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Encyclopedia > Vaccination
Child receiving an oral polio vaccine.
Child receiving an oral polio vaccine.

Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. It is considered to be the most effective and cost-effective method of preventing infectious diseases. The material administrated can either be live, but weakened forms of pathogens such as bacteria or viruses, killed or inactivated forms of these pathogens, or purified material such as proteins. Smallpox was the first disease people tried to prevent by purposely inoculating themselves with other types of infections; smallpox inoculation was started in China or India before 200 BC.[1] In 1718, Lady Mary Wortley Montague reported that the Turks have a habit of deliberately inoculating themselves with fluid taken from mild cases of smallpox and she inoculated her own children.[2]Before Edward Jenner tested the possibility of using the cowpox vaccine as an immunisation for smallpox in humans in 1796 for the first time, at least six people had done the same several years earlier: a person whose identity is unknown, England, (about 1771), Mrs. Sevel, Germany (about 1772), Mr. Jensen, Germany (about 1770), Benjamin Jesty, England, in 1774, Mrs. Rendall, England (about 1782) and Peter Plett, Germany, in 1791.[3] In 1796 Edward Jenner inoculated using cowpox (a mild relative of the deadly smallpox virus). Pasteur and others built on this.[1] An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the disease. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (May 26, 1689 - August 21, 1762), was an English woman of letters. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist who demonstrated the germ theory of disease and developed techniques of inoculation, most notably the first vaccine against rabies. ...


The word vaccination was first used by Edward Jenner an English physician 22 years later, in 1796. Louis Pasteur further adapted in his pioneering work in microbiology. Vaccination (Latin: vacca—cow) is so named because the first vaccine was derived from a virus affecting cows—the relatively benign cowpox virus—which provides a degree of immunity to smallpox, a contagious and deadly disease. In common speech, 'vaccination' and 'immunization' generally have the same colloquial meaning. This distinguishes it from inoculation which uses unweakened live pathogens, although in common usage either is used to refer to an immunization. The word "vaccination" was originally used specifically to describe the injection of smallpox vaccine.[3] Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... This article is about the disease. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... A child being immunized against polio. ... This article is about the disease. ...


Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy since their inception, on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds. Early success and compulsion brought widespread acceptance and mass vaccination campaigns were undertaken which are credited with greatly reducing the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions. A vaccine controversy is a dispute over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, or safety of vaccination. ... The UK Vaccination Acts of 1840, 1853 and 1898 reflect the continuing argument over vacination policy in the UK. They were followed by legislation in the USA and other countries. ...

Contents

Triggering immune sensitization

In the generic sense, the process of artificial induction of immunity, in an effort to protect against infectious disease, works by 'priming' the immune system with an 'immunogen'. Stimulating immune response, via use of an infectious agent, is known as immunization. Vaccinations involve the administration of one or more immunogens, which can be administered in several forms. Immunity against some infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies. ... In medicine immunization is the process by which an individual is exposed to a material that is designed to prime his or her immune system against that material. ...


Some modern vaccines are administered after the patient already has contracted a disease, as in the cases of experimental AIDS, cancer and Alzheimer's disease vaccines. Vaccinia given after exposure to smallpox, within the first four days, is reported to attenuate the disease considerably, and vaccination within the first week is known to be beneficial to a degree. The first rabies immunization was given by Louis Pasteur to a child bitten by a rabid dog, subsequently post-exposure immunization to rabies has generally been followed by survival. The essential empiricism behind such immunizations is that the vaccine triggers an immune response more rapidly than the natural infection itself. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ...


Most vaccines are given by hypodermic injection as they are not absorbed reliably through the gut. Live attenuated Polio, some Typhoid and Cholera Vaccines are given orally in order to produce immunity based in the bowel.


Types of vaccinations

All vaccinations work by presenting a foreign antigen to the immune system in order to evoke an immune response, but there are several ways to do this. The three main types are as follows:

