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VHS
VHS Logo
Top view of VHS cassette with ruler for scale
Media type Video recording media
Encoding FM on magnetic tape
Developed by JVC (Japan Victor Company)
Usage Audio/Video Storage
Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed
Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed
Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed
Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed

The Video Home System[1], better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard developed by Victor Company of Japan, Limited (JVC) and launched in September 1976, with The Young Teacher being the first movie to be released and A History of Violence, released on home video in 2006, being the last in the North American market.[2] By the 1990s, VHS became a standard format for consumer recording and viewing, after competing in a fierce format war with Sony Corporation's Betamax and, to a much lesser extent, Philips' Video 2000, MCA's Laserdisc and RCA's Capacitance Electronic Disc. VHS is a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders. ... Image File history File links VHS_logo. ... Image File history File links VHS_cassette_with_ruler. ... Video is the technology of capturing, recording, processing, transmitting, and reconstructing moving pictures, typically using celluloid film, electronic signals, or digital media, primarily for viewing on television or as video clips on computer monitors. ... Graphical representations of electrical data: analog audio content format (red), 4-bit digital pulse code modulated content format (black). ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... Download high resolution version (800x616, 59 KB)Description: Photograph of bottom side of a VHS cassette with tape exposed. ... Download high resolution version (800x616, 59 KB)Description: Photograph of bottom side of a VHS cassette with tape exposed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1419x993, 152 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): VHS Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1419x993, 152 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): VHS Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... A History of Violence is a crime drama thriller film directed by David Cronenberg, and written by Josh Olson, based on the graphic novel of the same name by John Wagner and Vince Locke. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. ... The videotape format war was a period of an intense format war of rival incompatible models of video cassette recorders in the 1970s and early 1980s. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Video 2000 (or V2000; also known as Video Compact Cassette, or VCC) was a consumer VCR system and videotape standard developed by Philips and Grundig to compete with JVCs VHS and Sonys Betamax video technologies. ... The Music Corporation of America was a United States based corporation in the music business. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... This article is about the former RCA Corporation. ... The Capacitance Electronic Disc (or CED) was a video playback system developed by RCA, in which video and audio could be played back on a TV using a special analog needle and high-density groove system similar to phonograph records. ...


VHS initially offered a longer playing time than the Betamax system, and it also had the advantage of a far less complex tape transport mechanism. Although VHS and Betamax were competing formats, several of VHS's critical technologies are licensed from Sony. Early VHS machines could rewind and fast forward the tape considerably faster than a Betamax VCR because they unthreaded the tape from the playback heads before commencing any high-speed winding. Most newer VHS machines do not perform this unthreading step, as head-tape contact is no longer an impediment to fast winding, owing to improved engineering. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ...


The week of June 15, 2003 marked the first time the DVD format (which was launched in 1996) became more popular than VHS in the USA.[citation needed] Although still popular for home recording, the VHS tape has largely been replaced by DVD for pre-recorded home video content. is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... The home video business rents and sells videocassettes and DVDs to the public. ...


By 2006, most major film studios stopped releasing new movie titles in VHS format, opting for DVD-only releases. Many leading retailers have stopped selling pre-recorded movies on VHS, although VHS prerecorded cassettes are still popular with many collectors, mainly because there are thousands of titles that are still unavailable on DVD or other newer formats. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A film studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ...

Contents

Technical details

The VHS cassette is a 7 ⅜" wide, 4" deep, 1" thick (187 mm × 103 mm × 25 mm) plastic clamshell held together with 5 Philips head screws. The flip-up cover that protects the tape has a built-in latch with a push-in toggle on the right side, as seen in the Bottom View. The VHS cassette also includes an anti-despooling mechanism as seen in the Top View, several plastic parts near front label end of the cassette between the two spools. The spool brakes are released by a push-in lever within a 1/4" hole accessed from the bottom of the cassette, about 3/4" in from the edge label. There is a clear tape leader at both ends of the tape to provide an optical auto-stop for the VCR transport mechanism.

