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Encyclopedia > VTOL
The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability.
The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability.

VTOL is an abbreviaton for Vertical Take-Off and Landing. VTOL describes fixed-wing aircraft that can lift off vertically. This classification includes only a very few aircraft; helicopters, autogyros; balloons and airships are not normally considered VTOL[citation needed]. Some aircraft can operate in VTOL mode in addition to others, such as CTOL (Conventional Take-off and Landing) and/or STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing). Others can only operate by VTOL, due to the aircraft lacking landing gear that can handle horizontal motion. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x539, 67 KB) Found at [[1]]. Shows a Harrier GR.3 flying over Belize in 1982. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x539, 67 KB) Found at [[1]]. Shows a Harrier GR.3 flying over Belize in 1982. ... An Air France Boeing 777, a modern passenger jet. ... The Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... Modern Autogyro, ELA-07, Casarrubios del Monte Airfield, Spain, 2004. ... Balloons, like greeting cards or flowers, are given for special occasions. ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, November 2, 1931 An airship or dirigible is a buoyant aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... Conventional Take-off and Landing is the process whereby conventional aircraft (such as passenger aircraft) take off and land, involving the use of runways. ... STOL is an acronym for Short Take-Off and Landing, used in the aircraft industry to describe airplanes with very short runway requirements. ... Main and nosewheel undercarriage of a Qatar Airways Airbus A330 The undercarriage or landing gear is equipment which supports an aircraft when it is not flying. ...


Currently there are two types of practical VTOL aircraft in service:

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Bell Aircraft Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer of the United States, a builder of several types of fighter aircraft for World War II but most famous for the Bell X-1, the first supersonic aircraft, and for many types of helicopters. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... The V-22 Osprey is a joint service, multi-mission military aircraft with vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) capability. ... Harrier Jump Jet, often referred to as just the Jump Jet, covers a series of a military VSTOL jet aircraft. ...

History

In 1928, Nikola Tesla received patents for an apparatus for aerial transportation. Tesla called it the "Flivver". It is one of the earliest examples of VTOL aircraft. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Below is a list of Tesla patents. ... The word Flivver is most commonly meant to indicate a Ford Model T. In a more general sense, a small, cheap car is meant. ...


In late World War II, Germany designers studied the possibility of a VTOL aircraft, the Heinkel Lerche, but the plan never got off the drawing board. The Heinkel Lerche (Ger. ...


An early contribution to VTOL was Rolls-Royce's Thrust Measuring Rig ("flying bedstead") of 1953. This led to the first VTOL engines as used in the first British VTOL aircraft, the Short SC.1 (1957) which used a 4 vertical lift engines with a horizontal one for forward thrust. Rolls-Royce Limited was a British car and aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls in 1906 and was the result of a partnership formed in 1904. ... The Flying Bedstead in free flight, 3 August 1954. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Short Brothers Short SC.1 was the first British fixed-wing vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The idea of using the same engine for vertical and horizontal flight by altering the path of the thrust led to the Bristol Siddeley Pegasus engine which used rotating ducts to direct thrust over a range of angles. This was developed side by side with an airframe, the Hawker P.1127, which became subsequently the Kestrel and then entered production as the Hawker Siddeley Harrier though the supersonic Hawker Siddeley P.1154 was cancelled in 1965. Rolls-Royce Pegasus Rolls-Royce Pegasus This engine should not be confused with the older Bristol Pegasus radial piston engine The Rolls Royce Pegasus is a turbofan engine originally designed by Bristol (hence the name from Greek mythology) and now manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. ... The Hawker P.1127 was the development aircraft that led to the Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the first VTOL jet fighter bomber. ... See also BAE Sea Harrier The Hawker Siddeley Harrier and the AV-8A are the first generation of the Harrier series, a successful close-support and reconnaissance fighter aircraft with V/STOL capabilities. ... The Hawker Siddeley P.1154 was a supersonic VSTOL fighter aircraft being developed as a follow on to the subsonic Hawker P.1127/Kestrel, but the project was cancelled in 1965. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


The Harrier is often flown in STOVL mode which enables it to carry a higher fuel or weapon load over a given distance. The Indian Navy operate Sea Harriers, mainly from its aircraft carrier. The United States Marine Corps, and the Italian and Spanish Navies use the AV-8 Harrier II, an advanced derivative of the Harrier. The Harrier II will be replaced in the air arms of the US and UK by a STOVL variant of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE SYSTEMS Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... Four aircraft carriers, (front-to-back) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences. ... The Boeing/BAE Systems AV-8B Harrier II is a family of second-generation vertical/short takeoff and landing or V/STOL jet mullti-role aircraft of the late 20th century. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ... The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a military fighter aircraft designed by the United States and the United Kingdom. ...


NASA has flown other VTOL craft such as the XV-15 research craft (1977), as have the Soviet Navy and Luftwaffe. Sikorsky tested an aircraft dubbed the X-Wing, which took off in the manner of a helicopter. The rotors would become stationary in mid-flight, and function as wings, providing lift in addition to the static wings. Boeing X-50 is a Canard Rotor/Wing prototype that utilizes a similar concept. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States Government, responsible for that nations public space program. ... XV-15 at National Air and Space Museum The Bell XV-15 was the first successful experimental tiltrotor VTOL airplane. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sikorsky is an American aircraft and helicopter manufacturer. ... Wikipedia:Translation/Sikorsky S-72 Sikorsky S-72 modified as the X-Wing testbed The Sikorsky S-72 was an experimental hybrid helicopter/fixed-wing aircraft developed by helicopter manufacturer Sikorsky. ... First flight of the Boeing X-50A The Boeing X-50A Dragonfly, formerly known as the Canard Rotor/Wing Demonstrator, is a UAV being developed by Boeing and DARPA to demonstrate the principle that a helicopters rotor can be stopped in flight and act as a fixed wing. ... Canard rotor-wing function The Canard-Rotor-Wing (CRW) is a stoppable-rotor design which can hover and fly at low-speeds like a conventional helicopter, whereas in its stopped-rotor mode it can fly at high speeds comparable to those of fixed-wing aircraft. ...


