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Encyclopedia > V sign
A scientist at the Johnson Space Center flashes victory signs after a successful extraction.

The V sign is a hand gesture in which the first and second fingers are raised and parted, whilst the remaining fingers are clenched, palm facing outwards. Originally considered a "Victory" sign (for V as in victory), it also is used to mean "Peace", a meaning that became popular in the United States during the peace movement of the 1960s. Two-fingers salute in Poland. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... For gestures in computing, see mouse gesture. ...

Contents

Supposed origins

According to a popular myth the two-fingers salute and/or V sign derives from the gestures of longbowmen fighting in the English army at the Battle of Agincourt during the Hundred Years' War. The story claims that, before the battle, the French boasted that they would cut two fingers off the right hand of captured archers and that the gesture was a sign of defiance after the greatly outnumbered English won the battle. (This false etymology has also given rise to an alternative name for the gesture, which can also be known as flicking an "archer's salute" or just an "archer's"[citation needed]). However medieval warriors had no interest in capturing common archers that could not be held for ransom, preferring instead to simply kill such prisoners.[1] Furthermore, mutilating a prisoner to stop them from using a bow wouldn't make sense, since killing them would stop them from ever serving the enemy again. There is also the fact that accounts from the period make no reference to the French mutilating their prisoners by cutting off their fingers.[2] (The first definitive known reference to the V sign is in the works of François Rabelais, a French satirist of the 1500s.[3]) An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... Two-fingers salute in Poland. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Scythian bowmen on gold plaque from Kul oba kurgan, in Crimea, fourth century BC. An archer is someone who practices archery. ... A false etymology is an assumed or postulated etymology which is incorrect from the perspective of modern scholarly work in historical linguistics. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... François Rabelais François Rabelais (c. ...


The same story has circulated in the US as a supposed explanation for the use of the middle finger as an obscenity, with the added flourish that the slang term for the sign, "flipping/giving the bird," has something to do with feathers on arrows. This is untrue, as the middle-finger sign dates at least to ancient Rome and symbolizes a penis[4]; "giving the bird" dates to 1800s British theatrical slang, meaning to be driven off stage by goose-like hisses, and was apparently linked to the middle-finger sign by US military pilots in the 1960s.[5] This article is about the vulgar gesture. ...


The belief that the V sign originated among archers might have its origin in the work of the historian Jean Froissart (c. 1337-c. 1404), who died before the Battle of Agincourt took place. In his "Chronicles," he recounts a story of the English waving their fingers at the French during a siege of a castle, however he makes no reference to which fingers were used meaning that this is not evidence of the origin of the V sign. Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ... Froissarts Chronicle was written in French by Jean Froissart. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ...


Winston Churchill and the victory sign

Winston Churchill waving the V sign
Winston Churchill waving the V sign
During the German occupation of Jersey, a stonemason repairing the paving of the Royal Square incorporated a V for victory under the noses of the occupiers. This was later amended to refer to the Red Cross ship Vega. The addition of the date 1945 and a more recent frame has transformed it into a monument
During the German occupation of Jersey, a stonemason repairing the paving of the Royal Square incorporated a V for victory under the noses of the occupiers. This was later amended to refer to the Red Cross ship Vega. The addition of the date 1945 and a more recent frame has transformed it into a monument

Winston Churchill used a V sign in both versions to symbolize "V for Victory" during World War II. Early on in the war he used palm in (sometimes with a cigar between the fingers).[6] Later in the war he used palm out.[7] It is thought that the aristocratic Churchill made the change after it was explained to him what it signified to the other classes in Britain.[citation needed] He developed the idea from a BBC campaign. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x655, 86 KB) Description: Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945 Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x655, 86 KB) Description: Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945 Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1332x1056, 896 KB) Summary V for Victory laid into paving during German occupation of Jersey during WWII, later amended to refer to Red Cross ship SS Vega, and subsequently restored as monument. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1332x1056, 896 KB) Summary V for Victory laid into paving during German occupation of Jersey during WWII, later amended to refer to Red Cross ship SS Vega, and subsequently restored as monument. ... As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel... Churchill redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


During World War II, Victor de Lavelaye suggested that Belgians, who were chalking up the letters RAF, should add a V for victoire or vrijheid (respectively French for "victory" and Dutch for "freedom"). Since V stands for "victory" in French, Charles de Gaulle used it in every speech from 1942~1969)[8]. This idea was developed by the BBC and on July 20, 1941 a campaign was launched with a message from Churchill for occupied Europe.[9]. The Channel islanders also joined in the Churchill's V sign campaign by daubing the letter 'V' (for Victory) over German signs. RAF redirects here. ... Please post proper article, this page was tampered with, thank you. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Occupied Europe was the name given to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945. ...