Mostly re-wound VHS cassette tape
Mostly re-wound VHS cassette tape

The recording medium is a ½ inch (12.7 mm) wide magnetic tape wound between two spools, allowing it to be slowly passed over the various playback and recording heads of the video cassette recorder. The tape speed is 3.335 cm/s for NTSC, 2.339 cm/s for PAL. A cassette holds a maximum of about 430 m of tape at the lowest acceptable tape thickness, giving a maximum playing time of about 3.5 hours for NTSC and 5 hours for PAL at "standard" (SP) quality. Other speeds include LP and EP/SLP which double and triple the recording time, for NTSC regions. Also on some machines paired with a DVD Recorder there is VP Mode which is 5 times the length of SP Mode. These speed reductions cause a slight reduction in video quality (from 250 lines to 230 lines horizontal); also, tapes recorded at the lower speed often exhibit poor playback performance on recorders other than the one they were produced on. Because of this, commercial prerecorded tapes were almost always recorded in SP mode. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and some other countries (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ...

VHS M-loading system
VHS M-loading system

As with almost all cassette-based videotape systems, VHS machines pull the tape from the cassette shell and wrap it around the head drum. VHS machines, in contrast to Betamax and Beta's predecessor U-matic, use an M-loading system, also known as M-lacing, where the tape is drawn out by two threading posts and wrapped around the head drum (and other tape transport components) in a shape roughly approximating the letter M. Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... Sony U-matic VTR BVU-800 A U-matic tape U-matic is the name of a videocassette format developed by Sony in 1969. ... For other uses of M, see M (disambiguation). ...

The interior of a modern VHS VCR showing the drum, tape, and cassette
The interior of a modern VHS VCR showing the drum, tape, and cassette

VHS tapes have approximately 3 MHz of video bandwidth, which is achieved at a relatively low tape speed by the use of helical scan recording of a frequency modulated luminance (black and white) signal, to which a frequency-reduced "color under" chroma (hue and saturation) signal is added. Because VHS is an analog system, VHS tapes represent video as a continuous stream of waves, in a manner similar to analog TV broadcasts. The waveform per scanline can reach about 160 waves at max, and contains 525 scanlines in NTSC (486 visible), or 625 lines in PAL (576 visible). In modern-day digital terminology, VHS is roughly equivalent to 320 pixels of horizontal resolution with a signal-to-noise ratio of the image at 43 dB. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x713, 147 KB) The interior of a modern VHS VCR showing the cassette, drum, and tape mechanism I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x713, 147 KB) The interior of a modern VHS VCR showing the cassette, drum, and tape mechanism I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... The head drum of a Hi-Fi NTSC VHS VCR; three of the six heads face the reader. ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... In telecommunications, to heterodyne is to generate new frequencies by mixing two or more signals in a nonlinear device such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or diode mixer. ... Chrominance (chroma for short) comprises the two components of a television signal that encode color information. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and some other countries (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ...


JVC would counter 1985's SuperBeta with VHS HQ, or High Quality, and in 1987 Super VHS. The frequency modulation of the VHS luminance signal is limited to 3.1 megahertz which makes higher resolutions impossible, but an HQ branded deck includes luminance noise reduction, chroma noise reduction, white clip extension, and improved sharpness circuitry. The effect was to increase the apparent horizontal resolution of a VHS recording from 240 to 250 lines. The major VHS OEMs resisted HQ due to cost concerns, eventually resulting in JVC reducing the requirements for the HQ brand to white clip extension plus one other improvement. As applied to analog television signals, two different words are used, luminance and luma, meaning two different things. ... Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is an ambiguous and abstruse phrase used in relation to the manufacturing and marketing of products. ...


Later JVC introduced the new format called Super VHS which extended the bandwidth to over 5 megahertz, yielding 420 lines horizontal equivalent to a 610x420 resolution. (For comparison DVD is 500 lines.) The chroma resolution remained the same at approximately 0.6 megahertz bandwidth or 30 lines horizontal, as was common across analog tape standards from Umatic to VHS to ED Betamax. Even a live NTSC broadcast is limited to 120 chroma lines maximum. (For comparison DVD is 240 chroma horizontal.)


