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Encyclopedia > Vaccine

A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. The term derives from Edward Jenner's use of cowpox ("vacca" means cow in Latin), which, when administered to humans, provided them protection against smallpox, which Louis Pasteur and others perpetuated. Vaccines are based on the concept of variolation originating in China, in which a person is deliberately infected with a weak form of smallpox. Jenner realized that milkmaids who had contact with cowpox did not get smallpox. The process of distributing and administrating vaccines is referred to as vaccination. Since vaccination was much safer, smallpox inoculation fell into disuse and was eventually banned in England in 1840. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Portrait of Edward Jenner Edward Jenner, FRS, (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English country doctor who studied nature and his natural surroundings from childhood and practiced medicine in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... Obsolete: inoculation against smallpox using material from a vesicle or lesion of a person with smallpox. ... Vaccination is the process of administering pathogens that cant reproduce (due to being weakened or dead) to a healthy person or animal, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ...


Vaccines can be prophylactic (e.g. to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine). Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The term cancer vaccine is often used to describe a process whereby a persons immune system is coaxed into recognizing and destroying malignant cells without harming normal cells. ...

Contents

Types of vaccines

Avian Flu vaccine development by reverse genetics techniques.
Avian Flu vaccine development by reverse genetics techniques.

Vaccines may be dead or inactivated organisms or purified products derived from them. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2145x2620, 1177 KB) This image is a work of the National Institutes of Health, part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2145x2620, 1177 KB) This image is a work of the National Institutes of Health, part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... For the current concern about the transmission of an avian flu to humans see Transmission and infection of H5N1. ... Reverse genetics is an approach to discovering the function of a gene that proceeds in the opposite direction of so called forward genetic screens that are more usual in classical genetics. ...


There are four types of traditional vaccines[1]:

  • Vaccines containing killed microorganisms - these are previously virulent micro-organisms that have been killed with chemicals or heat. Examples are vaccines against flu, cholera, bubonic plague, and hepatitis A.
  • Vaccines containing live, attenuated microorganisms - these are live micro-organisms that have been cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties. They typically provoke more durable immunological responses and are the preferred type for healthy adults. Examples include yellow fever, measles, rubella, and mumps.
  • Toxoids - these are inactivated toxic compounds from micro-organisms in cases where these (rather than the micro-organism itself) cause illness. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria.
  • Subunit - rather than introducing a whole inactivated or attenuated micro-organism to an immune system, a fragment of it can create an immune response. Characteristic examples include the subunit vaccine against HBV that is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus (produced in yeast) and the virus like particle (VLP) vaccine against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein.

The live tuberculosis vaccine is not the contagious strain, but a related strain called "BCG"; it is used in the United States very infrequently. Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious liver disease caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... Attenuation is the decrease of the amount, force, magnitude, or value of something. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... A toxoid is a bacterial toxin whose toxicity as been weakened or supressed while other properties, typically immunogenicity, are maintained. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... In structural biology, a protein subunit or subunit protein is a single protein molecule that assembles (or coassembles) with other protein molecules to form a multimeric or oligomeric protein. ... Originally known as serum hepatitis, Hepatitis B has only been recognized as such since World War II, and has caused current epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Virus like particles (VLPs) consist of viral protein(s) derived from the structural proteins of a virus. ... Species See text Papillomaviruses are viruses that commonly cause warts. ... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... An apparatus (4-5 cm length, with nine short needles) used for BCG vaccination in Japan. ...


A number of innovative vaccines are also in development and in use:

  • Conjugate - certain bacteria have polysaccharide outer coats that are poorly immunogenic. By linking these outer coats to proteins (e.g. toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the polysaccharide as if it were a protein antigen. This approach is used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.
  • Recombinant Vector - by combining the physiology of one micro-organism and the DNA of the other, immunity can be created against diseases that have complex infection processes
  • DNA vaccination - in recent years a new type of vaccine, created from an infectious agent's DNA called DNA vaccination, has been developed. It works by insertion (and expression, triggering immune system recognition) into human or animal cells, of viral or bacterial DNA. Some cells of the immune system that recognize the proteins expressed will mount an attack against these proteins and cells expressing them. Because these cells live for a very long time, if the pathogen that normally expresses these proteins is encountered at a later time, they will be attacked instantly by the immune system. One advantage of DNA vaccines is that they are very easy to produce and store. As of 2006, DNA vaccination is still experimental, but shows some promising results.

