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Encyclopedia > Vagus nerve
Nerve: Vagus nerve
Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
Latin nervus vagus
Gray's subject #205 910
Innervates Levator veli palatini, Salpingopharyngeus, Palatoglossus, Palatopharyngeus, Superior pharyngeal constrictor, Middle pharyngeal constrictor, Inferior pharyngeal constrictor
From
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MeSH A08.800.800.120.900
Dorlands/Elsevier {{{DorlandsPre}}}/{{{DorlandsSuf}}}

The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. The vagus nerve is arguably the single most important nerve in the body. Image File history File links Gray791. ... Grays FIG. 791 - Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (432x1000, 114 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vagus nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve Accessory nerve Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 16 Recurrent laryngeal nerve List of images in Grays Anatomy: IX. Neurology... Grays FIG. 791 - Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language. ... The Levator veli palatini is a muscle of the human body. ... The Salpingopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Palatoglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The Palatopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... Grays Fig. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... Behind the carotid canal is the jugular foramen, a large aperture, formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal, and behind by the occipital; it is generally larger on the right than on the left side, and may be subdivided into three compartments. ... For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ...


The medieval Latin word vagus means literally "wandering" (the words vagrant, vagabond, and vague come from the same root). It is also called the pneumogastric nerve since it innervates both the lungs and the stomach. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language. ... Vagrancy is a crime in some European countries, but most of these laws have been abandoned. ... Vagabond refer to: Vagabond, an itinerant person, Vagabond, a manga by Takehiko Inoue, Vagabond, a movie by Agnès Varda, Vagabond, a Marvel Comics universe character. ... Ambiguity is one way in which the meanings of words and phrases can be unclear, but there is another way, which is different from ambiguity: vagueness. ...

Contents


Innervation

The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibers to all the organs except the suprarenal glands, from the neck down to the second segment of the transverse colon. The vagus also controls a few skeletal muscles, namely: Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The neck is the part of the body on many limbed vertebrates that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon, also called the large intestine or large bowel, is the part of the intestine from the cecum (caecum in British English) to the rectum. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscleis a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ...

This means that the vagus nerve is responsible for such varied tasks as heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating, and quite a few muscle movements in the mouth, including speech (via the recurrent laryngeal nerve) and keeping the larynx open for breathing. It also receives some sensation from the outer ear, via the Auricular branch (also known as Alderman's nerve) and part of the meninges. The Levator veli palatini is a muscle of the human body. ... The Salpingopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Palatoglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The Palatopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... Pharyngeal constrictor can refer to: Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Category: ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Look up Speech in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Peristalsis is the process of involuntary wave-like successive muscular contractions by which food is moved through the digestive tract. ... Sweating (also called perspiration or sometimes transpiration) is the loss of a watery fluid, consisting mainly of sodium chloride (commonly known as salt) and urea in solution, that is secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... Look up Speech in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ... The outer ear is the external portion of the ear and includes the eardrum. ... The Auricular branch of the tenth cranial or vagus nerve is often termed the Aldermans nerve. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ...


The vagus nerve and the heart

Parasympathetic innervation of the heart is mediated by the vagus nerve. The right vagus innervates the Sinoatrial node. Parasympathetic hyperstimulation predisposes those affected to bradyarrhythmias. The left vagus when hyperstimulated predisposes the heart to Atrioventricular (AV) blocks. Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The sinoatrial node (abbreviated SA node, also called the sinus node) is the impulse generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart. ... Bradycardia, as applied in adult medicine, is defined as a heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min [1]. It is also less commonly known as brachycardia. ... A heart block denotes a disease in the electrical system of the heart. ...


At this location Otto Loewi first proved that nerves secrete substances called neurotransmitters which have effects on receptors in target tissues. Loewi described the substance released by the vagus nerve as vagusstoff, which was later found to be acetylcholine. Otto Loewi (June 3, 1873 - December 25, 1961) was a German-American pharmacologist. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... Vagusstoff refers to the substance released by stimulation of the vagus nerve which causes a reduction in the heart rate. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ...


