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Encyclopedia > Vaishali (ancient city)
Vaishali
v  d  e
Bihar • India
 Vaishali 
Coordinates: 25.986595° N 85.125589° E
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Coordinates: 25.986595° N 85.125589° E Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Vaishali or Vesali (Pali) was a city, the capital of the Licchavis and the Vajjian Confederacy. At the time of the Buddha, Vesali was a very large city, rich and prosperous, crowded with people and with abundant food. There were seven thousand seven hundred and seven pleasure grounds and an equal number of lotus ponds. Its courtesan, Ambapali, was famous for her beauty, and helped in large measure in making the city prosperous[1]. The city had three walls, each one gávuta away from the other, and at three places in the walls were gates with watch towers. Buddhaghosa says[2] that Vesali was so called because it was extensive[3]. Pali may refer to: Pāli, a Middle Indo-Aryan language Pali, Rajasthan, a town and district in Rajasthan, western India Pali, a Hawaiian word, meaning cliffs Nuuanu Pali, a region on the Hawaiian island of Oahu Ballaleshwar Pali, the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra This is... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ambapali ( about 500 BC), also called Amrapali, was a royal courtesan of the republic state of Vaishali, ancient India. ... Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar. ...


Outside the town, leading uninterruptedly up to the Himalaya, was the Mahavana[4], a large, natural forest. Near by were other forests, such as Gosingalasála[5]. Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...


The city was also called Visálá[6]. Vesali is identified with the present village of Basrah in Vaishali District[7]. The location of Vaishali is at the following coordinates: 25.986595° N 85.125589° ECoordinates: 25.986595° N 85.125589° E. Vaishali District is a district in Bihar state, India. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Capitol of the Asokan pillar at Vaishali

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1402 × 2037 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maurya Empire Pillars of Ashoka Vaishali... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1402 × 2037 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maurya Empire Pillars of Ashoka Vaishali... View of the Asokan Pillar at Vaishali. ...

Visits of the Buddha to Vaishali

The Buddha first visited Vaishali in the fifth year after his Enlightenment, and spent the rainy season there[8]. The Buddhist Theravadin Commentaries give detailed descriptions of the circumstances of this visit[9]. Look up Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The wet season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. ... Theravada (Pāli: थेरवाद theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest...

Pilgrimage to
Buddha's
Holy Sites
The Four Main Sites
Lumbini · Bodh Gaya
Sarnath · Kushinagar
Four Additional Sites
Sravasti · Rajgir
Sankissa · Vaishali
Other Sites
Patna · Gaya
 Kausambi · Mathura
Kapilavastu · Devadaha
Kesariya · Pava
Nalanda · Varanasi
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Vesáai was inhabited by seven thousand and seven rajas, each of whom had large retinues, many palaces and pleasure parks. There came a shortage in the food supply owing to drought, and people died in large numbers. The smell of decaying bodies attracted evil spirits, and many inhabitants were attacked by intestinal disease. The people complained to the ruling prince, and he convoked a general assembly, where it was decided, after much discussion, to invite the Buddha to their city. As the Buddha was then at Veluvana in Rajagaha, the Licchavi Maháli, friend of King Bimbisara and son of the chaplain of Vesali, was sent to Bimbisara with a request that he should persuade the Buddha to go to Vesáli. Bimbisára referred him to the Buddha himself, who, after listening to Maháli's story, agreed to go. The Buddha started on the journey with five hundred monks. Bimbisára decorated the route from Rájagaha to the Ganges, a distance of five leagues, and provided all comforts on the way. He accompanied the Buddha, and the Ganges was reached in five days. Boats, decked with great splendour, were ready for the Buddha and his monks, and we are told that Bimbisára followed the Buddha into the water up to his neck. The Buddha was received on the opposite bank by the Licchavis, with even greater honour than Bimbisára had shown him. As soon as the Buddha set foot in the Vajjian territory, there was a thunderstorm and rain fell in torrents. The distance from the Ganges to Vesáli was three leagues; as the Buddha approached Vesáli, Sakka came to greet him, and, at the sight of the devas, all the evil spirits fled in fear. In the evening the Buddha taught Ananda the Ratana Sutta, and ordered that it should be recited within the three walls of the city, the round of the city being made with the Licchavi princes. This Ananda did during the three watches of the night, and all the pestilences of the citizens disappeared. The Buddha himself recited the Ratana Sutta to the assembled people, and eighty four thousand beings were converted. After repeating this for seven consecutive days, the Buddha left Vesáli. (According to the DhA. account the Buddha stayed only seven days in Vesáli; KhA. says two weeks). The Licchavis accompanied him to the Ganges with redoubled honours, and, in the river itself, Devas and Nágas vied with each other in paying him honour. On the farther bank, Bimbisára awaited his arrival and conducted him back to Rájagaha. On his return there, the Buddha recited the Sankha Játaka. The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Calcutta. ... Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ... Lumbini (Sanskrit for the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal near the Indian border. ... Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Sarnath (formerly also Mrigadava, Rishipattana, Isipatana), located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha was founded. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located next to Kasia a rural town in the state of Uttar Pradesh, 52 km off Gorakhpur, in northern India. ... SrāvastÄ« or SāvatthÄ« (Chinese: 舍衛), a city of ancient India, was one of the largest cities during Gautama Buddha’s lifetime. ... Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Sankassa (also Sankasia, Sankissa and Sankassya) was a city in India at the time of Gautama Buddha, thirty leagues from Savatthi[1]. Currently it has ruins of old monasteries and Buddhist monuments. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms that existed in the Nakdong River valley of Korea during the Three Kingdoms era. ... Kosambi (Pali) or Kausambi (Sanskrit) was one of the greatest cities in India in the Buddhas time (500 BC). ... Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and 150 km south of Delhi. ... Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ... Devadaha was a township of the Sākiyans. ... Kesariya is a small city in Bihar, India. ... Pawapuri in Bihar is a holy site for Jains, located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ... A view of the ruins of Nalanda University In the extreme rear is visible stucco (lime plaster fresco) wall art from the Gupta period. ... VārāṇasÄ«   (Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... A Raja (Sanskrit ) is a king, or princely ruler from the Kshatriya / Rajput lineages. ... Rajgir is an ancient town, and has reference in Mahabharata,Buddhist and Jain texts. ... Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ...