Note that while most vaccines are created using inactivated or attenuated compounds from micro-organisms, synthetic vaccines are composed mainly or wholly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates or antigens. A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor antigen to a carrier protein, thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier on the attached antigen. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... DNA vaccination is a proposed experimental technique for protecting an organism against disease by injecting it with naked DNA to produce an immunological response. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which a genes DNA sequence is converted into functional proteins. ... A synthetic vaccine is a vaccine consisting mainly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates, or antigens. ...


Developing immunity

The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and 'remembers' them. When the virulent version of an agent comes along, the immune system is thus prepared to respond, by (1) neutralizing the target agent before it can enter cells, and (2) by recognizing and destroying infected cells before that agent can multiply to vast numbers. Virulence is a term used to refer to either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agent. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious and deadly diseases known to man. Other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox, and typhoid are nowhere near as common as they were just a hundred years ago. As long as the vast majority of people are vaccinated, it is much more difficult for an outbreak of disease to occur, let alone spread. This effect is called herd immunity. Polio, which is transmitted only between humans, is targeted by an extensive eradication campaign that has seen endemic polio restricted to only parts of four countries.[2] The difficulty of reaching all children, however, has caused the eradication date to be missed twice by 2006. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... South Park episode, see Chickenpox (South Park episode). ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... …Herd immunity describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of the a portion of the population (or herd) provides protection to un-vaccinated individuals. ... A child receives oral polio vaccine during a 2002 campaign to immunize children in India. ...


Vaccination schedule

Main article: Vaccination schedule

In order to provide best protection, children are recommended to receive vaccinations as soon as their immune systems are sufficiently developed to respond to particular vaccines, with additional 'booster' shots often required to achieve 'full immunity'. This has led to the development of complex vaccination schedules. In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, which recommends schedule additions for the Center for Disease Control, recommends routine vaccination of children against: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, mumps, measles, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, HiB, chicken pox, rotavirus, influenza, meningococcal disease and pneumonia. The large number of vaccines and boosters recommended (up to 24 injections by age two) has led to problems with achieving full compliance. In order to combat declining compliance rates, various notification systems have been instituted and a number of combination injections are now marketed (e.g., Prevnar and ProQuad vaccines), which provide protection against multiple diseases. Over the past two decades, the recommended vaccination schedule in the United States and elsewhere has grown rapidly and become more complicated as many new vaccines have been developed and marketed. ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) consists of fifteen advisors to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), selected by the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, to provide advice and guidance on the most effective means to prevent diseases through nation-wide vaccination campaigns. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... Chicken pox, also spelled chickenpox, is a common childhood disease caused by the varicella_zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV_3), one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The ProQuad vaccine, approved in 2005 for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration, combines (measles, mumps, rubella) and chickenpox vaccine. ...


Besides recommendations for infant vaccination boosters, many specific vaccines are recommended for repeated injections throughout life -- most commonly for measles, tetanus, influenza, and pneumonia. Pregnant women are often screened for continued resistance to rubella. In 2006, a vaccine was introduced against shingles, a disease caused by the chicken pox virus, which usually affects the elderly. Vaccine recommendations for the elderly concentrate on pneumonia and influenza, which are more deadly to that group. Herpes zoster, colloquially known as shingles, is the reactivation of varicella zoster virus, leading to a crop of painful blisters over the area of a dermatome. ...


U.S. vaccinations and school attendance

A significant number of vaccinations may be a requirement for school admission at various grades. This requirement exists primarily to reduce the number of diseases which are transmissible in the classroom, not as a comprehensive list of the vaccinations which may be appropriate for any given child.[citation needed] As a result, a school may require a vaccination for highly contagious diseases like HIB and chicken pox, which can cause significant school disruption during outbreaks, but is less likely to require vaccination against Hepatitis B, which is strictly a bloodborne pathogen and which cannot be caught through the kind of casual contact one encounters in a classroom. In the US, individual states have varying exemptions to compulsory vaccination that parents may claim for religious, ethical, or medical reasons.


Vaccine controversies

Main article: Vaccine controversy

Opposition to vaccination, from a wide array of vaccine critics, has existed since the earliest vaccination campaigns: [3]. The vaccine controversy refers to doubt over the safety and efficacy of widespread vaccination. ... This article is about anti-vaccinationists; for issues related to vaccination, see vaccination, vaccine controversy. ...