The vagus nerve has three associated nuclei, the dorsal motor nucleus, the nucleus ambiguus and the solitary nucleus. In neuroanatomy, a nucleus is a central nervous system structure that is composed mainly of gray matter, and which acts as a hub or transit point for electrical signals in a single neural subsystem. ... The posterior nucleus of vagus nerve (or dorsal motor nucleus of vagus) is a cranial nerve nucleus for the vagus nerve that arises from the floor of the fourth ventricle. ... The nucleus ambiguus (literally ambiguous nucleus) is a region of histologically disperse cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper (rostral) medulla. ... The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). ...


Drugs that inhibit the muscarinic cholinergic receptor (anticholinergics) such as atropine and scopolamine are called vagolytic because they inhibit the action of the vagus nerve on the heart, gastrointestinal tract and other organs. Anticholinergic drugs increase heart rate and are used to treat bradycardia(slow heart rate) and asystole, which is when the heart has no electrical activity. Anticholinergic drugs relax the detrussor muscle and cause constipation which again involves the vagus nerve. In medicine, asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, hence no contractions of the myocardium and no cardiac output or blood flow. ...


Bulemics and anorexics have high vagal activity which is associated with the arrythmias seen in these patients.


Medical treatment involving the vagus nerve

Vagus nerve stimulation therapy using a pacemaker-like device implanted in the chest is a treatment used since 1997 to control seizures in epilepsy patients and has recently been approved for treating drug-resistant cases of clinical depression. Mild degree of intermittent VNS by daily performance of certain breathing exercises (Pranayama) over a period of several weeks lowers blood pressure and the heart rate in persons with elevated blood pressure and/or elevated heart rate, and may also stabilize mood and affect. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an invasive medical procedure used as an adjunctive treatment for intractable epilepsy and clinical depression. ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Pranayama (Devanagari: प्राणायाम, prāNāyāma) is the fourth limb of Raja Yoga or Astanga Yoga expounded in the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. ...


The valsalva maneuver may activate the vagus nerve and is a 'natural' way to achieve the same effect. Patients with atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia and other illnesses may be trained to perform the valsalva maneuver (or find it for themselves). A Valsalva maneuver is any attempted exhalation against a closed glottis or against a closed mouth and nose. ... Atrial fibrillation (AF or afib) is an abnormal heart rhythm (cardiac arrhythmia) which involves the two small, upper heart chambers (the atria). ... A supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid rhythm of the heart in which the origin of the electrical signal is either the atria or the AV node. ...


Vagotomy (cutting of the vagus nerve) is a now-obsolete therapy that was performed for peptic ulcer disease. A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that is performed only in humans. ...


Physical/emotional effects

Symptoms of nervousness, especially in a social context, such as increased heart rate/palpitation, impediment or inability to speak, stomach irritation, and excessive perspiration are caused in part by the vagus nerve. Anxiety is a complex combination of emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... A palpitation is an awareness of the beating of the heart, whether it is too slow, too fast, or at its normal frequency; brought on by overexertion, adrenaline, alcohol, disease or drugs, or as a symptom of panic disorder. ... Speech disorders are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Sweating (also called perspiration or sometimes transpiration) is the loss of a watery fluid, consisting mainly of sodium chloride and urea in solution, that is secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ...


An effective method of curbing these symptoms is by taking a deep breath, and forcefully blowing out through a small hole in your mouth, letting the cheeks puff inflate. This puts pressure on the nerve, and tells it to reset. This technique is also used as a warm-up by singers. Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ...


Excessive activation of the vagal nerve during emotional stress, which is a parasympathetic overcompensation of a strong sympathetic nervous system response associated with stress, can cause vasovagal syncope because of a sudden drop in blood pressure and heart rate. Vasovagal syncope affects young children and women more often. It can also lead to temporary loss of bladder control under moments of extreme fear. Vasovagal syncope (also vasodepressor syncope, neurally mediated syncope or neurocardiogenic syncope), a form of dysautonomia, is the most common cause of fainting (syncope in medical terminology). ...


Effects of Vagus nerve lesions

The patient complains of hoarse voice, difficulty in swallowing and choking when drinking fluid.


External links

Cranial nerves

I-IV: olfactory - optic - oculomotor - trochlear Grays Fig. ... The olfactory nerve, or cranial nerve I, is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... The optic nerve is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The fourth of twelve cranial nerves, the trochlear nerve controls the function of the superior oblique muscle, which rotates the eye away from the nose and also moves the eye downward. ...


