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Encyclopedia > Uzbekistan
O‘zbekiston Respublikasi
Republic of Uzbekistan
Flag of Uzbekistan Coat of arms of Uzbekistan
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemNational Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Capital
(and largest city)
Tashkent
41°16′N, 69°13′E
Official languages Uzbek
Demonym Uzbek[1]
Government Republic
 -  President Islom Karimov
 -  Prime Minister Shavkat Mirziyoyev
Independence from the Soviet Union 
 -  Formation 17471 
 -  Declared September 1, 1991 
 -  Recognized December 8, 1991 
 -  Completed December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 447,400 km² (56th)
172,742 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.9
Population
 -  July 2005 estimate 26,593,000 (44th)
 -  Density 59/km² (136th)
153/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $50.395 billion (74th)
 -  Per capita $2,283 (145th)
Gini (2000) 26.8 (low
HDI (2007) 0.702 (medium) (113th)
Currency Uzbekistan som (Uzbekiston so'mi) (UZS)
Time zone UZT (UTC+5)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5)
Internet TLD .uz
Calling code +998
1 As Bukharian Emirate, Kokand Khanate, Khwarezm.

Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia, formerly part of the Soviet Union. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south. Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Uzbekistan. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Uzbekistan was adopted on November 18, 1991. ... Coat of arms of Uzbek SSR until 1991 The current coat of arms of Uzbekistan was adopted on July 2, 1992. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: ) came into being when Uzbekistan was a republic of the Soviet Union. ... Uzbekistan File links The following pages link to this file: Uzbekistan User:DanielZm/test ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Uzbekistan is Central Asias most populous country. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... List of Presidents of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov (1991 - present) Last election See also Politics of Uzbekistan Categories: | | ... Islom Abdug‘aniyevich Karimov (Russian: Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov; Uzbek: Ислом Абдуғаниевич Каримов Islom Abdug`aniyevich Karimov) (born on 30 January 1938) has served as the President of Uzbekistan since 1990. ... According to the Constitution of Uzbekistan, the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan and the deputy ministers are appointed by the president. ... Shavkat Miromonovich Mirziyoyev (Mirziyayev) (born 1957) is the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan[1]. He was nominated by the President, Islam Karimov on December 12, 2003 and agreed by the Uzbek parliament. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The som (so‘m in Uzbek) is the currency of Uzbekistan in Central Asia. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Uzbekistan Time is the standard timezone in Uzbekistan that 5 hours ahead of UTC. The standard time uses no daylight saving time, though there has been constant debate whether to adopt it in order to increase leisure time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .uz is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Uzbekistan. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... The Khanate of Kokand is a formar state in Asia that existed from 1709-1876 within the territory of modern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... Landlocked countries of the world according to The World Factbook. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Uzbekistan

The territory of Uzbekistan was already populated in the second millennium BC. Early human tools and monuments have been found in the Ferghana, Tashkent, Bukhara, Khorezm (Khwarezm, Chorasmia) and Samarkand regions. Located in the heart of Central Asia between the Amu Darya (Oxus) and Syr Darya (Jaxartes) Rivers, Uzbekistan has a long and interesting heritage. ... AD redirects here. ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is a city in present day Uzbekistan, in the Province of Khorezm. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and Bactria in 327 BC, marrying Roxana, daughter of a local Bactrian chieftain. The conquest was supposedly of little help to Alexander as popular resistance was fierce, causing Alexander's army to be bogged down in the region. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Sogdiana, ca. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 332 BC 331 BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC - 327 BC - 326 BC 325 BC 324... Roxana (Bactrian: Roshanak; literally midnight soul or nightmare), was a Bactrian noble and a wife of Alexander the Great. ...


For many centuries the region of Uzbekistan was ruled by Iranian Empires, including the Parthian and Sassanid Empires. Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


In the fourteenth century AD, Timur, known in the west as Tamerlane, overpowered the Mongols and built an empire. In his military campaigns, Tamerlane reached as far as the Middle East. He defeated Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, who was captured, and died in captivity. Tamerlane sought to build a capital for his empire in Samarkand. Today Tamerlane is considered to be one of the greatest heroes in Uzbekistan. He plays a significant role in its national id and history. Following the fall of the Timurid Empire, Uzbek nomads conquered the region. For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a Turkic-Mongol dynasty of Iran established by the Mongol Timur (Tamerlane). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Image:OrlatPlaque.jpg
The Orlat plaque, found in Uzbekistan, depicts a battle of warriors in cataphract, thought to be Sakas or Sogdians.