A number of vaccines, including those given to very young children, have contained thiomersal, a preservative that metabolizes into ethylmercury. It has been used in some influenza, DTP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis) vaccine formulations. Since 1997, use of thimerosal has been gradually diminishing in western industrialized countries after recommendations by medical authorities, but trace amounts of thimerosal remain in many vaccines and in some vaccines, thimerosal has not yet been phased out despite recommendations. Some states in USA have enacted laws banning the use of thimerosal in childhood vaccines. For discussion on alleged health effects of thiomersal in vaccines, see Thiomersal controversy. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis; a similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

Main article: Thiomersal controversy

In the late 1990s, controversy over vaccines escalated in both the US and the United Kingdom when a study, published in the respected journal Lancet, by Dr. Andrew Wakefield suggested a possible link between bowel disorders, autism and the MMR vaccine, and urged further research [4]. His report garnered significant media attention, leading to a drop in the uptake of the MMR vaccine in the United Kingdom and some other countries. In response to the controversies, a number of studies with larger sample sizes were conducted, and failed to confirm the findings.[5] [6]. In 2004, 10 of the 13 authors of the original Wakefield study retracted the paper's "interpretation", or conclusion, section, which had claimed: "Interpretation. We identified associated gastrointestinal disease and developmental regression in a group of previously normal children, which was generally associated in time with possible environmental triggers." The retraction of this claim stated that the data were insufficient to establish a causal link between MMR vaccine and autism.[7] Wakefield was later found to have received £435,000 in fees from trial lawyers attempting to show the vaccine was dangerous [8] [9]. Also in 2004, the United States' Institute of Medicine reported that evidence "favors rejection" of any link between vaccines containing thimerosal, or MMR, and the development of autism [10]. Following US government action to evaluate levels of environmental toxins, including mercury, it has been claimed, particularly in the context of lawsuits, that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to, or cause, a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, most notably autism and related Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs), or other... Andrew Wakefield (born 1956 in the United Kingdom) is a Canadian trained surgeon, best known as the lead author of a controversial 1998 research study, published in The Lancet, which reported bowel symptoms in a selected sample of twelve children with autistic spectrum disorders and other disabilities, and alleged a... The MMR vaccine is a mixture of live attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against measles, mumps and rubella. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ...


In 2004 and 2005, England and Wales experienced an increase in the incidence of mumps infections among adolescents and young adults. The age group affected were too old to have received the routine MMR immunisations around the time the paper by Wakefield et al was published, and too young to have contracted natural mumps as a child, and thus to achieve a herd immunity effect. With the decline in mumps that followed the introduction of the MMR vaccine, these individuals had not been exposed to the disease, but still had no immunity, either natural or vaccine induced. Therefore, as immunization rates declined following the controversy and the disease re-emerged, they were susceptible to infection. [11] [12]. This and similar examples indicate the importance of: Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... …Herd immunity describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of the a portion of the population (or herd) provides protection to un-vaccinated individuals. ...

  1. careful modelling to anticipate the impact that an immunisation campaign will have on the epidemiology of the disease in the medium to long term
  2. ongoing surveillance for the relevant disease following introduction of a new vaccine and
  3. maintaining high immunisation rates, even when a disease has become rare.
Main article: MMR controversy

There is opposition to any type of vaccination from some sectors of the community, particularly those who favor 'alternative' health care. Some skeptics claim that mass immunization is a eugenics program. Naturopaths and other alternative health care practitioners sometimes offer their own, alternative treatments to conventional vaccination. The vaccine controversy refers to doubt over the safety and efficacy of widespread vaccination. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


In Australia, a massive increase in vaccination rates was observed when the federal government made certain benefits (such as the universal 'Family Allowance' welfare payments for parents of children) dependent on vaccination. As well, children were not allowed into school unless they were either vaccinated or their parents completed a statutory declaration refusing to immunize them, after discussion with a doctor, and other bureaucracy. (Similar school-entry vaccination regulations have been in place in some parts of Canada for several years.) It became easier and cheaper to vaccinate one's children than not to. When faced with the annoyance, many more casual objectors simply gave in.


Another vaccination controversy concerns smallpox. Since it has been eradicated, some suggest that the stores of smallpox virus should be destroyed. In an article on Newswise [13] both sides debate the issue: "The destruction of remaining smallpox virus stocks is an overdue step forward for public health and security that will dramatically reduce the possibility that this scourge will kill again, either by accident or design, argues Edward Hammond of The Sunshine Project, an organisation seeking international consensus against biological weapons."