Audio Upgrade from Lo-Fi Monaural to Hi-Fi Stereo

In the original VHS format, audio was recorded unmodulated in a single linear track at the upper edge of the tape, which was limited in frequency response by the tape speed (about 100 Hz to 10 kHz with 42 dB signal-to-noise ratio at SP). The vast majority of early home recorders only supported monaural for the linear audio track, even though studio film releases began to emerge in stereo from 1982. High-end consumer recorders with linear stereo playback also became available around this time, and these machines often offered other editing facilities such as "audio dubbing" and "video dubbing" functions. These would move the tape past the heads and keep the video unchanged while recording new linear audio or keep the linear audio unchanged while recording new video, respectively. This was useful, for example, for laying a song over a previously edited-together montage of short video clips that were the same total duration as that song. Without the dubbing features, this task would have required the tape to be copied to another tape which would cause generational loss. Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is an electrical engineering concept, also used in other fields (such as scientific measurements, biological cell signaling), defined as the ratio of a signal power to the noise power corrupting the signal. ...


Around 1985, HiFi VCRs emerged, adding higher-quality stereo audio tracks (20 Hz to 20 kHz with more than 70 dB S/N ratio) which are read and written by heads located on the same spinning drum that carries the video heads with frequency modulation. These audio tracks take advantage of depth multiplexing: since they use lower frequencies than the video, their magnetization signals penetrate deeper into the tape. When the video signal is written by the following video head, it erases and overwrites the audio signal at the surface of the tape, but leaves the deeper portion of the signal undisturbed. (PAL versions of Betamax use this same technique.) Some high-end VHS VCRs offered manual level control, which made the VHS HiFi format much more useful for high-quality audio-only recording. The excellent sound quality of HiFi VHS has gained it some popularity as an audio format in certain applications; in particular, ordinary home HiFi VCRs are sometimes used by home recording enthusiasts as a handy and inexpensive medium for making high-quality stereo mixdowns and master recordings from multitrack audio tape. However, because separate heads are used to record HiFi audio, advanced editing functions such as audio-only or video-only dubbing are impossible. In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ... For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Home recording means recording at home rather than in a professional studio. ... A master recording is an original recording, from which copies may be made. ... Multitrack recording is a method of sound recording that allows for the recording and re-recording of multiple sound sources, independent of time. ...


Tracking adjustment and index marking

Another linear control track, at the tape's lower edge, holds pulses that mark the beginning of every frame of video; these are used to fine-tune the tape speed during playback and to get the rotating heads exactly on their helical tracks rather than having them end up somewhere between two adjacent tracks (a feature called tracking). Since good tracking depends on the exact distance between the rotating drum and the fixed control/audio head reading the linear tracks, which usually varies by a couple of micrometers between machines due to manufacturing tolerances, most VCRs offer tracking adjustment, either manual or automatic, to correct such mismatches. The control can additionally hold index marks. These are normally written at the beginning of each recording session, and can be found using the VCR's index search function: this will fast-wind forward or backward to the nth specified index mark, and resume playback from there. There was a time when higher-end VCRs provided functions for manually removing and adding these index marks — so that, for example, they coincide with the actual start of the program — but this feature has become hard to find in recent models.


Comparison to other media

Below is a list of modern-day, digital-style measurements (and traditional analog TV lines per picture height) for various media. The list only includes popular formats, not rare formats, and all values are approximate since the actual quality can vary machine-to-machine or tape-to-tape. For ease-of-comparison all values are for the NTSC system, and listed in ascending order from lowest quality to highest quality. (For PAL systems, replace "480" with "576".)

  • 350×240 (250 lines): Video CD
  • 330×480 (250 lines): Umatic, Betamax, VHS, Video8
  • 400×480 (300 lines): Super Betamax, Betacam (professional)
  • 440×480 (330 lines): Analog Broadcast
  • 560×480 (420 lines): LaserDisc, Super VHS, Hi8
  • 670×480 (500 lines): Enhanced Definition Betamax
  • 720×480 (520 lines): DVD, miniDV, Digital8, Digital Betacam (professional)
  • 720×480 (400 lines): Widescreen DVD (anamorphic)
  • 1280×720 (720 lines): D-VHS, HD DVD, Blu-ray Disc, HDV (miniDV)
  • 1920×1080 (1080 lines): D-VHS, HD DVD, Blu-ray Disc, HDCAM SR (professional)

Variations

Bottom and top view of VHS-C compact video cassette
Bottom and top view of VHS-C compact video cassette
Example of a VHS-C adapter
Example of a VHS-C adapter

Top view of VHS-C File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Top view of VHS-C File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adapter to allow VHSC video cassette to be used in a standard VHS player/recorder. ... Adapter to allow VHSC video cassette to be used in a standard VHS player/recorder. ...