V: trigeminal: semilunar ganglion
V1: ophthalmic: lacrimal - frontal (supratrochlear, supraorbital) - nasociliary (long root of ciliary, long ciliary, infratrochlear, ethmoidal) - ciliary ganglion - short ciliary
V2: maxillary: middle meningeal - in the pterygopalatine fossa (zygomatic, zygomaticotemporal, zygomaticofacial, sphenopalatine, posterior superior alveolar)
in the infraorbital canal (middle superior alveolar, anterior superior alveolar)
on the face (inferior palpebral, external nasal, superior labial, infraorbital plexus) - pterygopalatine ganglion (deep petrosal, nerve of pterygoid canal)
branches of distribution (palatine, nasopalatine, pharyngeal)
V3: mandibular: nervus spinosus - internal pterygoid - anterior (masseteric, deep temporal, buccinator, external pterygoid)
posterior (auriculotemporal, lingual, inferior alveolar, mylohyoid, mental) - otic ganglion - submaxillary ganglion The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The Semilunar Ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or trigeminal ganglion) occupies a cavity (cavum Meckelii) in the dura mater covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Lacrimal Nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic. ... The Frontal Nerve is the largest branch of the ophthalmic, and may be regarded, both from its size and direction, as the continuation of the nerve. ... The supratrochlear nerve, smaller than the Supraorbital nerve, passes above the pulley of the Obliquus superior, and gives off a descending filament, to join the infratrochlear branch of the nasociliary nerve. ... The supraorbital nerve arises from the orbit by the supraorbital foramen and supplies the upper eyelid and forehead integuments. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The long root of the ciliary ganglion usually arises from the nasociliary between the two heads of the Rectus lateralis. ... The long ciliary nerves, two or three in number, are given off from the nasociliary, as it crosses the optic nerve. ... The infratrochlear nerve is given off from the nasociliary just before it enters the anterior ethmoidal foramen. ... The ethmoidal branches supply the ethmoidal cells; the posterior branch leaves the orbital cavity through the posterior ethmoidal foramen and gives some filaments to the sphenoidal sinus. ... The ciliary ganglion is small parasympathetic ganglion lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle that is associated with the nasociliary nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve). ... The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves. ... The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Middle Meningeal Nerve (meningeal or dural branch) is given off from the maxillary nerve directly after its origin from the semilunar ganglion; it accompanies the middle meningeal artery and supplies the dura mater. ... In the skull, the pterygopalatine fossa is the space between the lateral pterygoid plate (which is part of the sphenoid bone), and the palate. ... The Zygomatic Nerve (temporomalar nerve; orbital nerve) arises in the pterygopalatine fossa, enters the orbit by the inferior orbital fissure, and divides at the back of that cavity into two branches, zygomaticotemporal and zygomaticofacial. ... The zygomaticotemporal nerve or zygomaticotemporal branch (temporal branch), from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve (Cranial nerve 5), runs along the lateral wall of the orbit in a groove in the zygomatic bone, receives a branch of communication from the lacrimal, and, passing through a foramen in the zygomatic... The zygomaticofacial nerve or zygomaticofacial branch of zygomatic nerve (malar branch) passes along the infero-lateral angle of the orbit, emerges upon the face through a foramen in the zygomatic bone, and, perforating the Orbicularis oculi, supplies the skin on the prominence of the cheek. ... The Sphenopalatine Branches, two in number, descend to the sphenopalatine ganglion. ... The Posterior Superior Alveolar Branches (posterior superior dental branches) arise from the trunk of the maxillary nerve just before it enters the infraorbital groove; they are generally two in number, but sometimes arise by a single trunk. ... One of the canals of the orbital surface of the maxilla, the infraorbital canal, opens just below the margin of the orbit. ... The middle superior alveolar nerve is a nerve that drops from the infraorbital portion of the maxillary nerve to supply the sinus mucosa, the roots of the maxillary premolars, and the mesiobuccal root of the first molar. ... The Anterior Superior Alveolar Branch (anterior superior dental branch), of considerable size, is given off from the nerve just before its exit from the infraorbital foramen; it descends in a canal in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and divides into branches which supply the incisor and canine teeth. ... The Inferior Palpebral Branches (palpebral branches) ascend behind the Orbicularis oculi. ... The external nasal branches (or external nasal nerve) supply the skin of the side of the nose and of the septum mobile nasi, and join with the terminal twigs of the nasociliary nerve. ... The Superior Labial Branches (labial branches), the largest and most numerous, descend behind the Quadratus labii superioris, and are distributed to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands. ... The superior labial branches descend behind the Quadratus labii superioris, and are distributed to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The deep petrosal nerve (large deep petrosal nerve) is given off from the carotid plexus, and runs through the carotid canal lateral to the internal carotid artery. ... The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve), formed by the junction of the great petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve in the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum, passes forward, through the pterygoid canal, with the corresponding artery, and is joined by a small ascending sphenoidal branch... The palatine nerves (descending branches) are distributed to the roof of the mouth, soft palate, tonsil, and lining membrane of the nasal cavity. ... One branch of the posterior superior nasal branches, longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve. ... The pharyngeal nerve (pterygopalatine nerve) is a small branch arising from the posterior part of the pterygopalatine ganglion. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... The Nervus Spinosus (recurrent or meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve) enters the skull through the foramen spinosum with the middle meningeal artery. ... The Internal Pterygoid Nerve (or medial pterygoid nerve) —The nerve to the Pterygoideus internus is a slender branch, which enters the deep surface of the muscle; it gives off one or two filaments to the otic ganglion. ... The Masseteric Nerve passes lateralward, above the Pterygoideus externus, in front of the temporomandibular articulation, and behind the tendon of the Temporalis; it crosses the mandibular notch with the masseteric artery, to the deep surface of the Masseter, in which it ramifies nearly as far as its anterior border. ... The Deep Temporal Nerves are two in number, anterior and posterior. ... A branch of the mandibular nerve (which is itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve), the buccal nerve transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane (in general, the cheek) and from the second and third molar teeth. ... External Pterygoid Nerve (or lateral pterygoid nerve): The nerve to the Pterygoideus externus frequently arises in conjunction with the buccinator nerve, but it may be given off separately from the anterior division of the mandibular nerve. ... The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (Viii) and supplies motor fibres to the temporomandibular joint and parasympathetic fibres to the parotid glands. ... The Lingual Nerve supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). ... The mylohyoid nerve is derived from the inferior alveolar just before it enters the mandibular foramen. ... The mental nerve emerges at the mental foramen, and divides beneath the Triangularis muscle into three branches: one descends to the skin of the chin. ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ... The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is of small size and is fusiform in shape. ...