"But John Agwunobi of the US Department of Health and Human Services believes that clandestine stocks almost certainly exist and that destroying the virus would be “irreversible and short sighted.” [14]


Potential for adverse side effects in general

Some refuse to immunize themselves or their children, because they believe certain vaccines' adverse side effects outweigh their benefits. A variation of this reasoning is that not enough is known of the adverse effects to determine whether the potential benefits make the risks worthwhile, especially considering that if the rest of the population gets vaccinated the probability of an outbreak becomes slim, thus the few ones not getting vaccinated reap the benefits without the risks. But if any significant part of the population adopts this reasoning, or do not vaccinate because of any other reason, the logic becomes invalid as the chances of an outbreak increase.


Advocates of recommended routine vaccination argue that side effects of most approved vaccines are either far less serious than actually catching the disease, or are very rare, and argue that the calculus of risk/benefit ratio should be based on benefit to humanity rather than simply on the benefit to the immunized individual. The main risk of rubella, for example, is serious birth defects, including autism (it is one of the very few known causes), in about one-quarter of fetuses of pregnant women who become infected. This risk can be effectively reduced by immunization during childhood to prevent transmission to pregnant women during later life. “Unborn child” redirects here. ... A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more offspring in an embryonal or fetal stage of development by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies, between the stages of conception and birth. ... A child being immunized against polio. ...


Efficacy of vaccines

Vaccines do not guarantee complete protection from a disease. Sometimes this is because the host's immune system simply doesn't respond adequately or at all. This may be due to a lowered immunity in general (diabetes, steroid use, HIV infection) or because the host's immune system does not have a B-cell capable of generating antibodies to that antigen.


Even if the host develops antibodies, the human immune system is not perfect and in any case the immune system might still not be able to defeat the infection.


Adjuvants are typically used to boost immune response. Adjuvants are sometimes called the dirty little secret of vaccines [15] in the scientific community, as not much is known about how adjuvants work. Most often aluminium adjuvants are used, but adjuvants like squalene are also used in some vaccines and more vaccines with squalene and phosphate adjuvants are being tested. The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors: In immunology an adjuvant is an agent which, while not having any specific antigenic effect in itself, may stimulate the immune system, increasing the response to a vaccine. ... Squalene is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil, though there are botanic sources as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives. ... Vaccine efficacy is defined as the reduction in the incidence of a disease among people who have received a vaccine compared to the incidence in unvaccinated people. ...

  • the disease itself (for some diseases vaccination performs better than for other diseases)
  • the strain of vaccine (some vaccinations are for different strains of the disease) [16]
  • whether one kept to the timetable for the vaccinations (see Vaccination schedule)
  • some individuals are 'non-responders' to certain vaccines, meaning that they do not generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly
  • other factors such as ethnicity or genetic predisposition

When a vaccinated individual does develop the disease vaccinated against, the disease is likely to be milder than without vaccination. Over the past two decades, the recommended vaccination schedule in the United States and elsewhere has grown rapidly and become more complicated as many new vaccines have been developed and marketed. ...


Economics of vaccine development

One challenge in vaccine development is economic: many of the diseases most demanding a vaccine, including HIV, malaria and tuberculosis, exist principally in poor countries. Although some contend pharmaceutical firms and biotech companies have little incentive to develop vaccines for these diseases, because there is little revenue potential, the number of vaccines actually administered has risen dramatically in recent decades. This increase, particularly in the number of different vaccines administered to children before entry into schools may be due to government mandates, rather than economic incentive. Most vaccine development to date has relied on 'push' funding by government and non-profit organizations, of government agencies, universities and non-profit organizations. Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Many researchers and policymakers are calling for a different approach, using 'pull' mechanisms to motivate industry. Mechanisms such as prizes, tax credits, or advance market commitments could ensure a financial return to firms that successfully developed a HIV vaccine. If the policy were well-designed, it might also ensure people have access to a vaccine if and when it is developed. An advance market commitment is binding contract, typically offered by a government or other financial entity, used to guarantee a viable market if a vaccine or other medicine is successfully developed. ...


Statistics from the government agencies of the U.S., the British Commonwealth and the U.K. show that between the 1800s and the time various vaccines were introduced, the incidences of the diseases for which vaccines were provided were reduced by 70%-90%. For some, this prompts the question as to whether the reduction in the morbidity and mortality due to these diseases is owed to improved sewage systems, food refrigeration, improved home and work environments, and the introduction of antibiotics, all of which occurred during the same period.