Douglas Ritchie of the BBC European Service, suggested an audible V using the Morse code rhythm — three dots and a dash. This is the rhythm of the opening bars of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (fifth can also be written as Vth), and it was used as the call-sign by the BBC in its foreign language programmes to occupied Europe for the rest of the war. The irony that they were composed by a German was not lost on many of the audience or for the more musically educated that it was "Fate knocking on the door" of the Third Reich. (Listen to this call-sign. ) 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Beet5mov1bars1to5. ...


A rhythm similar to that of the Morse V rhythm is featured prominently in the bass line for the Clash song London Calling. The song's title was taken from the BBC World Service's station identification. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... London Calling is the hit song off the album of the same name (London Calling, 1979) by the U.K. punk/rock band The Clash; it is also the albums first track. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ...


Vietnam War, victory and peace

Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974
Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974
Use of the V-sign during an L.A. anti-war protest rally in February 2003.
Use of the V-sign during an L.A. anti-war protest rally in February 2003.

U.S. President Richard Nixon used it to signal victory, an act which became one of his best-known trademarks. He also used it on his departure from public office following his resignation in 1974. Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 288 × 204 pixelsFull resolution (288 × 204 pixel, file size: 16 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): V sign ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 288 × 204 pixelsFull resolution (288 × 204 pixel, file size: 16 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): V sign ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Watergate redirects here. ...


A similar sign was used in protests against the Vietnam War (and subsequent anti-war protests) and by the counterculture as a sign of peace, including the sense of not war. Because the hippies of the day often flashed this sign (palm out) while vocalizing "Peace", it became popularly known (through association) as the peace sign. Originally, however, its symbolic meaning was love; signing "love" and saying "peace" was a hippie anthem and mutual greeting. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ...


Japan and the V sign

During the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, figure skater Janet Lynn stumbled into Japanese pop culture when she fell during a free-skate period—but continued to smile even as she sat on the ice. Though she placed only 3rd in the actual competition, her cheerful diligence and indefatigability resonated with many Japanese viewers, making her an overnight celebrity in Japan. Afterwards, Lynn (a peace activist) was repeatedly seen flashing the V sign in the Japanese media. Though the V sign was known of in Japan prior to Lynn's use of it there (from the post-WWII Allied occupation of Japan), she is credited by some Japanese for having popularized its use in amateur photographs.[citation needed] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sapporo redirects here. ... Janet Lynn Nowicki, known athletically as Janet Lynn, is a skater and an Olympic bronze medalist. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ...


However, the precise origin of the overwhelming popularity of the sign as used in photographs was clarified and revealed in a series of Japanese variety programs from September-November 2007 the first of which was the popular Down Town DX. The man responsible for popularizing the V sign is a Jun Inoue (Junji Inoue at the time) a popular thespian known for roles in television dramas, films and commercials. In 1972 he appeared in a series of commercials for the Japanese camera maker Konica in which he 'photographed' in a number of 'candid' poses all with one thing in common, he was flashing the V sign. According to Inoue, the idea for the sign was an ad-lib based on his perception of its popularity overseas.


Through the 1970s and 1980s in Japan, the V sign was often accompanied by a vocalization: "piisu!" This gairaigo exclamation, which stood for "peace", has since fallen into disuse, though the V sign itself remains steadfastly popular. It is especially popular in photography, as it is a favorite pose of both teens and adults - in Japan, China and elsewhere in Asia. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Gairaigo (外来語) is Japanese for loan word or borrowed word, and indicates a transliteration (or transvocalization) into Japanese. ...


The V sign is also commonly used in anime and Japanese live-action shows. When characters show this sign, it is often accompanied by an exclamation of "Vui!" (pronounced /vɯi/ or /bɯi/), an approximation of the English pronunciation "vee" which differentiates it from "bii", the Japanese name of the letter B (as many Japanese speakers hear the voiced labiodental fricative as being the same as the voiced bilabial plosive, see Engrish). A more common phrase is "kachi" which means victory (V for Victory) or luck. Several anime characters incorporate the V sign into their poses, including Ash Ketchum of Pokémon fame, both Sailor Moon and Sailor V, as well as video game characters such as Mario and Sonic the Hedgehog, and Ling Xiaoyu from Tekken 5 series. “Animé” redirects here. ... The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... An example of Engrish on clothing. ... Ash Ketchum, known as Satoshi ) in Japan, is the protagonist of the anime Pokémon. ... The official Pokémon logo. ... For the title character, see Sailor Moon (character) and for the first story arc, see Sailor Moon (arc). ... Minako Aino Minako Aino (愛野 美奈子 Aino Minako) is a fictional character from the Japanese entertainment series known as Sailor Moon. ... Mario ) is a video game character created by Japanese game designer Shigeru Miyamoto and the official mascot of Nintendo. ... Sonic the Hedgehog ), trademarked Sonic The Hedgehog,[4] is a video game character and the hero of a video game series released by Sega, as well as numerous spin-off comics, cartoons and books. ... Ling Xiaoyu (Chinese: 凌 曉雨 Pinyin: Líng XiÇŽoyÇ”, Japanese: リン・シャオユウ Rin Shaoyuu) is a fictional Chinese character from the popular Tekken video game series. ... Tekken 5 is the sixth installment in the popular Tekken series. ...


