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Encyclopedia > V Bomber
Avro Vulcan
Avro Vulcan
Handley-Page Victor nose. For a side view see Handley Page Victor
Handley-Page Victor nose. For a side view see Handley Page Victor
Valiant V bomber in 1961.
Valiant V bomber in 1961.

The term V bomber was used for the Royal Air Force (RAF) aircraft during the 1950s and 1960s that comprised the United Kingdom's strategic nuclear strike force. The bombers, whose names all started with the letter "V", were the Vickers Valiants (first flew 1951), Handley Page Victors (first flew 1952) and Avro Vulcans (first flew 1952). The V-Bomber force reached its peak in June 1964, with 50 Valiants, 39 Victors and 70 Vulcans in service. Avro Vulcan XH534. ... Avro Vulcan XH534. ... Handley-Page Victor nose. ... Handley-Page Victor nose. ... The Handley Page Victor was a British jet bomber aircraft, one of the V bombers intended to carry Britains nuclear arsenal. ... Valiant V bomber in 1961 at Filton Airfield, Filton, Bristol, England. ... Valiant V bomber in 1961 at Filton Airfield, Filton, Bristol, England. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... An Airbus A380, currently the worlds largest airliner An aircraft is any vehicle or craft capable of atmospheric flight. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... this article is about the jet powered bomber, for the biplane see Vickers 131 Valiant. ... The Handley Page Victor was a British jet bomber aircraft, one of the V bombers intended to carry Britains nuclear arsenal. ... The Avro Vulcan was a British delta-wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. ...

Contents

History

Early development

RAF Bomber Command ended World War II with a policy of using heavy four-piston-engined bombers for massed raids, and remained committed to this policy in the immediate postwar period, adopting the Avro Lincoln, an updated version of the WW2 Lancaster, as their standard bomber. Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ... The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine World War II bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the Royal Air Force (RAF). ...


The development of jet aircraft and nuclear weapons soon made this policy obsolete. The future appeared to belong to jet bombers that could fly at high altitude and speed, without defensive armament, to perform a nuclear strike on a target. Even at the time there were those who could see that guided missiles would eventually make such aircraft vulnerable, but development of such missiles was proving difficult, and fast and high-flying bombers were likely to serve for years before there was a need for something better. Jet aircraft with condensation trail Jet aircraft are aircraft with jet engines. ... Exocet missile in flight A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a projectile propelled as a weapon at a target. ...


Massed bombers were unnecessary if a single bomber could destroy an entire city or military installation with a nuclear weapon. It would have to be a large bomber, since the first generation of nuclear weapons were big and heavy. Such a large and advanced bomber would be expensive on a unit basis, but would also be produced in much smaller quantities.


The arrival of the Cold War also emphasised to British military planners the need to modernise UK forces. Furthermore, the United Kingdom's up-and-down relationship with the U.S., particularly in the immediate postwar years when American isolationism made a short-lived comeback, led the UK to decide on the need for its own strategic nuclear strike force. The Cold War was the period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the mid 1940s until the early 1990s. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


After considering various specifications for such an advanced jet bomber in late 1946, the Air Ministry issued a request in January 1947 for an advanced jet bomber that would be at least the equal of anything the US or the USSR had. The request followed the guidelines of the earlier Specification B.35/46, which proposed a "medium-range bomber landplane, capable of carrying one 10,000 pound (4,535 kg) bomb to a target 1,500 nautical miles (2,775 km) from a base which may be anywhere in the world." The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ... This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry specifications for aircraft. ...


The RAF's then-current jet bomber the English Electric Canberra could only have reached the Soviet border and had a capacity of 6,000 lb (2720 kg). The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. ...


The request also indicated that the fully loaded weight should not exceed 100,000 pounds (45,400 kg), though this would be adjusted upward in practice; that the bomber have a cruise speed of 500 knots (925 km/h); and that it have a service ceiling of 50,000 feet (15,200 m).


The request went to most of the United Kingdom's major aircraft manufacturers. Handley Page and Avro came up with very advanced designs for the bomber competition, which would become the Victor and the Vulcan respectively, and the Air Staff decided to award contracts to both companies, as a form of insurance. While the Vickers-Armstrong submission had been rejected as too conservative, Vickers lobbied the Air Ministry and made changes to meet their concerns, and managed to sell the Vickers Valiant design on the basis that it would be available much sooner than the competition, and would be useful as a "stopgap" until the more advanced bombers were available. Handley Page logo The Handley Page Aircraft Company was founded by Frederick Handley Page in 1909 as the United Kingdoms first publicly traded aircraft manufacturing company. ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... The Vickers corporation, founded as the Vickers company in 1828, was a British manufacturer, primarily of military equipment. ...