In the nineteenth century, the Russian Empire began to expand, and spread into Central Asia. The "Great Game" period is generally regarded as running from approximately 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 a second less intensive phase followed. At the start of the 19th century, there were some 2,000 miles (3,200 km) separating British India and the outlying regions of the Tsarist Russia. Much of the land in between was unmapped. This Orlat plaque, found in Uzbekistan, depicts a battle of warriors in cataphract, thought to be Sakas or Sogdians. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Connolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ... The blue areas were to be Russian controlled, while the southeast pink region was to be British. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


By the beginning of the twentieth century, Central Asia was firmly in the hands of Russia and despite some early resistance to Bolsheviks, Uzbekistan and the rest of Central Asia became a part of the Soviet Union. On 27 October, 1924 the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created. On August 31, 1991, Uzbekistan declared independence, marking September 1 as a national holiday. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... State motto: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Official language None. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The country is now the world's second-largest exporter of cotton - while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ...


Politics

Islom Karimov - President of Uzbekistan
Islom Karimov - President of Uzbekistan

Constitutionally, the Government of Uzbekistan provides for democracy. In reality, the executive holds a great deal of power and the legislature and judiciary has little power to shape laws. Under terms of a December 1995 referendum, Islom Karimov's first term was extended. Another national referendum was held January 27, 2002 to yet again extend Karimov's term. The referendum passed and Karimov's term was extended by act of the parliament to December 2007. Most international observers refused to participate in the process and did not recognize the results, dismissing them as not meeting basic standards. The 2002 referendum also included a plan to create a bicameral parliament, consisting of a lower house (the Oliy Majlis) and an upper house (Senate). Members of the lower house are to be "full time" legislators. Elections for the new bicameral parliament took place on December 26, but no truly independent opposition candidates or parties were able to take part. The OSCE limited observation mission concluded that the elections fell significantly short of OSCE commitments and other international standards for democratic elections. Several political parties have been formed with government approval. Similarly, although multiple media outlets (radio, TV, newspaper) have been established, these either remain under government control or rarely broach political topics. Independent political parties were allowed to organize, recruit members, and hold conventions and press conferences, but have been denied registration under restrictive registration procedures. Terrorist bombings were carried out March 28-April 1, 2004 in Tashkent and Bukhara. The movement toward economic reform in Uzbekistan has not been matched by movement toward political reform. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (623x779, 123 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (623x779, 123 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:en. ... Islom Abdug‘aniyevich Karimov (Russian: Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov; Uzbek: Ислом Абдуғаниевич Каримов Islom Abdug`aniyevich Karimov) (born on 30 January 1938) has served as the President of Uzbekistan since 1990. ... Islom Abdug‘aniyevich Karimov (Russian: Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov; Uzbek: Ислом Абдуғаниевич Каримов Islom Abdug`aniyevich Karimov) (born on 30 January 1938) has served as the President of Uzbekistan since 1990. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ...


Human rights

The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan asserts that "democracy in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be based upon common human principles, according to which the highest value shall be the human being, his life, freedom, honor, dignity and other inalienable rights." The human rights record of Uzbekistan reflects its status as a dictatorship. ...


However, non-government human rights watchdogs, such as IHF, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, as well as United States Department of State and Council of the European Union define Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights"[2] and express profound concern about "wide-scale violation of virtually all basic human rights" [3]. According to the reports, the most widespread violations are torture, arbitrary arrests, and various restrictions of freedoms: of religion, of speech and press, of free association and assembly [4]. The reports maintain that the violations are most often committed against members of religious organizations, independent journalists, human right activists, and political activists, including members of the banned opposition parties. In 2005, Uzbekistan was included into Freedom House's "The Worst of the Worst: The World's Most Repressive Societies". NGO redirects here. ... The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights is a self-governing group of non-governmental, not-for-profit organizations that act to protect human rights throughout Europe, North America and Central Asia. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Department of State redirects here. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ...


The official position is summarized in a memorandum "The measures taken by the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of providing and encouraging human rights" [5] and amounts to the following. The government does everything that is in its power to protect and to guarantee the human rights of Uzbekistan`s citizens. Uzbekistan continuously improves its laws and institutions in order to create a more humane society. Over 300 laws regulating the rights and basic freedoms of the people have been passed by the parliament. For instance, an office of Ombudsman was established in 1996 [6] . On August 2, 2005, President Islom Karimov signed a decree that was to abolish capital punishment in Uzbekistan on January 1, 2008. For the Canadian television series, see Ombudsman (TV series). ...


The 2005 civil unrest in Uzbekistan, which resulted in several hundred people being killed is viewed by many as a landmark event in the history of human rights abuse in Uzbekistan,[7][8][9] A concern has been expressed and a request for an independent investigation of the events has been made by the United States, European Union, the UN, the OSCE Chairman-in-Office and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. The government of Uzbekistan is accused of unlawful termination of human life, denying its citizens freedom of assembly and freedom of expression. The government vehemently rebuffs the accusations, maintaining that it merely conducted an anti-terrorist operation, exercising only necessary force.[10] In addition, some officials claim that "an information war on Uzbekistan has been declared" and the human rights violations in Andijan are invented by the enemies of Uzbekistan as a convenient pretext for intervention into the country's internal affairs.[11] Map of eastern Uzbekistan Uzbek troops fired into a crowd of protesters in an attempt to squash civil unrest in the eastern city of Andijan, Uzbekistan in May 2005. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