Preservatives

In order to extend shelf life and reduce production and storage costs, thimerosal, a preservative containing about 49% of a form of mercury called ethylmercury, was used routinely until recent years.[17] Thimerosal has been phased out in the U.S. in all but a few flu vaccines [18] (it has been phased out earlier in other countries, e.g. Denmark in 1992), but may be used in stages of manufacture. Parents wishing to avoid this preservative, most common in multi-dose containers of influenza vaccine, may specifically ask for thimerosal-free alternatives that contain only trace amounts.[19] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ...


Vaccines for nonhumans

See also: Flu vaccine#Flu vaccine for nonhumans

Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ...

See also

Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... A child being immunized against polio. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Jim was a former milk wagon horse who was used to produce serum containing antibodies against diptheria toxin. ... A virosome is a unilamellar phospholipid bilayer vesicle with a mean diameter of 150 nm. ... Vaccination is the process of administering pathogens that cant reproduce (due to being weakened or dead) to a healthy person or animal, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ...

References

Clinical Examination Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country). ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Autistic enterocolitis is a controversial condition first reported by British gastroenterologist Dr. Andrew Wakefield to describe a number of common clinical symptoms and signs which he contends is distinctive to autism. ... Andrew Wakefield (born 1956 in the United Kingdom) is a Canadian trained surgeon, best known as the lead author of a controversial 1998 research study, published in The Lancet, which reported bowel symptoms in a selected sample of twelve children with autistic spectrum disorders and other disabilities, and alleged a... Lancet may refer to: A lancet is a medical instrument, similar to a scalpel but with a double-edged blade. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... The University of North Texas (informally UNT or North Texas) is a public university located in Denton, Texas. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ...

External links

General

Vaccine proponent views

The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a think tank focused on reducing global poverty and inequality, headquartered in Washington, D.C. CGD was founded in November 2001 by Edward W. Scott, Jr. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Institutes of Health is an institution of the United States government which focuses on medical research. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Vaccine safety critical views

  • MacroBiotic.net - 'A Short History of Vaccines'
  • IOM.edu (pdf) - 'Before the Institute of Medicine' (statement on link between thimerosol and autism), US Congressman Dave Weldon, MD, (February 9, 2004)
  • Liberty-Page.com - 'Bad Medicine: Or...How government interference in the vaccine market causes shortages, intellectual stagnation and death.'
  • NoVaccine.com - 'The World Association for Vaccine Education' (WAVE), Dan Schultz, DC
  • [20] Immunisation Awareness Society (IAS) New Zealand
  • [21] Think Twice Global vaccine institute
  • [22] Vaccination Liberation