Super-VHS / Digital-VHS (high-definition)

Several improved versions of VHS exist, most notably Super-VHS (S-VHS), an analog video standard with improved video bandwidth. S-VHS improved the luminance resolution to 400 horizontal per picture height (versus 240 for VHS/Beta and 520 for DVD). Introduced in Japan in 1987, S-VHS (Super VHS) was an improved version of the VHS standard for consumer video cassette recorders. ...


The other improved standard, called Digital-VHS (D-VHS), records digital high definition video onto a VHS form factor tape. D-VHS can record up to 4 hours of ATSC Digital Television in 720p or 1080i formats using the fastest record mode (equivalent to VHS-SP), and anywhere from 5 to 40 hours of standard definition video (DVD quality) at slower speeds. D-VHS logo DVHS redirects here. ...


VHS-C / Super-VHS-C / compact video cassette

Another variant is VHS-Compact (VHS-C), originally developed for portable VCRs in 1982, but ultimately finding success in palm-sized camcorders. Since VHS-C tapes are based on the same magnetic tape as full size tapes, they can be played back in standard VHS players using a mechanical adapter, without the need of any kind of signal conversion. The magnetic tape on VHS-C cassettes is wound on one main spool and uses a gear wheel to advance the tape; the wheel and spool can also be moved by hand. Sony Betamax was unable to shrink that form any further, so instead they developed Video8/Hi8 which was in direct competition with the VHS-C/S-VHS-C format throughout the 80s, 90s, and 2000s. Ultimately neither format "won" and both continue to be sold in the low-end market ($200–$300 MSRP).[citation needed][when?] VHS-C is the compact VHS format used for portable video recorders. ... Sony DV Handycam A camcorder is a portable electronic device for recording video images and audio onto an internal storage device. ...


Use as PC backup devices

Devices have also been invented which directly connect a personal computer to VHS tape recorders for use as a data backup device. Most notable of these devices was ArVid, widely used in Russia and CIS states. Also available in the United States were similar systems manufactured by Corvus, Videotrax, and Alpha Microsystems. Also available was Backer from Danmere Ltd. of England. Also HP develops a backup system that uses VHS tapes and store 5 GB in every tape. Backup in computer engineering refers to the copying of data for the purpose of having a second copy of an original source, in case of damage to the original data source. ... ArVid (Archiver on Video) (Russian: ) is a data backup solution using a VHS tape as a storage media. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Corvus Systems was a technology company founded by Michael DAddio and Mark Hahn in 1979 and located in San Jose, Silicon Valley in the U.S.. Corvus was a pioneer when personal computers (PCs) were still considered home computers. ... Alpha Microsystems is a computer company founded in 1977 by Dick Wilcox and Bob Hitchcock. ...


W-VHS

W-VHS caters for analog high definition video. Discontinued and replaced by D-VHS. W-VHS is a high definition analog video tape format created by JVC. The format was originally introduced in 1994 for use with Japans Hi-Vision MUSE broadcasts and is no longer supported; the tapes are no longer manufactured and no players are currently produced for this format. ...


D9

There is also a JVC-designed component digital professional production format known as Digital-S, or officially under the name D9, that uses a VHS form factor tape and essentially the same mechanical tape handling techniques as an S-VHS recorder. This format is the least expensive format to support a pre-read edit. This format is most notably used by Fox for some of its cable networks. FOX redirects here. ...


Signal standards

VHS can record and play back all varieties of analog television signals in existence at the time VHS was devised. However, a machine must be designed to record a given standard. Typically, a VHS machine can only handle signals of the country it was sold in. The following signal varieties exist in conventional VHS: There are several broadcast television systems in use in the world today. ...

  • PAL/576/25 (most of Western Europe, Australia, many parts of Asia such as China and India, some parts of South America such as Argentina and Uruguay, and Africa)
  • SECAM/625/25 (SECAM, French variety)
  • MESECAM/625/25 (most other SECAM countries, notably the former Soviet Union and Middle East)
  • NTSC/525/30 (Most parts of North and South America, Japan, South Korea)
  • PAL/525/30 (i.e., PAL-M, Brazil)

Since the 1990s, dual- and multi-standard VHS machines have become more and more common. These can handle VHS tapes of more than one standard. For example, regular VHS machines sold in Australia and Europe nowadays can typically handle PAL, MESECAM for record and playback, plus NTSC for playback only. Dedicated multistandard machines can usually handle all standards listed, some high end model can even convert a tape from one standard to another by using a built-in standards converter. For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and some other countries (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ...