VI: abducent The sixth out of twelve cranial nerves, the abducens nerve controls the lateral rectus muscle - this means that the action of this nerve controls each eyes ability to look laterally (away from the midline). ...


VII: facial: nervus intermedius - geniculate - inside facial canal (great petrosal, nerve to the stapedius, chorda tympani)
at exit from stylomastoid foramen (posterior auricular, digastric - stylohyoid)
on face (temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical) The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The nervus intermedius, or intermediate nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). ... Mark Hartley: 01946841665 i am gay and call me for bum sex. ... The great petrosal nerve , a branch of facial nerve arises from the geniculate ganglion. ... The Nerve to the Stapedius (tympanic branch) arises opposite the pyramidal eminence; it passes through a small canal in this eminence to reach the muscle. ... The chorda tympani are nerves of special sensation given off the facial nerve (VII) inside the skull. ... The Posterior Auricular Nerve arises close to the stylo-mastoid foramen, and runs upward in front of the mastoid process; here it is joined by a filament from the auricular branch of the vagus, and communicates with the posterior branch of the great auricular, and with the lesser occipital. ... The digastric branch of facial nerve arises close to the stylomastoid foramen, and divides into several filaments, which supply the posterior belly of the Digastricus; one of these filaments joins the glossopharyngeal nerve. ... The stylohyoid branch of facial nerve frequently arises in conjunction with the digastric branch; it is long and slender, and enters the Stylohyoideus about its middle. ... The Temporal branches of the facial nerve cross the zygomatic arch to the temporal region, supplying the Auriculares anterior and superior, and joining with the zygomaticotemporal branch of the maxillary, and with the auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular. ... The Zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (malar branches) run across the zygomatic bone to the lateral angle of the orbit, where they supply the Orbicularis oculi, and join with filaments from the lacrimal nerve and the zygomaticofacial branch of the maxillary nerve. ... The Buccal Branches of the facial nerve (infraorbital branches), of larger size than the rest of the branches, pass horizontally forward to be distributed below the orbit and around the mouth. ... The Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve passes forward beneath the Platysma and Triangularis, supplying the muscles of the lower lip and chin, and communicating with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. ... The cervical branch of the facial nerve runs forward beneath the Platysma, and forms a series of arches across the side of the neck over the suprahyoid region. ...


