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Encyclopedia > Vagus

The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. The vagus nerve is arguably the single most important nerve in the body. Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... Position of medulla oblangata in the human brain The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the abdomen is a part of the body, In humans, it is the region between the thorax and the pelvis. ...


The medieval Latin word vagus means literally "wandering" (the words "vagrant", "vagabond", and "vague" come from the same root). It is also called the pneumogastric nerve since it supplies both the lungs and the stomach. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Vagrancy is a crime in some European countries, but most of these laws have been abandoned. ... Vagabond refer to: Vagabond, an itinerant person, Vagabond, a manga by Takehiko Inoue, Vagabond, a movie by Agnès Varda, Vagabond, a Marvel Comics universe character. ... Ambiguity is one way in which the meanings of words and phrases can be unclear, but there is another way, which is different from ambiguity: vagueness. ...


This nerve supplies motor and sensory parasympathetic fibres to pretty much everything from the neck down to the first third of the transverse colon. In this capacity, it is involved in, amongst other things, such varied tasks as heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating and speech (via the recurrent laryngeal nerve). Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The neck is the part of the body on many limbed vertebrates that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon, also called the large intestine or large bowel, is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Peristalsis is the process of involuntary wave-like successive muscular contractions by which food is moved through the digestive tract. ... Sweating (also called perspiration or sometimes transpiration) is the loss of a watery fluid, consisting mainly of sodium chloride and urea in solution, that is secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... One might be looking for the academic discipline of communications. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) which supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ...


The vagus also controls a few skeletal muscles, namely: A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ...

This means that the vagus nerve is responsible for quite a few muscle movements in the mouth and also is vitally important for speech and in keeping the larynx open for breathing. The Levator veli palatini is a muscle of the human body. ... The Salpingopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Palatoglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The Palatopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... Pharyngeal constrictor can refer to: Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Category: ... The larynx (plural larynges), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... One might be looking for the academic discipline of communications. ...


It also receives some sensation from the outer ear, where there is the Auricular branch (also known as Alderman's nerve) and part of the meninges. The Auricular branch of the tenth cranial or vagus nerve is often termed the Aldermans nerve. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ...


The vagus nerve and the heart

Parasympathetic innervation of the heart is mediated by the vagus nerve. The right vagus innervates the SA node. Parasympathetic hyperstimulation predisposes those affected to bradyarrhythmias. The left vagus when hyperstimulated predisposes the heart to AV blocks. Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The sinoatrial node (abbreviated SA node, also called the sinus node) is the impulse generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart. ... Bradycardia, as applied in adult medicine, is defined as a heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min [1]. It is also less commonly known as brachycardia. ... A heart block denotes a disease in the electrical system of the heart. ...


VNS therapy

Vagus nerve stimulation therapy using a pacemaker-like device implanted in the chest is a treatment used since 1997 to control seizures in epilepsy patients and has recently been approved for treating drug-resistant cases of clinical depression. Mild degree of intermittent VNS by daily performance of certain breathing exercises (Pranayama) over a period of several weeks lowers blood pressure and the heart rate in persons with elevated blood pressure and /or elevated heart rate. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an invasive medical procedure used to treat clinical depression (including TRD) or epilepsy. ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... Clinical depression is a health condition of depression with mental and physical components reaching criteria generally accepted by clinicians. ... Pranayama is the fourth limb of Raja Yoga expounded in the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. ...


External links

Major nerves (also see Peripheral nervous system)

Cranial nerves: I olfactory | II optic | III oculomotor | IV trochlear | V trigeminal (V1 ophthalmic - supraorbital, V2 maxillary - sphenopalatine ganglion, V3 mandibular - auriculotemporal - buccal - inferior alveolar ) | VI abducens | VII facial | VIII vestibulocochlear (cochlear, vestibular) | IX glossopharyngeal | X vagus (recurrent laryngeal, Alderman's nerve) | XI accessory | XII hypoglossal Nerves (yellow)    Nerves redirects here. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system,and I have no clue what it does. ... Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... The optic nerve is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The fourth of twelve cranial nerves, the trochlear nerve controls the function of the superior oblique muscle, which rotates the eye towards the nose and also moves the eye downward. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear) and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The supraorbital nerve arises from the orbit by the supraorbital foramen and supplies the upper eyelid and forehead integuments. ... The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (Viii) and supplies motor fibres to the temporomandibular joint and parasympathetic fibres to the parotid glands. ... A branch of the mandibular nerve (which is itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve), the buccal nerve transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane (in general, the cheek) and from the second and third molar teeth. ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). ... The sixth out of twelve cranial nerves, the abducens nerve controls the lateral rectus muscle - this means that the action of this nerve controls each eyes ability to look laterally (away from the midline). ... The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves and also known as the auditory nerve. ... The Cochlear nerve (n. ... The Vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve is the other. ... The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) which supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ... The Auricular branch of the tenth cranial or vagus nerve is often termed the Aldermans nerve. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ...


Spinal nerves C2-C5: greater occipital, lesser occipital, greater auricular, lesser auricular, phrenic The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the lesser occipital nerve. ... The lesser occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve. ... The greater auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The lesser auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The phrenic nerve arises from spinal nerves C3, C4 and C5. ...


Spinal nerves C5-T1 (brachial plexus) --- before forming cords (dorsal scapular, long thoracic, suprascapular) --- lateral cord (musculocutaneous, median) --- posterior cord (axillary, radial) --- medial cord (median, ulnar) The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ... The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, specifically from spinal nerves C4 and C5. ... The long thoracic nerve supplies motor innervation to the serratus anterior muscle. ... The Nervus suprascapularis (Suprascapular nerve) is a nerve of the plexus brachialis. ... The Lateral cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The major end branch of the lateral cord, courses inferiorly within the anterior arm, supplying motor fibers to the arm muscles that flex the forearm (the biceps brachii and brachialis). ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The Posterior cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The axillary nerve is a nerve of the human body, that comes off the posterior cord of the brachial plexus at the level of the axilla (armpit) and carriers nerve fibers from C5 and C6. ... The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body, that supplies the arm, the forearm and the hand. ... The Medial cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The ulnar nerve is a nerve that in humans runs down the arm and forearm, and into the hand. ...


Spinal nerves T2-S5: intercostal | sacral plexus | sciatic (tibial, common peroneal) | pudendal The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The thoracic spinal nerves T3 through T12. ... In human anatomy, the Sacral plexus refers to the nerve plexus emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-S4), and which provides nerves for the pelvis and lower limbs. ... The sciatic nerve is a large nerve that runs down the lower limb. ... The Tibial Nerve The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. ... The Common peroneal nerve is a branch of the Sciatic nerve. ... The pudendal nerve is responsible for orgasm, urination, and defecation in both sexes. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vagueness (3412 words)
A proposition is vague when there are possible states of things concerning which it is intrinsically uncertain whether, had they been contemplated by the speaker, he would have regarded them as excluded or allowed by the proposition.
Vagueness is standardly defined as the possession of borderline cases.
Thus the logic of vagueness is a logic for equivocators.
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