S-VHS only exists in PAL/625/25 and NTSC/525/30. S-VHS machines sold in SECAM markets record internally in PAL, and convert to/from SECAM during record/playback, respectively. Likewise, S-VHS machines for the Brazilian market record in NTSC and convert to/from PAL-M.


A small number of VHS decks are able to decode closed captions on pre-recorded video cassettes. A smaller number still are able, additionally, to record subtitles transmitted with world standard teletext signals (on pre-digital services), simultaneously with the associated program. A commonly-used symbol indicating that a program or movie is closed-captioned. ... In printed material In printed material, a subtitle is an explanatory or alternate title. ... A BBC Ceefax page from January 9, 2007. ...


Tape lengths

Both NTSC and PAL/SECAM VHS cassettes are physically identical (although the signals recorded on the tape are incompatible). However, as tape speeds differ between NTSC and PAL/SECAM, the playing time for any given cassette will vary accordingly between the systems.


In order to avoid confusion, manufacturers indicate the playing time in minutes that can be expected for the market the tape is sold in. It is perfectly possible to record and play back a blank T-XXX tape in a PAL machine or a blank E-XXX tape in an NTSC machine, but the resulting playing time will be different from that indicated. (Note: SP = Standard Play, LP = Long Play (1/2 speed) for both NTSC and PAL regions.( (EP/SLP = Extended Play/Super Long Play (1/3rd speed) for NTSC regions. PAL does not have an EP/SLP speed.)

  • T-XXX indicates playing time for NTSC or PAL-M in SP speed.
  • E-XXX indicates playing time for PAL or SECAM in SP speed.
Common Tape Lengths (hours:minutes)
Tape Label Tape Length Rec. Time (NTSC) Rec. Time (PAL)
SP LP EP/SLP SP --- LP
T-120 812 ft (247.5 m) 2:00 4:00 6:00 2:49 5:38
T-160 1075 ft (327.7 m) 2:40 5:20 8:00 3:43 7:26
T-180 1210 ft (368.8 m) 3:00 6:00 9:00 4:13 8:27
T-210 1421 ft (433.1 m) 3:30 7:00 10:30 4:56 9:52
Tape Label Tape Length Rec. Time (PAL) Rec. Time (NTSC)
SP --- LP SP LP EP/SLP
E-120 570 ft (173.7 m) 2:00 4:00 1:26 2:52 4:18
E-180 851 ft (259.4 m) 3:00 6:00 2:09 4:18 6:27
E-240 1142 ft (348.1 m) 4:00 8:00 2:53 5:46 8:39

VHS vs. Betamax

Main article: Videotape format war
Size comparison between a Betamax cassette and a VHS cassette.
Size comparison between a Betamax cassette and a VHS cassette.
MII, VHS, and SVHS are similar from above...
MII, VHS, and SVHS are similar from above...
...the bottoms are more distinct.
...the bottoms are more distinct.

As mentioned, VHS was the winner of a protracted and somewhat bitter format war during the late 1970s and early 1980s against Sony's Betamax format. The videotape format war was a period of an intense format war of rival incompatible models of video cassette recorders in the 1970s and early 1980s. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Betavhs2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Betavhs2. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ...


Betamax was widely perceived at the time as the better format, as it offered a slightly higher horizontal resolution (250 lines vs. 240 lines in PAL & NTSC), lower video noise, and less luma-chroma crosstalk than VHS, and was marketed as providing pictures superior to VHS's, however the introduction of B-II speed (2-hour mode) to compete with VHS's 2-hour Standard Play mode, reduced Betamax's horizontal resolution to 240 lines.[3] The extension of VHS to VHS HQ produced 250 lines, so that overall a Betamax/VHS user could expect virtually identical luminance and chrominance resolution (~30 lines across), wherein the actual picture performance depended on other factors, including the condition and quality of the videotape, and the specific video recorder machine model. Look up crosstalk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Betamax held an early lead in the format war — but by 1981, U.S. Betamax sales had sunk to only 25% of all sales.[4] VHS was gaining market share due to its longer tape time (9 hours maximum, compared to just 4 hours for Betamax in USA) and JVC's less strict licensing program. The longer tape time is sometimes cited as the defining factor in the format war, allowing consumers to record entire programs unattended (recording time between VHS and Betamax were similar in areas where VHS entered the market several years after introduction, such as the UK in 1978). Sony ultimately conceded the fight in 1988, bringing out a line of VHS VCRs of its own.


