs.


The logic of Vaisheshika

Being associated with the school of logic, early Vaisesika texts use logical argument to prove that the world is made of indivisible atoms: Assume that the world is not made of indivisible atoms, and that matter is continuous. Take a stone. One can divide this up into infinitely many pieces (since matter is continuous). Now, the Himalayan mountain range also has infinitely many pieces, so one may build another Himalayan mountain range with the infinite number of pieces that one has. One begins with a stone and ends up with the Himalayas, which is obviously ridiculous - so the original assumption that matter is continuous must be wrong, and so all objects must be made up of a finite number of pieces, called atoms. Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


Later Vaisesika philosophers tried to develop a theory to explain the properties of materials as the interaction of different types of atoms that make up the material. However, Vaisesika philosophy states that these interactions are driven by divine will, making this school of philosophy a theistic one.


Epistemologically, the Vaisesika school accepts perception (pratyaksha) and inference (anumāna) as valid sources of knowledge. PSYCHOLOGY In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... ...


Later Vaisesika commentators include Prasastapada and Sridhara. Over the centuries, the school merged with the Nyaya system of Indian philosophy to form the combined school of Nyaya-Vaisesika. The school suffered a natural decline in India after the 15th century. Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yə) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ...


See also

Hindu philosophy (one of the main divisions of Indian philosophy) is traditionally seen through the prism of six different systems (called darshanas in Sanskrit) that are listed here and make up the main belief systems of Hinduism. ... Basic beliefs What can be said to be common to all Hindus is the belief in Dharma (duties and obligations), Samsara (Reincarnation/rebirth), Karma (actions, leading to a cause and effect relationship), and Moksha (salvation) of every soul through a variety of paths, such as Bhakti (devotion), Karma (action) and... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yə) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ... There are Six Systems of Vedic or Hindu Philosophy. ...

External links

  • Max Muller on the Vaisesika school

 
 

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