Due to Japanese cultural influences in the region[citation needed], the V sign in photographs has become popular with young people throughout East Asia and Southeast Asia. East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Former Yugoslavia

During the Yugoslav wars, the V sign was widely used by the Bosnians and Croatians as a victory/defiance sign. For Croatians it represents the bravery and hope. This was brought about as a reaction to the Serbian three finger salute often raised by the Serbs. This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a salute used by some Serbs. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


The V sign as an insult

The insulting version of the gesture (with the palm inwards) is often compared to the offensive gesture known as "the finger". The "two-fingered salute", or "bowfinger", as it is also known, is commonly performed by flicking the V upwards from wrist or elbow. "The finger" is traceable to Roman times [6], but may be unrelated in origin, as the insulting V sign is largely restricted to the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. United States president George H. W. Bush, attempting to give the "peace sign", once gave the insulting V sign to onlookers while touring Australia, unaware of what it meant to Australians[10]. This article is about the gesture. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...

The iconic cover of Kes.
The iconic cover of Kes.

The V sign, when the palm is facing toward the person giving the sign, has long been an insulting gesture in England and later in the rest of the United Kingdom, as well as in Ireland and parts of France. It is frequently used to signify defiance (especially to authority), contempt or derision and is often accompanied by the obscene phrase 'fuck off'. It is seen in the poster andDVD cover of Ken Loach's film Kes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // Kes is a British film from 1969 by director Ken Loach and producer Tony Garnett. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Kes is a British film from 1969 by director Ken Loach and producer Tony Garnett. ...


As an example of the V sign (palm inward) as an insult, on November 1, 1990, The Sun, a popular British tabloid, ran an article on its front page with the headline "Up Yours, Delors" next to a large hand making a V sign protruding from a Union flag cuff. The Sun urged its readers to stick two fingers up at then President of the European Commission Jacques Delors, who had suggested that more European integration might be a good thing. The article attracted a number of complaints about its alleged racism, but the now defunct Press Council rejected the complaints after the editor of The Sun stated that the paper reserved the right to use vulgar abuse in the interests of Britain.[7] [8] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about a British tabloid. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Union Jack” redirects here. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born July 20, 1925 in Paris) is a French economist and politician, the only person who served two terms as President of the European Commission (between 1985 and 1995). ... Press Council may refer to: Danish Press Council, a Danish independent public tribunal press council under the Ministry of Justice International Press Telecommunications Council, a consortium of the worlds major news agencies and news industry vendors Press Council of India, a statutory body in India that governs the conduct...


For a time in the UK, "a Harvey (Smith)" became a way of describing the insulting version of the V sign, much as "the word of Cambronne" is used in France, or "the Trudeau salute" is used to describe the one-fingered salute in Canada. This happened because, in 1971, show-jumper Harvey Smith was disqualified for making a televised V sign to the judges after winning the British Show Jumping Derby at Hickstead. (His win was reinstated two days later.) Pierre Cambronne. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... This article is about the gesture. ... Harvey Smith (born 29th December 1938) is a former show jumping champion. ... The All England Jumping Course at Hickstead is the leading outdoor showjumping venue in England. ...


Gesturing in such a way is sometimes called flipping the Vs and flicking the Vs in certain parts of the UK.[citation needed] This is most likely due to a popular method of delivery in which the gesture is made with the knuckles first facing towards the floor and then rapidly flipped up so that the outer knuckles are facing the target of the insult. In Australia, the gesture is called the forks.


The insulting V sign can also be combined with the bent elbow, creating a compound gesture with the intensity and vulgarity of both components. Gestures are a form of Body language or Non-verbal communication. ...


Current usage

The gesture has varying meanings depending on the context or culture.

  • Victory – the original meaning, sometimes using both hands, or upraised arms
  • Peace or Friend – used by peace groups, counter-culture, from Chicago to Tiananmen Square, V behind head for a photo "solid friend".
  • The number 2 – American Sign Language, used in noisy settings, as in a restaurant.
  • Bunny ears – used facetiously behind the head of a subject of a photograph.

It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ...

