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Voice of America logo
Voice of America logo

Voice of America (VOA) is the official international radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. It is vaguely similar to other international broadcasters such as the BBC World Service, Deutsche Welle, Radio Netherlands, Radio France Internationale, Voice of Russia and Radio Canada International owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, (although these agencies are not fully government controlled), Its oversight bureau is the International Broadcasting Bureau, which is committed to "public diplomacy." Image File history File links VOA_Logo. ... link titleThe word international can mean: Between nations or encompassing several nations. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals (programs) to a number of recipients (listeners or viewers) that belong to a large group. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... World Service logo The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... Radio Netherlands (RNW, short for Radio Nederland Wereldomroep in Dutch) is a public radio and television network based in Hilversum, producing and transmitting programmes for international audiences outside the Netherlands. ... // History 6 mai 1931 Le Poste Colonial diffuse sa première émission en ondes courtes depuis le studio de lExposition Coloniale à Paris. ... A 1969 Radio Moscow QSL card Radio Moscow was the official international broadcasting station of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... Radio Canada International (RCI) is the international broadcasting service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ... The International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) is a United States Government federal agency that was created in 1994 to produce political radio and television broadcasts that are intended for audiences in foreign countries. ... In international relations, the term public diplomacy is a term coined in the 1960s to describe aspects of international diplomacy other than the interactions between national governments. ...


There are also many "affiliate" and contracted radio stations which carry VOA programs. VOA programs in many of its broadcast languages are also available on the World Wide Web in both streaming media and downloadable formats. VOA formerly was based on a 625-acre site in Union Township (now West Chester Township) in Butler County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. The Bethany Relay Station operated from 1944 to 1994. Other former sites include California (Dixon), Hawaii, Okinawa, Liberia, Costa Rica, and Belize. An affiliate is a commercial entity with a relationship with a peer or a larger entity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a global, read-write information space. ... Streaming media is media that is consumed (heard or viewed) (mostly in the form of clips) while it is being delivered. ... This article is about the computer terms. ... West Chester Township, formerly known as Union Township, is a township located in the southeast corner of Butler County in southwest Ohio, one of thirteen townships in the county. ... Butler County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Nickname: The Queen City Location in Hamilton County, Ohio Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Hamilton Founded 1788 Incorporated 1819 Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Area    - City 206. ... The Voice of Americas Bethany Relay Station was located in Butler County, Ohios Union Township about 25 miles (40 km) north of Cincinnati. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Dixon is a city located 30 miles from Sacramento, California, in Solano County. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the prefecture. ...

Contents


Languages

The Voice of America currently does radio broadcasts in 44 languages and television broadcasts in 24 (marked with an asterisk):

The Oromo language, also known as Afaan Oromo or Oromifaa, is an Afro-Asiatic language, and the most widely spoken of the Cushitic sub-phylum. ... Amharic (አማርኛ ’amarəñña) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia. ... Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) or Bengali is an Indo-Aryan language of East South Asia, evolved from Sanskrit and Prakrit. ... Cantonese (Traditional Chinese: 粵語; Simplified Chinese: 粤语]], Cantonese: Yuet6yue5; Mandarin pinyin: YuèyÇ”, lit. ... // A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. ... The term Dari derives from Fârsi-e Darbâri which means Persian of the (royal) courts. It developed at the royal courts of the Samanids (980 AD) in Central Asia and became the major language of Persia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Special English is a simplified version of the English language used by the United States broadcasting service Voice of America in daily broadcasts. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ) is one of the main Austroasiatic languages. ... Kinyarwanda is the chief spoken language in Rwanda. ... Kirundi (also written Rundi) is a Bantu language (D62 in Guthries classification) spoken by some 6 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and Congo-Kinshasa, as well as in Uganda. ... Kurdish (Kurdî) is an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Mandarin, or Beifanghua (Chinese: 北方話; Pinyin: BÄ›ifānghuà; literally Northern Dialect(s)), or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; Pinyin: Guānhuà; literally official speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... The Ndebele language, or isiNdebele, or Sindebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the AmaNdebele (the Ndebele people). ... Pashto (//; پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pathan, Pakhto, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pashto پشتو and Pukhto پختو ) is the language spoken by the Pashtun people who inhabit western Pakistan, and Afghanistan. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and by Serbs everywhere. ... Shona (or ChiShona) is a native language of Zimbabwe; the term is also used to identify those Kintu speaking peoples in Southern Africa who speak one of the Shona languages. ... This article is about the language. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Tigrigna (or ትግሪኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea, where it is the official language, and in parts of Ethiopia and Israel. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...