  1. An inactivated vaccine consists of virus particles which are grown in culture and then killed using a method such as heat or formaldehyde. The virus particles are destroyed and cannot replicate, but the virus capsid proteins are intact enough to be recognized by the immune system and evoke a response. When manufactured correctly, the vaccine is not infectious, but improper inactivation can result in intact and infectious particles. Since the properly produced vaccine does not reproduce, booster shots are required periodically to reinforce the immune response.
  2. In an attenuated vaccine, live virus particles with very low virulence are administered. They will reproduce, but very slowly. Since they do reproduce and continue to present antigen beyond the initial vaccination, boosters are required less often. These vaccines are produced by growing the virus in tissue cultures that will select for less virulent strains, or by mutagenesis or targeted deletions in genes required for virulence. There is a small risk of reversion to virulence, this risk is smaller in vaccines with deletions. Attenuated vaccines also cannot be used by immunocompromised individuals.
  3. A subunit vaccine presents an antigen to the immune system without introducing viral particles, whole or otherwise. One method of production involves isolation of a specific protein from a virus and administering this by itself. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins can be denatured and will then bind to different antibodies than the proteins in the virus. A second method of subunit vaccine is the recombinant vaccine, which involves putting a protein gene from the targeted virus into another virus. The second virus will express the protein, but will not present a risk to the patient. This is the type of vaccine currently in use for hepatitis, and it is experimentally popular, being used to try to develop new vaccines for difficult to vaccinate viruses such as Ebola and HIV.[4]

A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Virulence is a term used to refer to either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agent. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...

History of vaccinations

Jenner's handwritten draft of the first vaccination.
Jenner's handwritten draft of the first vaccination.

Early forms of vaccination were developed in ancient China as early as 200 B.C.[1] Scholar Ole Lund comments: "The earliest documented examples of vaccination are from India and China in the 17th century, where vaccination with powdered scabs from people infected with smallpox was used to protect against the disease. Smallpox used to be a common disease throughout the world and 20% to 30% of infected persons died from the disease. Smallpox was responsible for 8 to 20% of all deaths in several European countries in the 18th century. The tradition of vaccination may have originated in India in AD 1000."[5] The mention of vaccination in the Sact'eya Grantham, an Ayurvedic text, was noted by the French scholar Henri Marie Husson in the journal Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales.[6] Almroth Wright, the professor of pathology at Netley, further helped shape the future of vaccination by conducting limited experiments on the professional staff at Netly, including himself. The outcome of these experiments resulted in further development of vaccination in Europe.[7] The Anatolian Ottoman Turks knew about methods of vaccination about a hundred years before Edward Jenner to whom the discovery is attributed. They called vaccination Ashi or engrafting, which they used to apply to their children with cowpox taken from the breast of cattle. This kind of vaccination and other forms of variolation were introduced into England by Lady Montagu, a famous English letter-writer and wife of the English ambassador at Istanbul between 1716 and 1718. She came across the Turkish methods of vaccination, consenting to have her son inoculated by the Embassy surgeon Charles Maitland in the Turkish way. Lady Montagu wrote to her sister and friends in England describing the process in details. On her return to England she continued to propagate the Turkish tradition of vaccination and had many of her relatives inoculated. The breakthrough came when a scientific description of the vaccination operation was submitted to the Royal Society in 1724 by Dr Emmanual Timoni, who had been the Montagu’s family physician in Istanbul. Inoculation was adopted both in England and in France nearly half a century before Jenner's famous smallpox vaccine of 1796.[8] (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद Sanskrit: ayu—life; veda—knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a more than 2,000 year old comprehensive system of medicine based on a holistic approach rooted in Vedic culture. ... Sir Almroth Edward Wright (1861-1947) was a British bacteriologist and immunologist. ... This article is about the UK village. ... Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ...


Since then vaccination campaigns have spread throughout the globe, sometimes prescribed by law or regulations (See Vaccination Acts). Vaccines are now used to fight a wide variety of disease threats besides smallpox. Louis Pasteur further developed the technique during the 19th century, extending its use to protecting against bacterial anthrax and viral rabies. The method Pasteur used entailed treating the infectious agents for those diseases so they lost the ability to cause serious disease. Pasteur adopted the name vaccine as a generic term in honor of Jenner's discovery, which Pasteur's work built upon. The UK Vaccination Acts of 1840, 1853 and 1898 reflect the continuing argument over vacination policy in the UK. They were followed by legislation in the USA and other countries. ... This article is about the disease. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... Anthrax bacteria. ...


Prior to vaccination with cowpox, the only known protection against smallpox was inoculation or variolation (Variola - the Smallpox viruses) where a small amount of live smallpox virus was administered to the patient; this carried the serious risk that the patient would be killed or seriously ill. The death rate from variolation was reported to be around a tenth of that from natural infection with Variola, and the immunity provided was considered quite reliable. Factors contributing to the efficacy of variolation probably include the choices of Variola Minor strains used, the relatively low number of cells infected in the first phase of multiplication following initial exposure, and the exposure route used, via the skin or nasal lining rather than inhalation of droplets into the lungs. Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ...


Consistency would suggest the activity should have predated Jenner's description of an effective vaccination system, and there is some history relating to opposition to the older and more hazardous procedure of variolation.