It is not possible to know how many visits were paid by the Buddha to Vesáli, but the books would lead us to infer that they were several. Various Vinaya rules are mentioned as having been laid down at Vesáli[10]. The visit mentioned in the last context seems to have been a long one; it was on this occasion that the Buddha ordered the monks to turn their bowls upon the Licchavi Vaddha. Also other Vinaya rules were laid down at Vesáli[11].


It was during a stay in Vesáli, whither he had gone from Kapilavatthu, that Mahapajapati Gotami followed the Buddha with five hundred other Sakyan women, and, with the help of Ananda's intervention, obtained permission for women to enter the Order under certain conditions[12]. Kapilavastu is the name of an ancient city in Terai of Nepal, and is considered a holy pilgrimage place for Buddhists, located close to Lumbini. ... Mahapajapati Gotami (in Pali; Mahaprajapati Gautami in Sanskrit) was the first woman to request ordination from the Buddha and to join the Sangha. ... Sakya is one of four major schools (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug) in Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). ... Ananda(Ch:阿難) was one of many principal disciples of the Buddha, a devout attendant and was renowned as the Ananda was the first cousin of the Buddha, and was devotedly attached to him. ...


The books describe[13] at some length the Buddha's last visit to Vesali on his way to Kusinara. On the last day of this visit, after his meal, he went with Ananda to Cápála cetiya for his siesta, and, in the course of their conversation, he spoke to Ananda of the beauties of Vesáli: of the Udena cetiya, the Gotamaka cetiya, the Sattambaka cetiya, the Bahuputta cetiya, and the Sárandada cetiya[14], where a Kapinayha-cetiya is also mentioned. All these were once shrines dedicated to various local deities, but after the Buddha's visit to Vesáli, they were converted into places of Buddhist worship. Other monasteries are also mentioned, in or near Vesáli (for example Pátikáráma, Válikáráma). Vaishali can refer to: Vaishali District, in Bihar state, India. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar is a rural town in the state of Uttar Pradesh, 52 km off Gorakhpur, in northern India. ...

The Relic Stupa of the Licchavis at Vaishali

The Buddha generally stayed at the Kutagarasala during his visits to Vesáli, but it appears that he sometimes lived at these different shrines [15]. During his last visit to the Cápála cetiya he decided to die within three months, and informed Mára and, later, Ananda, of his decision. The next day he left Vesáli for Bhandagama, after taking one last look at the city, "turning his whole body round, like an elephant"[16]. The rainy season which preceded this, the Buddha spent at Beluvagama, a suburb of Vesáli, while the monks stayed in and around Vesáli. On the day before he entered into the vassa, Ambapáli invited the Buddha and the monks to a meal, at the conclusion of which she gave her Ambavana for the use of the Order [17]. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 349 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1046 pixel, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vaishali (ancient city) Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 349 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1046 pixel, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vaishali (ancient city) Metadata This file... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ... Vassa (Thai พรรษา, pansa or phansaa), also called Rains Retreat, is the traditional retreat during the rainy season lasting for three lunar months from July to October. ...


Among important suttas preached at Vesáli are the Maháli, Mahásíhanáda, Cúla Saccaka, Mahá Saccaka, Tevijja, Vacchagotta, Sunakkhatta and Ratana.


