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Encyclopedia > Vaccinia
Vaccinia
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 B08.0
ICD-9 051.0
eMedicine med/2356 
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Vaccinia virus
Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Family: Poxviridae
Genus: Orthopoxvirus
Species: Vaccinia virus

Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. It has a linear double-stranded DNA genome, which is approximately 190 kbp in length and encodes for approximately 250 genes. The dimensions of the virion are roughly 360 × 270 × 250 nm. Vaccinia virus is well-known for its role as a vaccine that eradicated the smallpox disease from the Earth, making it the first human disease to be successfully eradicated by mankind. This endeavour was carried out by the World Health Organization under the Smallpox Eradication Program. Post eradication of smallpox, scientists have been studying vaccinia virus to use as a tool for delivering genes into biological tissues (gene therapy and genetic engineering). Moreover, due to recent concerns about smallpox resurfacing as a possible agent for bioterrorism, scientists have renewed their interests in studying vaccinia virus. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... Orthopox viruses include many species isolated from non-human mammals. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in particular. ... An iconic image of genetic engineering; this autoluminograph from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering. ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ...

Contents

Basic biology

Vaccinia virus is unique amongst all DNA viruses because it replicates only in the cytoplasm of the host cell (outside of the nucleus). Therefore, the large genome is required for encoding various enzymes and proteins involved in viral DNA replication and gene transcription. During its replication cycle, VV produces several infectious forms which differ in their outer membranes: the intracellular mature virion (IMV), the intracellular enveloped virion (IEV), the cell-associated enveloped virion (CEV) and the extracellular enveloped virion (EEV). Although the issue remains contentious, the prevailing view is that the IMV consists of a single lipoprotein membrane, while the CEV and EEV are both surrounded by two membrane layers and the IEV has three envelopes. The IMV is the most abundant infectious form and is thought to be responsible for spread between hosts. On the other hand, the CEV is believed to play a role in cell-to-cell spread and the EEV is thought to be important for long range dissemination within the host organism. Organelles. ... The eukaryotic cell nucleus. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ...


Host resistance

Vaccinia contains within its genome several proteins that give the virus resistance to interferons. K3L is a protein with homology towards the protein eIF-2alpha. K3L protein inhibits the action of PKR, an activator of interferons. E3L is another protein encoded by vaccinia. E3L also inhibits PKR activation; and is also able to bind to double stranded RNA. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Origin

Vaccinia virus is closely related to the virus that causes cowpox. The precise origin of vaccinia virus is unknown due to the lack of record-tracking as the virus was repeatedly cultivated and passaged in research laboratories for many decades. The most common notion is that vaccinia virus, cowpox virus and variola virus, the causative agent for smallpox, were all derived from a common ancestral virus. There is also speculation that vaccinia virus was originally isolated from horses. Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Use as a vaccine

Site of a vaccinia injection, several days later.
Site of a vaccinia injection, several days later.

A vaccinia virus infection is very mild and is typically asymptomatic in healthy individuals, but it may cause a mild rash and fever. Immune responses generated from a vaccinia virus infection protects the person against a lethal smallpox infection. For this reason, vaccinia virus was, and is still being used as a live-virus vaccine against smallpox. Unlike vaccines that use weakened forms of the virus being vaccinated against, the vaccinia virus vaccine cannot cause smallpox because it does not contain the smallpox virus. However, certain complications and/or vaccine adverse effects occasionally arise. The chance of this happening is significantly increased in people who are immunocompromised. Approximately one in one million individuals will develop a fatal response to the vaccination. Currently, the vaccine is only administered to health care workers or research personnel who have a high risk of contracting vaccinia virus, and to the military personnel of . Due to the present threat of smallpox-related bioterrorism, there is a possibility the vaccine may have to be widely administered again in the future. Therefore, scientists are currently developing novel vaccine strategies against smallpox which are safer and much faster to deploy during a bioterrorism event. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1001 × 1369 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1001 × 1369 pixel, file size: 1. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Vaccination is the process of administering weakened or dead pathogens to a healthy person or animal, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ...


History

The original vaccine for smallpox, and the origin of the idea of vaccination, was cowpox, reported on by Edward Jenner in 1798. The Latin term used for cowpox was variolae vaccinae, essentially a direct translation of "cow-related pox". That term lent its name to the whole idea of vaccination. When it was realized that the virus used in smallpox vaccination was not, or was no longer, the same as the cowpox virus, the name 'vaccinia' stayed with the vaccine-related virus. (See OED.) Portrait of Edward Jenner Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English country doctor who studied nature and his natural surroundings from childhood and practiced medicine in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ...


Recent cases

In March 2007, a 2-year-old Indiana boy and his mother contracted the life-threatening vaccinia infection from the boy's father. The boy developed the telltale rash over 80 percent of his body after coming into close contact with his father, who was vaccinated for smallpox before being deployed overseas by the United States Army. The United States military resumed smallpox vaccinations in 2002. The child acquired the infection due to eczema, which is a known risk factor for vaccinia infection. The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Eczema is a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the upper layers of the skin. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vaccinia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (178 words)
Vaccinia virus is closely related to the virus that causes cowpox.
Vaccinia is so mild that it is typically asymptomatic in healthy individuals, but may causes a mild rash and fever, with an extremely low rate of fatality.
Prior to the use of vaccinia, smallpox epidemics were controlled somewhat through the use of inoculation -- a deliberate, minor exposure to the disease.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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