In modern times, the first vaccine-preventable disease targeted for eradication was smallpox. The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinated the global effort to eradicate this disease. The last naturally occurring case of smallpox occurred in Somalia in 1977. WHO redirects here. ...


In 1988, the governing body of WHO targeted polio for eradication by the year 2000. Although the target was missed, eradication is very close. The next eradication target would most likely be measles, which has declined since the introduction of measles vaccination in 1963. A child receives oral polio vaccine during a 2002 campaign to immunize children in India. ...


In 2000, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization was established to strengthen routine vaccinations and introduce new and under-used vaccines in countries with a per capita GDP of under US$1000. GAVI is now entering its second phase of funding, which extends through 2014. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization is an alliance between various UN organizations, national governments, private foundations, NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry. ...


Vaccination policies, compulsory vaccination

Poster for vaccination against smallpox.
Poster for vaccination against smallpox.
Main article: Vaccination policy
Further information: Vaccine controversy

In an attempt to eliminate the risk of outbreaks of some diseases, at various times several governments and other institutions have instituted policies requiring vaccination for all people. For example, an 1853 law required universal vaccination against smallpox in England and Wales, with fines levied on people who did not comply. Common contemporary U.S. vaccination policies require that children receive common vaccinations before entering school. A few other countries also have some compulsory vaccinations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x1083, 107 KB) Poster created prior to 1979 promoting the importance of Smallpox/Measles vaccination. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x1083, 107 KB) Poster created prior to 1979 promoting the importance of Smallpox/Measles vaccination. ... Vaccination policy refers to the policy a government practices in relation to vaccination. ... A vaccine controversy is a dispute over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, or safety of vaccination. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Beginning with early vaccination in the nineteenth century, these policies led to resistance from a variety of groups, collectively called anti-vaccinationists, who objected on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds. Common objections are that compulsory vaccination represents excessive government intervention in personal matters, or that the proposed vaccinations are not sufficiently safe.[9] Many modern vaccination policies allow exemptions for people who have compromised immune systems, allergies to the components used in vaccinations or strongly-held objections.[10] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See vaccination, antivaccinationist With the exception of the Christian Scientists and the Dutch Orthodox Reformed church (about 2% of the population of the Netherlands) all religions normally encountered support vaccination and other immunisations in 2006. ...


Herd immunity and medical risk management issues

Vaccination campaigns are generally accepted as having contributed to the worldwide elimination of smallpox, through herd immunity, and to the restriction of polio to isolated pockets in countries where healthcare access is difficult. The risk management practices of government health agencies' promoting widespread vaccination campaigns has prompted increasing controversy in recent years, despite the fact that many once-common childhood diseases, such as mumps, measles and rubella, are now relatively rare in developed countries. This article is about the disease. ... …Herd immunity describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of the a portion of the population (or herd) provides protection to un-vaccinated individuals. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ... This page is for the disease. ...


Adjuvants and preservatives

Vaccines typically contain one or more adjuvants, used to boost the immune response. Tetanus toxoid, for instance, is usually adsorbed onto alum. This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater action than the simple aqueous tetanus toxoid. People who get an excessive reaction to adsorbed tetanus toxoid may be given the simple vaccine when time for a booster occurs. In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ... A crystal of alum Alum, (IPA: ) a nonexistent compound that was imagined by Mary Daly, which serves no purpose than to supply highscool students with work. ...


In the preparation for the 1990 Gulf campaign, Pertussis vaccine (not acellular) was used as an adjuvant for Anthrax vaccine. This produces a more rapid immune response than giving only the Anthrax, which is of some benefit if exposure might be imminent.


They may also contain preservatives, which are used to prevent contamination with bacteria or fungi. Until recent years, the preservative thiomersal was used in many vaccines that did not contain live virus. As of 2005, the only childhood vaccine in the U.S. that contains thiomersal in greater than trace amounts is the influenza vaccine [1], which is currently recommended only for children with certain risk factors.[11] The UK is considering Influenza immunisation in children perhaps as soon as in 2006-7. Single-dose Influenza vaccines supplied in the UK do not list Thiomersal (its UK name) in the ingredients. Preservatives may be used at various stages of production of vaccines, and the most sophisticated methods of measurement might detect traces of them in the finished product, as they may in the environment and population as a whole [2]. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Thiomersal (INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S), formerly and still commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Combined vaccines

Combined vaccinations are now widely used around the world, a result of the rapid increase in the number of shots recommended in current vaccination schedules. A vaccination schedule is a recommended series of vaccinations including the suggested timing of all doses. ...


Methods of administration

A vaccine administration may be oral, by injection (intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous), by puncture, transdermal or intranasal.[12] A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ...