The format war and the "marketing over technology" claims have taken on a life of their own, and continue to be used as analogies in battles within the computer industry, including Apple vs. IBM, Macintosh vs. PC, Microsoft Internet Explorer vs. Netscape/Mozilla Firefox, and HD DVD vs. Blu-ray Disc. The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... For other uses, see Macintosh (disambiguation) and Mac. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... Internet Explorer, abbreviated IE or MSIE is a web browser from Microsoft currently sold as part of Microsoft Windows. ... Netscape was a proprietary cross-platform Internet suite created by Netscape Communications Corporation and then in-house by AOL to continue the Netscape series after Netscape 6. ... Firefox redirects here. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ...


Other formats such as 8 mm video cassettes and MiniDV have emerged since the post-battle era, but these formats are by no means in complete competition with VHS. As these cassettes and their supporting hardware are much more compact in design than VHS — and therefore more expensive — they are much more suited to portable applications such as camcorders. 8 mm tapes, introduced in the early 1980s, succeeded as a format for camcorders (both in the consumer, and to an extent, professional market), as VHS and Betamax camcorders were unsuitably large and heavy in comparison. MiniDV has largely replaced 8 mm tapes as the de facto camcorder standard in more recent years as it is smaller still (some MiniDV camcorders being no larger than one's hand). In addition, MiniDV offers superior audiovisual quality, and the storage of data in digital format on tape makes for improved transfer and editing. Though Digital8 offers identical tape recording quality, few are now sold and fewer still can play analog 8 mm tape, which was the original advantage of the format for those upgrading from analog 8 mm or later analog Hi8 formats. Some users of Digital8 have pointed out that their format offers a slightly more robust physical package, as the digital data is recorded over a larger area of magnetic tape. This has not been any advantage to the format however. A Video8 cassette The 8mm video format refers informally to three related videocassette formats for the NTSC and PAL/SECAM television systems. ... A MiniDV tape Digital Video (DV) is a video format launched in 1996, and, in its smaller tape form factor MiniDV, has since become one of the standards for consumer and semiprofessional video production. ... 8mm Camcorder mini-DV Camcorder A camcorder is a portable electronic device (generally a digital camera) for recording images and audio onto a storage device. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Both VHS and Betamax manufacturers created professional video formats built around the same cassette shells. The professional derivatives of VHS were M and then MII whereas the professional derivative of Betamax was Betacam which has gone on to spawn digital variants. In a complete reversal of the domestic VHS-Betamax battle, in the professional arena the Beta format has been hugely successful, and the VHS derived formats became obsolete. Occasionally this causes some confusion, in that people believe that Betacam is a professional studio version of Betamax. In reality Betacam is only superficially similar. Although the tapes used may look the same,and the first generation Betacam tapes could be used for recording in Betamax machines, in Betacam they are run at a much higher linear speed, and the recording system is completely different. The same applied to the VHS based-professional formats. M is the name of a professional videocassette format developed around 1982 by Matsushita and RCA. It was developed as a competitor to Sonys Betacam format. ... Note: The MII video tape format is not to be confused with Panasonics M2 videogame console The official logo for the MII videocassette format (courtesy Panasonic) MII is a professional videocassette format developed by Panasonic in 1986 as their answer & competitive product to Sonys Betacam SP format. ... Sony Betacam-SP VTP BVW-65 Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L (top), Betacam SP S (left), VHS (right) The early form of Betacam tapes are interchangeable with Betamax, though the recordings are not. ...