Similar gestures

  • Palm facing the signer
    • Insulting – largely restricted to the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand.
    • Peace – in the United States without respect to the direction. Sometimes used as an informal valediction.
  • Used with other movement:
    • Air quotes – flexing fingers, palm out, both hands.
    • The letter V, in ASL[9] used when spelling.
    • Military use – in military operations, in silent mode, the signer points to his eyes and then to a location, meaning "Look there", or "I see.." when followed by another gesture; e.g., the number and/or location of enemy personnel.
    • "Eye to Eye" – pointing the fingers at the signer's eyes, then to the eyes of another. This means the two understand one another. Alternately, if followed by pointing the index finger at the other person, with eye contact, means: "I'm watching you."
    • "Vehicle Use" – when the recipient of the sign is in a vehicle, pointing the fingers at the signer's eyes informs the driver that either the headlights of the vehicle are on, or to turn them off, or both.
    • "Full Power" – in US Naval Aviation, two fingers shaken rapidly back and forth directs a pilot to set engines to maximum thrust; used just prior to a catapult launch.
  • Special location:
    • Bunny ears – used with palm near someone's head, from behind, indicates friendship or partner, as folklore of the American Cowboy as did the Lone Ranger and Tonto, who wore two feathers in a V. Typically for a friendly photograph. Sometimes this gesture is performed discreetly to mock the other person in the photo, with either friendly or unfriendly intentions.
    • In Italy, Spain and Portugal, raising the two fingers behind someone's head can sign ears of a burro (a metaphor for friend).
    • Cunnilingus – insulting, holding the fingers in front of one's lips, as if performing the action.

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... AIR QUOTES ARE ANNOYING! SAYS WHO? SAYS ME! FUCK AIR QUOTES! I HATE THEM! THEYRE JUST SICK VARIANTS OF THE PEACE SIGN! ... It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ... Watercolour painting depicting cunnilingus by Achille Devéria Cunnilingus is the act of performing oral sex, using the mouth, lips, and tongue to stimulate the female genitals. ...

Famous users of the gesture

In America (Victory)

Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958), commonly known as MJ as well as the King of Pop, is an American musician, entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and controversial personal life have been a part of pop culture for the last three decades. ... People v. ... Eve Ensler. ... The V-Day Logo V-Day is a global movement to stop violence against women and girls. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...

In the United Kingdom

Liam Gallagher (born William John Paul Gallagher on September 21, 1972, Burnage, Manchester, England) is an English singer and tambourine player of the band Oasis. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Richard Starkey Jr, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an English musician, singer, songwriter and actor, best known as the drummer for The Beatles. ... Ozzy redirects here. ... Peter Doherty (born March 12, 1979) is an English musician, artist and poet. ... Alf Garnett was a fictional character on the BBC television sitcom Till Death Us Do Part, the ITV sitcom Till Death. ...

In France (Victoire)

Please post proper article, this page was tampered with, thank you. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ... Front National can mean: Front National, a right-wing French political party. ...

In Mexico (Victoria)

  • Vicente Fox Quesada, used in the 2000 Mexican Election, with the slogan "Ya Ganamos" (We´ve already won).
  • Rigo Tovar, famous Mexican cumbia singer used the V sign throughout his life, so much that in Mexico anyone using this gesture is often referred to as "Rigo". A statue in his native Matamoros, Tamaulipas is shown giving the V sign as a symbol of peace.

Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) is the current president of Mexico. ... Rigoberto Tovar García (March 29, 1946 – March 27, 2005) was a Mexican singer best known as Rigo Tovar, famous for his cumbia songs. ... Matamoros is a city in the north of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. ...

In fiction (Victory)

Ash Ketchum, known as Satoshi ) in Japan, is the protagonist of the anime Pokémon. ... The official Pokémon logo. ... It has been suggested that Shiny Pokémon be merged into this article or section. ... Cellco Partnership, doing business as Verizon Wireless, is the largest American wireless company and largest wireless data provider, based on revenue. ...

Other

  • In Unicode, the V sign "Victory Hand" symbol is U+270C ().

The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

References

  • Desmond Morris with Peter Collett, Peter Marsh and Marie O'Shaughnessy. Gestures: Their Origins and Distribution. London: Jonathan Cape, 1979. ISBN 0-224-01570-2; NY: Stein and Day, ISBN 0-8128-2607-8

Dr Desmond Morris (born 24 January 1928 in the village of Purton, UK) is most famous for his work as a zoologist and ethologist. ... Professor Peter Marsh is the Dean of Social Sciences at Sheffield University. ...

Further reading

Footnotes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ [4]
  5. ^ [5]
  6. ^ Churchill outside Downing Street
  7. ^ Churchill's famous victory sign
  8. ^ Archive video of Charles de Gaulle's speech at the London Albert Hall, November 11, 1942
  9. ^ Newswatch 1940s. news.bbc.co.uk.
  10. ^ see section 26 for Bush/V-sign

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