Vaccine research

Some major contemporary research in vaccination focuses on development of vaccinations for diseases including HIV and malaria. An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


Vaccine is an international peer-reviewed journal for vaccination researchers, indexed in Medline pISSN: 0264-410X. Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... It has been suggested that GoPubMed be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... H5N1 clinical trials are clinical trials concerning H5N1 vaccine; which is to say they are investigations concerning H5N1 vaccine in humans intended to discover pharmacological effects and identify any adverse reactions. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... A vaccine controversy is a dispute over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, or safety of vaccination. ... I am an elf. ... A vaccination schedule is a recommended series of vaccinations including the suggested timing of all doses. ... Programs supporting regular vaccination of dogs have contributed both to the health of dogs and to the public health. ... Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Lombard M, Pastoret PP, Moulin AM (2007). "A brief history of vaccines and vaccination". Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot. 26 (1): 29–48. PMID 17633292. 
  2. ^ Behbehani AM (1983). "The smallpox story: life and death of an old disease.". Microbiol. Rev. 47 (4): 455–509. PMID 6319980. 
  3. ^ a b Plett PC (2006). "[Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner]" (in German). Sudhoffs Arch 90 (2): 219–32. PMID 17338405. 
  4. ^ Department of Veterinary Science & Microbiology at The University of Arizona Vaccines by Janet M. Decker, PhD
  5. ^ Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten Strunge and Lundegaard, Claus (2005). Immunological Bioinformatics. MIT Press. ISBN 0262122804
  6. ^ Chaumeton, F.P.; F.V. Me`rat de Vaumartoise. Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales. Paris: C.L.F. Panckoucke, 1812-1822, lvi (1821).
  7. ^ Curtin, Phillip (1998). "Disease and Empire: The Health of European Troops in the Conquest of Africa". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521598354
  8. ^ Anthony Henricy (ed.) (1796). Lady Mary Wortley Montagu,Letters of the Right Honourable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu:Written During her Travels in Europe,Asia and Africa 1, 167-169. 
  9. ^ Wolfe R, Sharp L (2002). "Anti-vaccinationists past and present". BMJ 325 (7361): 430–2. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7361.430. PMID 12193361. 
  10. ^ Salmon, Daniel A et al. (2006) Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future. The Lancet 367(9508):436-442.
  11. ^ Melinda Wharton. National Vaccine Advisory committee U.S.A. national vaccine plan
  12. ^ Plotkin, Stanley A. (2006). Mass Vaccination: Global Aspects - Progress and Obstacles (Current Topics in Microbiology & Immunology). Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K. ISBN 978-3540293828. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • The Vaccine Page links to resources in many countries.
  • Immunisation Immunisation schedule for children in the UK. Published by the UK Department of Health.
  • Vaccine Ingredients A list of vaccine ingredients.
  • Brian Deer.com - 'mmr & autism investigation: part 1: the Lancet scandal', Brian Deer
  • CDC.gov - 'National Immunization Program: leading the way to healthy lives', US Centers for Disease Control (CDC information on vaccinations)
  • CDC.gov - 'Mercury and Vaccines (Thimerosal)', US Centers for Disease Control
  • Immunize.org - Immunization Action Coalition' (nonprofit working to increase immunization rates)
  • NYTimes.com - 'On Autism's Cause, It's Parents vs. Research', Gardiner Harris, Anahad O'Connor, New York Times (front page; June 25, 2005)
  • OpinionJournal.com - 'Autism and vaccines: Activists wage a nasty campaign to silence scientists' (unsigned editorial opinion), Wall Street Journal (February 16, 2004)
  • SNHS.com - 'Anti-vaccine activists get jabbed', Michael Fumento (March 11, 2004)
  • WHO.int - 'Immunizations, vaccines and biologicals: Towards a World free of Vaccine Preventable Diseases', World Health Organization (WHO's global vaccination campaign website)
  • 909Shot.com - 'National Vaccine Information Center: the oldest and largest national organization advocating reformation of the mass vaccination system'
  • VaccinationDebate.com - 'Vaccination Debate', Ian Sinclair
  • VacLib.org - 'Vaccination Liberation'