David Joseph Weldon, M.D., (born August 31, 1953, Amityville, New York) is an American politician. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vaccination is the process of administering pathogens that cant reproduce (due to being weakened or dead) to a healthy person or animal, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ... A child being immunized against polio. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Vaccine topics 2000 Simpsonwood CDC conference AIDS vaccine Andrew Wakefield Edward Jenner Edward Yazbak Generation Rescue Genetics Immunization Immunology Inoculation MMR vaccine Safe Minds Timeline of vaccines Vaccination Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System Vaccine controversy Vaccines and Fetal Tissue ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... In immunology an adjuvant is an agent which, while not having any specific antigenic effect in itself, may stimulate the immune system, increasing the response to a vaccine. ... The term cancer vaccine is often used to describe a process whereby a persons immune system is coaxed into recognizing and destroying malignant cells without harming normal cells. ... DNA vaccination is a proposed experimental technique for protecting an organism against disease by injecting it with naked DNA to produce an immunological response. ... An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... A live vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a chemically weakened virus to transport pieces of the HIV virus in order to stimulate an immune response. ... It is possible to model mathematically the progress of most infectious diseases to discover the likely outcome of an epidemic or to help manage them by vaccination. ... Timeline of vaccines This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic vaccines. ... I am an elf. ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) consists of fifteen advisors to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), selected by the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, to provide advice and guidance on the most effective means to prevent diseases through nation-wide vaccination campaigns. ... The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization is an alliance between various UN organizations, national governments, private foundations, NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry. ... The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ... Vaccine court is the popular term which refers to the Autism Omnibus Proceedings of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims. ... Over the past two decades, the recommended vaccination schedule in the United States and elsewhere has grown rapidly and become more complicated as many new vaccines have been developed and marketed. ... The Vaccine Safety Datalink Project (VSD) was established, in 1990, by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for the study of adverse side effects of vaccines. ... An apparatus (4-5 cm length, with nine short needles) used for BCG vaccination in Japan. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... The MMR vaccine is a mixture of live attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against measles, mumps and rubella. ... The MMRV vaccine combines the attenuated virus MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine with the addition of chickenpox vaccine. ... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... Smallpox vacinne being administered. ... The varicella vaccine protects against the disease commonly known as chickenpox. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... Hepatitis A Vaccine, Avaxim, is a vaccine against the Hepatitis A virus. ... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... ... A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor antigen to a carrier protein, thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier on the attached antigen. ... Haemofilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hib vaccine) is a conjugate vaccine developed for the prevention of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B virus. ... Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), also known as Pneumovax, is a vaccine used to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) infections such as pneumonia and septicaemia. ... ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a vaccine that targets certain sexually transmitted strains of human papillomavirus that are associated with the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. ... Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine developed for the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. ... Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), also known as Pneumovax, is a vaccine used to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) infections such as pneumonia and septicaemia. ... Advocates for Childrens Health Affected by Mercury Poisoning (A-CHAMP), is a United States political activism group, founded by parents, which advocates on behalf of children who were injured by mercury in thimerosal-containing vaccines, and other toxins. ... The vaccine controversy refers to doubt over the safety and efficacy of widespread vaccination. ... The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986 (42 U.S.C. §§ 300aa-1 to 300aa-34) was enacted in the United States to reduce the potential financial liability of vaccine makers due to vaccine injury claims. ... A pox party is a normal party for children organised by parents whose kids have the chicken pox. ... The Coalition for Safe Minds (Sensible Action For Ending Mercury-Induced Neurological Disorders) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to investigating the risks of exposure to mercury from medical products. ... The 2000 Simpsonwood CDC conference was a meeting convened in June, 2000, by the Centers for Disease Control, held at the isolated Simpsonwood Methodist retreat and conference center in Norcross, Georgia. ... Following US government action to evaluate levels of environmental toxins, including mercury, it has been claimed, particularly in the context of lawsuits, that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to, or cause, a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, most notably autism and related Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs), or other... Vaccine injury is a term used in both medicine and law to designate alleged injuries sustained by individuals subsequent to having been vaccinated. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... An H2-receptor antagonist, often shortened to H2 antagonist, is a drug used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing acid production by these cells. ... Proton pump inhibitors (or PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... An antidiarrhoeal drug is the term used for any drug which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... An antiplatelet drug is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. ... Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. ... Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Antipruritic is a drug which reduces pruritis, or itching. ... The reproductive system is the ensembles and interactions of organs and/or substances within an organism that strictly pertain to reproduction. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... Fertility medication may in a larger sense include any medication that enhances fertility, but in a specific sense consists of agents that stimulate follicle development of the ovary. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is a class of medication that acts on the estrogen receptor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... An anti-diabetic drug or oral hypoglycemic agent is used to treat diabetes mellitus. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... An antifungal drug is medication used to treat fungal infections such as athletes foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. ... Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoal infections. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is a category of drugs used in many autoimmune diseases to slow down disease progression. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... The Human Nervous System A human being coordinates its nervous system, the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by rapid and unstable mood shifts. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... A recent form of antidepressant medication - Prozac Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, in the most common usage, is a psychiatric medication taken to alleviate clinical depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative | IAVI - International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (392 words)
On May 18, AIDS vaccine advocates worldwide marked World AIDS Vaccine Day by acknowledging all who work tirelessly to find a safe and effective AIDS vaccine, the world's best hope for ending the AIDS pandemic.
A vaccine is a substance that is introduced into the body to prevent infection or to control disease due to a certain pathogen (any disease-causing organism, such as a virus, bacterium or parasite); the vaccine 'teaches' the body how to defend itself against a pathogen by creating an immune response.
The Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology has partnered with IAVI to research four key biological questions hindering the development of an AIDS vaccine.
allAfrica.com: Uganda: Two Held Over Fake Cattle Vaccine (Page 1 of 1) (356 words)
"The suspects were found with fake Hydroxine vaccine meant for cows but instead, it was a tomato spray drug.
Mr Nsubuga said the suspects had relabelled the two litre tins with hydroxine vaccine labels claiming it is made in Germany.
The genuine vaccine for cows is very expensive but the suspects were selling it at a cheaper price saying that they had smuggled it from the German embassy because it's not for export.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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