In the 1960s France developed a version of the Dassault Mirage III capable of attaining Mach 1. The Dassault Mirage III - V Balzac (not to be confused with the Mirage 5) achieved transition from vertical to horizontal flight in March of 1966 and reached Mach 1.3 in level flight a short time later. The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... The Dassault Mirage IIIV (three vee) was one of the most interesting offshoots of the Mirage III family tree. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...


The Soviet Yak-38 Forger was the Soviet Navy's VTOL aircraft for their light carriers, cargoships, and capital ships. It was developed from the Yak-36 Freehand experimental aircraft. Before the Soviet Union collapsed, a supersonic VTOL aircraft was developed as the Yak-38's successor, the Yak-141, which never went into production. The Yak-141, also called Yak-41 was further developed into the Yak-43. Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922–1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944–1991) Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian (the de facto official language), 14 other official languages Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1922–1924 Vladimir Lenin  - 1924–1953 Joseph Stalin... The Yakovlev Yak-38 (NATO reporting name: Forger) was Soviet Naval Aviations first and only operational VTOL multi-role combat aircraft. ... Yakovlev may refer to: Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev, a prominent supporter of glasnost and ally of Mikhael Gorbachev in the 1980s. ... The Yakovlev Yak-41 (NATO reporting name Freestyle) was a supersonic VTOL fighter aircraft from the Russian Federation. ... The Yakovlev Yak-41 (NATO reporting name Freestyle) was a supersonic VTOL fighter aircraft from the Soviet Union. ... The Yakovlev Yak-41 (NATO reporting name Freestyle) was a supersonic VTOL fighter aircraft from the Russian Federation. ...

In the 1960s and early 70s Germany used the F-104 as a base for research for a V/STOL aircraft. Although two models (X1 and X2) were built, the project was canceled due to high costs and political problems as well as changed needs in the Luftwaffe and NATO. The EWR VJ 101C did perform free VTOL take-offs and landings, as well as test flights beyond mach 1 in the mid- and late 60s. One of the test-aircraft is preserved in the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1491x732, 92 KB) == Description ==Deutsches Museum Munich Photo by Jean-Patrick Donzey [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): VTOL F-104 Starfighter EWR VJ 101... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1491x732, 92 KB) == Description ==Deutsches Museum Munich Photo by Jean-Patrick Donzey [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): VTOL F-104 Starfighter EWR VJ 101... The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was the last of the day fighters, a high-performance supersonic interceptor aircraft capable of high speeds and climb rates. ... V/STOL is an acronym for Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... EWR VJ101C in the Deutsches Museum in Munich The EWR VJ 101 was an experimental West German jet-powered, VTOL aircraft. ... Deutsches Museum The Deutsches Museum is one of the worlds largest museums of technology and science. ...


The Moller Skycar is a prototype personal VTOL aircraft -- literally, a "flying air vehicle" (PAV). It has, as of this date, never made the transition to level flight, nor has it ever flown with anybody on board. A poster of the skycar Moller Skycar M400 Skycar M400 hover test. ... Personal Air Vehicle or PAV is a term widely adopted by the U.S. aviation community and is used to describe a class of light general aviation aircraft which meet a specialized set of design and performance goals. ...


Aircraft designed to operate in extraterrestrial environments often utilize VTOL. An example of this type of aircraft is the LLRV. Spacecraft typically operate in environments where runways or even a suitably flat surface for skids is nonexistent. Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 22. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ...


Media

  • F-35 flight (video) ( file info) — Watch in browser
    • F-35 flight, good image of transition to VTOL configuration, vertical take off, inflight re-fueling, vertical hover and landing.
  • F-35 verticle landing (video) ( file info) — Watch in browser
    • Vertical landing (video)
  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Image File history File links F-35_compilation. ... Image File history File links F-35_verticle_landing. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: VTOL (2685 words)
VTOL is an abbreviaton for Vertical Take-Off and Landing.
An early contribution to VTOL was Rolls-Royce's Thrust Measuring Rig ("flying bedstead") of 1953.
VTOL · V/STOL VTOHL STOL is an acronym for Short Take-Off and Landing, used in the aircraft industry to describe airplanes with very short runway requirements.
VTOL Summary (1046 words)
An early VTOL prototype was Rolls-Royce's "flying bedstead", this led to the first British VTOL aircraft, the Short SC.1 which used a mixture of vertical lift engines and a horizontal one for forward thrust.
The idea of using the same engine for vertical and horizontal flight by altering the path of the thrust led to the Bristol Siddeley Pegasus engine which used rotating ducts to direct thrust over a range of angles.
The Dassault Mirage III - V Balzac (not to be confused with the Mirage 5) achieved transition from vertical to horizontal flight in March of 1966 and reached Mach 1.3 in level flight a short time later.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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