At the same time the Air Ministry accepted a proposal from Short Brothers for a lesser specification that would be produced as the SA4 "Sperrin" if none of the other designs came to fruition. Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company now based in Belfast. ... The Short SA.4 Sperrin was a British jet bomber design of the early 1950s built by Short Brothers of Belfast. ...


In service

The Valiant entered service in 1955, the Vulcan in 1956 and the Victor in 1957. Despite the technical obstacles of the British nuclear arm, the V-Bombers still constituted an effective military force. A white paper produced by the Royal Air Force for the British government in 1961 claimed that the RAF's nuclear force was capable of destroying key Soviet cities such as Moscow and Kiev before bomber aircraft from the United States' Strategic Air Command reached their targets. Throughout the early stages of the Cold War, NATO relied on the Royal Air Force to destroy key cities in European Russia. The RAF concluded that the V-Bomber force was capable of killing eight million Soviet citizens and wounding another eight million before American bombers reached their targets. A white paper is an authoritative report; a government report outlining policy; or a document whose purpose is to educate industry customers or collect leads for a company. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... The Cold War was the period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the mid 1940s until the early 1990s. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ...


All of the V-bombers would see active service at elast once albeit with conventional bombs; the Valiant in the Suez Crisis in 1956, the Victors in the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation of 1963-63, and the Vulcan in the Falklands War long after the nuclear role had been passed over to the Royal Navy. the Valiant was the only one to drop a nuclear device; as part of British tests. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 300,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 258 killed [3] 777 wounded 59 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: ) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Rundown

The development of effective anti-aircraft missiles made the deterrent threat increasingly threadbare. After the failed Blue Streak missile program and the cancellation of the American Skybolt and the Mk. 2 version of the British Blue Steel missile already in service, the long-serving Vulcans were displaced in the 1960s, in the strategic role, by the Polaris missile designed to be launched from nuclear submarines. The Blue Streak missile was a British ballistic missile designed in 1955. ... The Douglas GAM-87A Skybolt was an air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM) developed during the late 1950s. ... Blue Steel Type nuclear stand-off missile Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform Aircraft Target History Builder Avro Date of design Production period Service duration 1963-1969 Operators UK RAF Variants Number built Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


The Valiant was removed from service as a nuclear bomber first; taking on roles as a tanker, low level attack and photo-reconnaissance. Fatigue problems meant they were removed from service completely by 1965.


In addition to the roles they were designed for, all three V-Bombers served as air-to-air refuelling tankers at one time or another; the Valiant was the RAF's first large scale tanker. As a means of replacing the loss of the Valiant, Victor B.1s were converted into the AAR role. When the Victor was withdrawn from service as a bomber, a number of B.2s were then converted into tankers. Finally, due to delays in the entry into service of the Lockheed Tristar, six Vulcan B.2s were converted into tankers, and served from 1982 to 1984. Orbital Sciences Stargazer Lockheed L-1011 The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to reach the marketplace, following the Boeing 747 jumbo jet and the Douglas DC-10. ...


External link

  • A contemporary picture of all three V Bomber types together

  Results from FactBites:
 
V bomber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (588 words)
The term V bomber was used for the Royal Air Force aircraft during the 1950s and 1960s that comprised the UK's strategic nuclear strike force.
The RAF Bomber Command ended World War II with a policy of using heavy four-piston-engined bombers for massed raids, and remained committed to this policy in the immediate postwar period, adopting the Avro Lincoln, an updated version of the WW2 Lancaster, as their standard bomber.
After considering various specifications for such an advanced jet bomber in late 1946, in January 1947 the Air Ministry issued an request for an advanced jet bomber that would be at least the equal of anything the US or the USSR had.
Bomber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (779 words)
Strategic bombers are primarily designed for long-range strike missions against strategic targets such as supply bases, bridges, factories, and shipyards.
Perhaps the one meaningful distinction at present is the question of range: a bomber is generally a long-range aircraft capable of striking targets deep within enemy territory, whereas fighter bombers and attack aircraft are limited to 'theater' missions in and around the immediate area of battlefield combat.
The development of large strategic bombers stagnated in the later part of the Cold War both because of spiraling costs and the advent of the intercontinental ballistic missile, which was felt to have equal deterrent value while being much more difficult to intercept.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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