Overview

VOA's parent organization is the International Broadcasting Bureau, which is overseen by the presidentially-appointed Broadcasting Board of Governors. Although the IBB was originally seen as a "wall" protecting VOA and other official U.S. civilian international broadcasters from political interference, critics in recent years have questioned the degree of independence of VOA's news programs from government policies. The International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) is a United States Government federal agency that was created in 1994 to produce political radio and television broadcasts that are intended for audiences in foreign countries. ... The Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) is an independent agency of the United States government, responsible for all U.S. government and government sponsored, non-military, international broadcasting. ...


History

VOA was organized in 1942 under the Office of War Information with news programs aimed at areas in Europe and North Africa under the occupation of Nazi Germany. VOA began broadcasting on February 24, 1942. Transmitters used by VOA came from shortwave transmitters used by the CBS and NBC. Voice of America began to transmit radio broadcasts into the Soviet Union on February 17, 1947. During the Cold War, VOA was placed under the U.S. Information Agency. In the 1980s, VOA also added a television service, as well as special regional programs to Cuba, Radio Martí and TV Martí. The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupy all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent during an invasion (during or after a war). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... A Grundig shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 2,310 kHz and 25. ... It has been suggested that CBS evening news anchors be merged into this article or section. ... NBC, (Formerly an acronym for the National Broadcasting Company until 2004), is an American television and radio network based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ... The United States Information Agency (USIA), which existed from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to what it called public diplomacy. ... Radio Martí is a radio and television broadcaster based in Miami, Florida, financed by the United States government (Broadcasting Board of Governors), which transmits Spanish-language radio broadcasts to Cuba. ... TV Martí was created by the US Government to provide news and current affairs programming to Cuba. ...


The VOA has been broadcasting on the Internet since 2000 in English. Content in other languages is also available online through a distributed network, using more than 14,000 servers in some 65 countries. The International Broadcasting Bureau, in its 2007 budget, proposes reductions in VOA's English language programming, by eliminating VOA News Now radio while maintaining VOA English to Africa, Special English, and VOA's English website.


Laws governing VOA-IBB's activities

Under United States law (the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948), the Voice of America is forbidden to broadcast directly to American citizens. The original intent of this legislation is to keep the federal government from having a direct outlet to their domestic public, unlike many European countries. The law explicitly forbidding VOA from carrying out any domestic broadcasting activities is partly derived from the U.S.'s lack of a state funded domestic radio or television broadcaster. The law was also designed to satisfy the needs of the U.S.'s commercial radio broadcasting companies. The U.S. PBS (TV) and NPR (Radio) networks in the U.S. function with some public funding, but without the oversight that state broadcasting corporations typically have. Both networks have supplied material for VOA Worldnet TV (which was merged into VOA in 2004), or VOA's Radio's flagship English Service. No other international broadcaster has these kinds of restrictions governing their activities.[citation needed] The stela of King Hammurabi depicts the god Shamash revealing a code of laws to the king. ... The Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 was a piece of federal legislation in the United States. ... Bold textJAMES CHECKLEY Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ...


In special cases, such as the 1981 TV program Let Poland Be Poland, Congressional approval was required to show Americans the program. However, VOA is audible on shortwave and broadcasts streaming audio over the Internet, which enables Americans to hear the programming. 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Grundig shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 2,310 kHz and 25. ... Web radio (or Internet radio) is a broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. ...


International Broadcasting Bureau services

VOA broadcasts several programs aimed at specialist audiences through the International Broadcasting Bureau. Radio Martí and TV Martí are aimed at Cuba. Radio Sawa is aimed at a younger audience in the Arab world (note: Radio Sawa is funded by the IBB, but is not part of VOA). Radio Farda is aimed at a younger audence in Persian for Iran. Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty and Radio Free Asia are VOA sister services aimed at the ex-communist states and oppressive countries, particularly in Europe and Asia. Many Voice of America announcers, such as Willis Conover, Pat Gates, and Judy Massa became world-wide celebrities. The International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) is a United States Government federal agency that was created in 1994 to produce political radio and television broadcasts that are intended for audiences in foreign countries. ... Radio Martí is a radio and television broadcaster based in Miami, Florida, financed by the United States government (Broadcasting Board of Governors), which transmits Spanish-language radio broadcasts to Cuba. ... TV Martí was created by the US Government to provide news and current affairs programming to Cuba. ... Radio Sawa is a radio station, run and funded by the United States government, and broadcast in Arabic. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, rather than a pure ethnic group, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Radio Farda is a Persian language radio station based in the Czech capital Prague. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... Radio Free Asia was created by the International Broadcasting Act of 1994 and began its operations in 1996. ... This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Willis Conover (1920-May 17, 1996) was a jazz producer and broadcaster on the Voice of America for over forty years. ... A celebrity is a person who is widely recognized (famous) in a society and commands a high degree of public and media attention. ...