After the Buddha's death a portion of his relics was enshrined in the City[18].


One hundred years later Vesáli was again the scene of interest for Buddhists, on account of the "Ten Points" raised by the Vajjiputtaká, (q.v.), and the Second Buddhist Council held in connection with this dispute at the Valikarama. The Second Buddhist Council took place in Vesali, about one hundred years after the Buddhas Parinibbāna, in order to settle a serious dispute on Vinaya. ...


Jain religion at Vaishali

Vesáli was a stronghold of the Niganthas, and it is said that of the forty two rainy seasons of the latter part of Mahávíra's ascetic life, he passed twelve at Vesáli[19]. Vesáli was also the residence of Kandaramasuka and Pátikaputta. Among eminent followers of the Buddha who lived in Vesáli, special mention is made of Ugga (chief of those who gave pleasant gifts), Pingiyani, Karanapali, Siha, Vasettha[20], and various Licchavis. Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ...


The Buddha's presence in Vesáli was a source of discomfort to the Niganthas, and we find mention of various devices resorted to by them to prevent their followers from coming under the influence of the Buddha.


Notable tourist destinations in Vaishali

Relic stupa

Near the coronation tank is Stupa 1 or the Relic Stupa. Here the Licchavis reverentially encased on of the eight portions of the Master's relics, which they received after the Mahaparinirvana. After his last discourse the Awakened One set out for Kushinagar, but the Lichchavis kept following him. Buddha gave them his alms bowl but they still refused to return. The Master created an illusion of a river in spate which compelled them to go back. This site can be identified with Deora in modern Kesariya village, where Ashoka later built a stupa. Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located next to Kasia a rural town in the state of Uttar Pradesh, 52 km off Gorakhpur, in northern India. ... Kesariya is a small city in Bihar, India. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...


Kutagarasala Vihara

Kutagarasala Vihara

Kutagarasala Vihara is the monastery where Buddha most frequently stayed while visiting Vaishali. It is located 3 kilometres from the relic Stupa, and on its ground can be found the Ananda Stupa, an Asokan pillar in very good condition (perhaps the only complete Asokan pillar left standing), and an ancient pond. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 938 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pillars of Ashoka Vaishali (ancient city... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 938 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pillars of Ashoka Vaishali (ancient city... View of the Asokan Pillar at Vaishali. ...


Coronation Tank

A few hundred metres from the Relic Stupa is Abhishek Pushkarini, the coronation tank. The sacred waters of the tank anointed the elected representatives of Vaishali.


World Peace Pagoda

Next to the coronation tank stands the Japanese temple and the Vshwa Shanti Stupa (World Peace Pagoda) built by the Nipponzan Myohoji sect of Japan. A small part of the Buddha's relics found in Vaishali have been enshrined in the foundation and in the chhatra of the Stupa. . Nipponzan Myōhōji is a neo-religious movement to emerge fron the Nichiren sect of Japanese Buddism (founded 1947) The community reveres the Lotus-Sūtra (jap. ...


References

  1. ^ Vin.i.268
  2. ^ e.g., Sp.ii.393
  3. ^ visálíbhútatá Vesáli ti uccati); cf. UdA.184 (tikkhattum visálabhútattá; and MA.i.259
  4. ^ DA.i.309
  5. ^ A.v.134
  6. ^ E.g., AA.i.47; Cv.xcix.98
  7. ^ See Vincent Smith, J.R.A.S. 1907, p. 267f., and Marshall, Arch. Survey of India, 1903 4, p. 74
  8. ^ BuA., p. 3
  9. ^ KhpA.160ff.= SNA.i.278; DhA.iii.436ff.; cp. Mtu.i.253ff
  10. ^ See, e.g., Vin.i.238, 287f; ii.118, 119 27
  11. ^ see Vin.ii.159f.; iii. and iv. passim
  12. ^ Vin.ii.253ff
  13. ^ E.g., D.ii.95ff
  14. ^ Cf. Mtu.i.300
  15. ^ See D.ii.118
  16. ^ nágápalokitam apaloketvá - D.ii.122
  17. ^ D.ii.98; but see Dial.ii.102, n.1)
  18. ^ D.ii.167; Bu.xxviii.2
  19. ^ Jacobi: Jaina Sutras (S.B.E.) Kalpa Sútra, sect. 122
  20. ^ A.iv.258

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Vaishali
  • Entry on Vesali in the Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names
  • Description of Vaisali by the Chinese pilgrim monk Faxian (399-414 AC)
  • Suttas spoken by Gautama Buddha concerning Vesali: (more)
  1. Sunakkhatta Sutta - To Sunakkhatta
  2. Maha-sihanada Sutta - The Great Discourse on the Lion's Roar''

 
 

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