Decline of VHS

In recent years, alternatives to tape-based technologies have appeared in the home recording market. The movement is to replace tape with more recent technologies, such as optical discs, hard disks and flash-based storage systems. Altogether, these technologies are shrinking VHS's marketshare. The March 1997 introduction of the DVD format to American consumers was perhaps the greatest blow to the dominance of VHS.[5] In computing, sound reproduction, and video, an optical disc is flat, circular, usually polycarbonate disc whereon data is stored. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A USB flash drive. ...


Signs of VHS's decline come from two directions. First, electronic equipment manufacturers are downsizing their VHS recorder lines. Both department and electronic "boutique" stores are also cutting down on the variety of VHS recorders they carry in-stock — especially the higher-end systems such as S-VHS recorders. In most stores, DVD players are now cheaper than VHS players.


Second, video content in VHS format is also slowly disappearing. The popularity of VHS in both for-sale and rental stores has fallen. Most retail stores have stopped selling new VHS movies alongside DVD versions.


Although VHS is slowly disappearing, this dilemma does bring along with it opportunities, such as media conversion services, dual-deck and DVD/VCR combination systems, and even a lucrative re-sell market on auction and second-hand equipment sites. Consumers still retain the technology as well. The Washington Post has noted that as of 2005, 94.5 million Americans still owned VHS format VCRs.[5]


Although VHS is still available in VHS/DVD combination units, the last dedicated JVC VHS unit was reportedly produced in 2007. The final major Hollywood motion picture released on VHS was David Cronenberg's A History of Violence.[1] David Paul Cronenberg OC, FRSC (born March 15, 1943[2]) is a Canadian film director and occasional actor. ... A History of Violence is a crime drama thriller film directed by David Cronenberg, and written by Josh Olson, based on the graphic novel of the same name by John Wagner and Vince Locke. ...


In spite of the decline of pre-recorded VHS sales, blank, recordable VHS cassettes remain the most popular means of recording live television programming in households around the world.


Optical disc-based technologies

The DVD-Video format was introduced first, in 1996, in Japan, to the United States in March of 1997, mid-late 1998 in Europe and early 1999 in Australia. DVD-Video format logo DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD (DVD-ROM) discs, and is currently the dominant form of consumer video formats in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. ...


Despite DVD's better quality (500 lines versus 250 lines horizontal resolution), VHS is still widely used in home recording of television programs, due to the large installed base and the lower cost of VHS recorders and tape. The commercial success of DVD recording and re-writing has been hindered by a number of factors including:

  • A reputation for being temperamental and occasionally unreliable, as well as the risk caused by scratches and hairline cracks.
  • Shorter recording time: Up to 6 hours on a single-layer disc (with high compression) versus up to 11 (NTSC) or 15 (PAL/SECAM) hours on a T-210 VHS-EP tape.

High-capacity digital recording technologies

High-capacity digital recording systems are also gaining in popularity with home users. These types of systems come in several form factors:

Hard disk-based systems include TiVo as well as other digital video recorder (DVR) offerings. These types of systems provide users with virtually a no-maintenance solution for capturing video content. VHS and other cartridge solutions require physical handling of the media, as well as upkeep duties such as cleaning of the heads. Unlike both cartridge-based and optical disc-based systems, hard disk-based systems allow for many hours of recording without physical maintenance. For example, a 120 GB system recording at an extended recording rate (XP) of 9,800 kbit/s MPEG-2 can record over 25 hours of video content. Just like VHS, the latest optical disc technologies must still rely on tangibles, such as blank discs. Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) is a device that connects to a television and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... This article is about media centers in general. ... TiVo (pronounced tee-voh, IPA: ) is a popular brand of digital video recorder (DVR) in the United States (and coming to Canada in December 7, 2007) and is a consumer video device which allows users to capture television programming to internal hard disk storage for later viewing (time shifting), provides... Foxtel IQ, a digital video recorder and a satellite cable set-top box. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... “KBPS” redirects here. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... In law, tangibility is the attribute of being detectable with the senses. ...


PC-based media centers are also becoming popular in homes. PCs can serve the same features as a DVR set-top box, but also add a usable operating environment for other tasks such as electronic mail and surfing the Internet. A media center may be the better solution for the technical-savvy consumer who is looking for a system he can regularly upgrade, such as disk capacity and software.