The Voice of America headquarters is located at 330 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC, 20237, USA. IBB runs a number of transmitting sites throughout the world, including its domestic relay stations at Greenville, North Carolina and Delano, California. IBB operates a series of relay stations outside the US: Germany ( Transmitter Ismaning), United Kingdom, Botswana, Greece, Kuwait, Morocco, Saipan & Tinian, Philippines, São Tomé, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and recently Pakistan. Guam relay stations are available for use if crises in East Asia develop. Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Nickname: Pro Town USA [[ZIP Code]]: 27833 Location of Greenville shown within North Carolina Coordinates: Country United States State North Carolina County Pitt County Settled 1771 Founded 1774 (Martinsborough) Founded 1786 (Greenville) Mayor Don Parrott Area    - City 68 km²  (26. ... Delano is a city located in Kern County, California. ... The Transmitter Ismaning is a large radio station inaugaurated in 1932. ... Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and site of the capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, a chain of 15 tropical islands in the western Pacific Ocean with a total area of 120 km² (46. ... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan (Click to enlarge) Tinian is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. ... São Tomé (population 53,300 in 2003) is the capital city of São Tomé and Príncipe and is by far the nations largest town. ...


Pakistani Service

The Voice of America program. Khabron Se Agay, is telecast in Pakistan by GEO TV. VOA says the program's purpose is to foster further understanding between the Pakistani and American peoples. This program includes documentaries about the United States and its people and about Pakistanis who are living in United States. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A comparison of VOA-RFE-RL-RM (IBB) to other broadcasters


Enlarge
Output of IBB compared to other broadcasters (1950-1996).


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1453x2181, 87 KB) Summary Estimated {Hours/Week} for International Broadcasters (1950-1996). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1453x2181, 87 KB) Summary Estimated {Hours/Week} for International Broadcasters (1950-1996). ...


Programming

The Voice of America has 22 domestic and 16 overseas correspondents, who are U.S. citizens and employees of the U.S. government. They are augmented by contract correspondents and part-time "stringers," in numerous countries, who file in English and numerous languages used by VOA's various language services. The interval signal is "Yankee Doodle," played by a brass band, followed by the announcement: "this is the Voice of America, signing on." For many years "Columbia, Gem of the Ocean" was used for the interval signal . An interval signal is a characteristic sound or musical phrase used in international broadcasting and by some domestic broadcasters. ... Yankee Doodle is a well-known American song, often sung patriotically today (although originally satirical). ... The Lochgelly Band, a Scottish colliery band, circa 1890 A brass band is a musical group consisting mostly of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... Columbia, Gem of the Ocean is an United States patriotic song which was popular in the 19th and early 20th century. ...


VOA allocates a certain amount of its budget to television production and programming.


Featured shows

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Controversy

National sovereignty

Some critics have suggested that the US government violates national sovereignty by broadcasting and operating in their countries.[citation needed] Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ...


In March 2006, five Voice of America staff were arrested on anti-state charges in Ethiopia. Charges were later dropped by the Ethiopian government.[1]


Paying for appearances

Recently, news accounts charge that VOA has for years been paying mainstream media journalists to appear on their shows. According to El Nuevo Herald and the Miami Herald, these include: David Lightman, the Hartford Courant's Washington bureau chief; Tom DeFrank, head of the New York Daily News' Washington office; Helle Dale, a former director of the opinion pages of the Washington Times; Georgie Anne Geyer, a nationally syndicated columnist; and Pablo Alfonso, staff reporter for El Nuevo Herald, and Wilfredo Cancio, a writer for the paper.


In response, spokesmen for the Broadcasting Board of Governors told the newspaper El Nuevo Herald that such payments do not pose a conflict of interest. "For decades, for many, many years, some of the most respectable journalists in the country have received payments to participate in programs of the Voice of America," one of the spokesmen, Larry Hart, told El Nuevo Herald


(see also Miami Herald columnist Carl Hiaasen's Sept. 17, 2006 editorial.)


See also

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... Radio Free Asia was created by the International Broadcasting Act of 1994 and began its operations in 1996. ... The Pentagon Channel is a TV channel devoted to covering the US Armed Forces, primarily for viewing by these forces and other United States Department of Defense (DoD) employees while stationed in the US. It is widely available on US cable television, can be viewed FTA in Europe, north east... American Forces Network (or AFN) is the brand name used by the United States Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) for its entertainment and command internal information networks worldwide. ... World Service logo The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... A 1969 Radio Moscow QSL card Radio Moscow was the official international broadcasting station of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... Radio Canada International (RCI) is the international broadcasting service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). ...

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