VIII: vestibulocochlear: cochlear (striae medullares, lateral lemniscus) - vestibular The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves and also known as the auditory nerve. ... The Cochlear nerve (n. ... Winding around the inferior peduncle and crossing the area acustica and the medial eminence are a number of white strands, the striae medullares, which form a portion of the cochlear division of the acoustic nerve and disappear into the median sulcus. ... The lateral lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound to the inferior colliculus of the midbrain. ... The Vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve is the other. ...


IX: glossopharyngeal: fasciculus solitarius - nucleus ambiguus - sympathetic efferent fibers - ganglia (superior, petrous) - tympanic The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... The longitudinal fibers in the reticularis grisea of the reticular formation form indeterminate fibers, with the exception of a bundle named the fasciculus solitarius (solitary tract), which is made up of descending fibers of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. ... The nucleus ambiguus (literally ambiguous nucleus) is a region of histologically disperse cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper (rostral) medulla. ... In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. ... The Superior Ganglion (jugular ganglion) is situated in the upper part of the groove in which the glossopharyngeal nerve is lodged during its passage through the jugular foramen. ... The Petrous Ganglion (inferior ganglion) of the glossopharyngeal nerve is larger than the superior ganglion and is situated in a depression in the lower border of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. ... The Tympanic Nerve (nerve of Jacobson) arises from the petrous ganglion, and ascends to the tympanic cavity through a small canal on the under surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone on the ridge which separates the carotid canal from the jugular fossa. ...


X: vagus: ganglia (jugular, nodose) - Alderman's nerve - in the neck (pharyngeal branch, superior laryngeal, recurrent laryngeal) - in the thorax (pulmonary branches, esophageal plexus) - in the abdomen (gastric plexuses, celiac plexus, gastric plexus) The vagus presents a well-marked ganglionic enlargement, which is called the jugular ganglion (ganglion of the root); to it the accessory nerve is connected by one or two filaments. ... The nodose ganglion (ganglion of the trunk; inferior ganglion of vagus nerve) is cylindrical in form, of a reddish color, and 2. ... The Auricular branch of the tenth cranial or vagus nerve is often termed the Aldermans nerve. ... The pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve, the principal motor nerve of the pharynx, arises from the upper part of the ganglion nodosum, and consists principally of filaments from the cranial portion of the accessory nerve. ... The Superior Laryngeal Nerve arises from the middle of the ganglion nodosum and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ... The pulmonary branches of the vagus nerve can be divided into two groups: anterior and posterior. ... The esophageal branches of the vagus nerve are given off both above and below the bronchial branches; the lower are numerous and larger than the upper. ... The superior gastric plexus (gastric or coronary plexus) accompanies the left gastric artery along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and joins with branches from the left vagus. ... The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus or plexus cœliacus, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... The superior gastric plexus (gastric or coronary plexus) accompanies the left gastric artery along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and joins with branches from the left vagus. ...


XI: accessory XII: hypoglossal The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vagus nerve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (483 words)
The vagus nerve supplies sensory parasympathetic fibers to all the organs except the suprarenal glands, from the neck down to the second segment of the transverse colon.
This means that the vagus nerve is responsible for such varied tasks as heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating, and quite a few muscle movements in the mouth, including speech (via the recurrent laryngeal nerve) and keeping the larynx open for breathing.
Vagus nerve stimulation therapy using a pacemaker-like device implanted in the chest is a treatment used since 1997 to control seizures in epilepsy patients and has recently been approved for treating drug-resistant cases of clinical depression.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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