VHS in popular culture

  • Toei produced a motion picture called Hi wa Mata Noboru (2002), starring Toshiyuki Nishida. Toshiyuki plays the role of Shizuo Kagaya, the head of the video department at Victor. In the process of developing a home VCR, he basically invents VHS. Although the movie is based on a true story, it was produced purely for entertainment and not as a documentary, which explains some of the over-dramatizations of its characters and events. Several important events are covered, such as the unification of VCR standards by Japan's Ministry of Trade, who favored Sony's Betamax format, and the importance in Victor bringing Matsushita on-board as a partner to build VHS units.
  • The 2008 film Be Kind Rewind concerns a video rental store employee (Mos Def) who finds that his friend (Jack Black) has accidentally wiped all the video cassettes in the store, and they resort to acting out the films in front of a video camera to avoid disappointing customers. The film features many references to the format, and even includes a VHS tape on one of the posters.
  • The finishing track of Radiohead's 2007 album "In Rainbows", Videotape, concerns its usage in recording memories.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Toei Animation. ... Toshiyuki Nishida (西田敏行; born 4 November 1947) is a Japanese actor. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (通商産業省 Tsūsho-sangyō-shō or MITI) was the single most powerful agency in the Japanese government during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Be Kind Rewind is an upcoming 2008 comedy film directed by Michel Gondry and starring Jack Black, Mos Def, Danny Glover, and Mia Farrow. ... Dante Terrell Smith (born December 11, 1973), better known by his stage name Mos Def, is a Golden Globe and Emmy Award-nominated and Grammy Award-nominated acclaimed American actor and MC, respectively. ... For other persons named Jack Black, see Jack Black (disambiguation). ... Radiohead are an English alternative rock band from Oxfordshire. ... In Rainbows is the seventh album by the English alternative rock band Radiohead. ...

Trivia

  • The font used in the VHS logo is called "Lee". It was created in 1972 by Leo Weisz for Visual Graphics Corporation (VGC).
  • In the late 1980s, Exabyte pioneered the adaptation of VHS tape as a digital computer backup-storage medium. Eventually, Radio Shack marketed a computer data backup device at the retail level based on the same concept. Other, similar devices have been created and marketed since for various platforms.
  • VHS is called "half-inch" by some in the film and video production industry, to differentiate it from "three-quarter inch" (U-matic) tapes.

A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... Exabyte Corporation (OTCBB: EXBY) is headquarted in Boulder, Colorado. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... This article is about the machine. ... Tandy is a name which can refer to Tandy Corporation - former name of the RadioShack Corporation Tandy Computers was the computer division of the Tandy Corporation, which manufactured the TRS-80 and Tandy Color Computer, among others. ... Sony U-matic VTR BVU-800 A U-matic tape U-matic is the name of a videocassette format developed by Sony in 1969. ...

References

  1. ^ "IEEE History Center: Development of VHS", cites the original name as "Video Home System", from an article by Yuma Shiraishi, one of its inventors. Accessed December 28, 2006.
  2. ^ Citypaper.com article
  3. ^ Video Interchange. Video History. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  4. ^ Helge Moulding. The Decline and Fall of Betamax. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  5. ^ a b "Parting Words For VHS Tapes, Soon to Be Gone With the Rewind", Washington Post, August 28, 2005.

is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
VHS

  Results from FactBites:
 
VHS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2931 words)
VHS became a standard format for consumer recording and viewing in the 1980s and 1990s after competing in a fierce format war with Sony's Betamax and, to a lesser extent, Philips' Video 2000.
VHS machines, in contrast to Betamax and Beta's predecessor U-matic, use an M-loading system where the tape is drawn out by two threading posts and wrapped around the head drum (and other tape transport components) in a shape roughly approximating the letter M.
As mentioned, VHS was the winner of a protracted and somewhat bitter format war during the early 1980s against Sony's Betamax format.
VHS - definition of VHS in Encyclopedia (474 words)
VHS became a standard format for consumer recording and viewing in the 1980s after competing in a fierce format war with Sony's Betamax and, to a lesser extent, Philips' Video 2000.
A VHS cassette contains a 12.65 mm (approx ½-inch) wide magnetic tape wound between two spools, allowing it to be slowly passed over the various playback and recording heads of the video cassette recorder.
The vertical resolution of VHS is determined by the TV standard — a maximum of 486 lines are visible in NTSC and a maximum of 576 lines in PAL.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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