Brian Deer is an award-winning British investigative reporter, best known for inquiries into the drug industry, medicine and social issues for the Sunday Times of London. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... WHO redirects here. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... A child being immunized against polio. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... In immunology an adjuvant is an agent which, while not having any specific antigenic effect in itself, may stimulate the immune system, increasing the response to a vaccine. ... The term cancer vaccine is often used to describe a process whereby a persons immune system is coaxed into recognizing and destroying malignant cells without harming normal cells. ... DNA vaccination is a proposed experimental technique for protecting an organism against disease by injecting it with naked DNA to produce an immunological response. ... An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... A live vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a chemically weakened virus to transport pieces of the HIV virus in order to stimulate an immune response. ... It is possible to model mathematically the progress of most infectious diseases to discover the likely outcome of an epidemic or to help manage them by vaccination. ... Timeline of vaccines This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic vaccines. ... I am an elf. ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) consists of fifteen advisors to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), selected by the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, to provide advice and guidance on the most effective means to prevent diseases through nation-wide vaccination campaigns. ... The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization is an alliance between various UN organizations, national governments, private foundations, NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry. ... The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ... Vaccine court is the popular term which refers to the Autism Omnibus Proceedings of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims. ... Vaccine injury is a term used in both medicine and law to designate alleged injuries sustained by individuals subsequent to having been vaccinated. ... Vaccination policy refers to the policy a government practices in relation to vaccination. ... A vaccination schedule is a recommended series of vaccinations including the suggested timing of all doses. ... The Vaccine Safety Datalink Project (VSD) was established, in 1990, by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for the study of adverse side effects of vaccines. ... An apparatus (4-5 cm length, with nine short needles) used for BCG vaccination in Japan. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... The MMR vaccine is a mixture of three live attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against measles, mumps and rubella. ... The MMRV vaccine combines the attenuated virus MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine with the addition of chickenpox vaccine. ... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... Smallpox vaccine being administered. ... The varicella vaccine protects against the disease commonly known as chickenpox. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... Hepatitis A Vaccine, Avaxim, is a vaccine against the Hepatitis A virus. ... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... DPT, (sometimes DTP) is a mixture of three vaccines, to immunize against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. ... A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor antigen to a carrier protein, thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier on the attached antigen. ... Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hib vaccine) is a conjugate vaccine developed for the prevention of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B bacteria. ... Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), also known as Pneumovax, is a vaccine used to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) infections such as pneumonia and septicaemia. ... DPT, (sometimes DTP) is a mixture of three vaccines, to immunize against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a vaccine that targets certain sexually transmitted strains of human papillomavirus that are associated with the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. ... Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine developed for the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. ... Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), also known as Pneumovax, is a vaccine used to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) infections such as pneumonia and septicaemia. ... A vaccine controversy is a dispute over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, or safety of vaccination. ... Advocates for Childrens Health Affected by Mercury Poisoning (A-CHAMP), is a United States political activism group, founded by parents, which advocates on behalf of children who were injured by mercury in thimerosal-containing vaccines, and other toxins. ... The MMR vaccine controversy is over the safety of the MMR vaccine. ... The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986 (42 U.S.C. §§ 300aa-1 to 300aa-34) was enacted in the United States to reduce the potential financial liability of vaccine makers due to vaccine injury claims. ... A pox party is a normal party for children organised by parents whose kids have the chicken pox. ... The Coalition for Safe Minds (Sensible Action For Ending Mercury-Induced Neurological Disorders) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to investigating the risks of exposure to mercury from medical products. ... Following US government action to evaluate levels of environmental toxins, including mercury, it has been claimed, particularly in the context of lawsuits, that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to, or cause, a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, most notably autism and related Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs), or other... Vaccine topics 2000 Simpsonwood CDC conference AIDS vaccine Andrew Wakefield Edward Jenner Edward Yazbak Generation Rescue Genetics Immunization Immunology Inoculation MMR vaccine Safe Minds Timeline of vaccines Vaccination Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System Vaccine controversy Vaccines and Fetal Tissue ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative | IAVI - International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (392 words)
On May 18, AIDS vaccine advocates worldwide marked World AIDS Vaccine Day by acknowledging all who work tirelessly to find a safe and effective AIDS vaccine, the world's best hope for ending the AIDS pandemic.
A vaccine is a substance that is introduced into the body to prevent infection or to control disease due to a certain pathogen (any disease-causing organism, such as a virus, bacterium or parasite); the vaccine 'teaches' the body how to defend itself against a pathogen by creating an immune response.
The Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology has partnered with IAVI to research four key biological questions hindering the development of an AIDS vaccine.
allAfrica.com: Uganda: Two Held Over Fake Cattle Vaccine (Page 1 of 1) (356 words)
"The suspects were found with fake Hydroxine vaccine meant for cows but instead, it was a tomato spray drug.
Mr Nsubuga said the suspects had relabelled the two litre tins with hydroxine vaccine labels claiming it is made in Germany.
The genuine vaccine for cows is very expensive but the suspects were selling it at a cheaper price saying that they had smuggled it from the German embassy because it's not for export.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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