Geography

See also: List of cities in Uzbekistan
Map of Uzbekistan
Map of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan is approximately the size of Morocco and has an area of 447,400 square kilometers (172,700 sq mi). It is the 56th-largest country in the world. UZBEKISTAN Central Asia, north of Afghanistan Geographic coordinates: 41°00′ N 64°00′ E Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States Area: total: 447,400 km² land: 425,400 km² water: 22,000 km² Area - comparative: slightly larger than California Land boundaries: total: 6,221 km border countries: Afghanistan 137 km... This is a list of cities in Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 783 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1387 × 1062 pixel, file size: 450 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 783 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1387 × 1062 pixel, file size: 450 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Uzbekistan stretches 1,425 kilometers (885 mi) from west to east and 930 kilometers (578 mi) from north to south. Bordering Turkmenistan to the southwest, Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea to the north, and Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to the south and east, Uzbekistan is not only one of the larger Central Asian states but also the only Central Asian state to border all the other four. Uzbekistan also shares a short border with Afghanistan to the south. The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ...

Lake Tcharvak
Lake Tcharvak

Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country; it is one of two double-landlocked countries in the world – the other being Liechtenstein. 10% of its territory is intensely cultivated irrigated river valleys. The highest point in Uzbekistan is Adelunga Toghi at 4,301 meters (14,111 ft). A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ...


The Climate in the Republic of Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually (100–200 milimeters, or 3.9–7.9 inches). The average summer temperature tends to be 40 °C, while the average winter temperature is around 0  °C.[12] For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


Major cities include: Bukhara, Samarqand and Tashkent. Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ...


Provinces

Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces (viloyatlar, singular viloyat, compound noun viloyati e.g. Toshkent viloyati, Samarqand viloyati, etc.), one autonomous republic (respublika, compound noun respublikasi e.g. Qaraqalpaqstan Avtonom Respublikasi, Karakalpakistan Autonomous Republic, etc.), and one independent city (shahar. compound noun shahri , e.g. Toshkent shahri). Names are given below in the Uzbek language, although numerous variations of the transliterations of each name exist. Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces (singular: viloyat, plural: viloyatlar) (capitals in parentheses)- Andijon Province (Andijon) Buxoro Province (Buxoro) Fargona Province (Fargona) Jizzakh Province (Jizzakh) Namangan Province (Namangan) Navoiy Province (Navoiy) Qashqadaryo Province (Qarshi) Samarqand Province (Samarqand) Sirdaryo Province (Guliston) Surxondaryo Province (Termiz) Toshkent Province (Toshkent) Xorazm Province... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... A wilaya is an administrative subdivision usually translated as province. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... An independent city is a city that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Uzbek (O‘zbek tili in Latin script, Ўзбек тили in Cyrillic script) is an Eastern Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan. ...

Division Capital City Area
(km²)
Population Key
Andijon Viloyati Andijon 4,200 1,899,000 2
Buxoro Viloyati Buxoro (Bukhara) 39,400 1,384,700 3
Farg'ona Viloyati Farg'ona (Fergana) 6,800 2,597,000 4
Jizzax Viloyati Jizzax 20,500 910,500 5
Xorazm Viloyati Urganch 6,300 1,200,000 13
Namangan Viloyati Namangan 7,900 1,862,000 6
Navoiy Viloyati Navoiy 110,800 767,500 7
Qashqadaryo Viloyati Qarshi 28,400 2,029,000 8
Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikasi Nukus 160,000 1,200,000 14
Samarqand Viloyati Samarqand 16,400 2,322,000 9
Sirdaryo Viloyati Guliston 5,100 648,100 10
Surxondaryo Viloyati Termez 20,800 1,676,000 11
Toshkent Viloyati Toshkent (Tashkent) 15,300 4,450,000 12
Toshkent Shahri Toshkent (Tashkent) No Data 2,205,000 1

The statistics for Toshkent Viloyati also include the statistics for Toshkent Shahri. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Uzbekistan ... Andijan Province (Uzbek: Andijon viloyati / Russian: Андижон вилояти) is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan, located in the eastern part of the Fergana Valley in far eastern Uzbekistan. ... Andijan (also Andijon, Andizhan, Andizan) is a city of western Uzbekistan. ... Buxoro Province (Bukhara Province) (Uzbek: Buxoro viloyati / Бухоро вилояти) is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan located in the southwest of the country。The Kyzyl-Kum Desert takes up a large portion of its territory. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Fergana Province (Uzbek: Fargona viloyati / Russian: Ферганская область) is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan, located in the southern part of the Fergana Valley in far eastern Uzbekistan. ... Fergana Fergana or Farghana (Uzbek: Fargona [Фарғона], Russian: Фергана, Tajik: Фарғона) is a city (1999 population: 182,800), the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... The Jizzak Region comprises southeastern part of the Golodny Steppes and parts of the Kizil-Kum Desert. ... Jizzakh (or Jizzax) is a city in central Uzbekistan, northwest of Samarkand. ... Xorazm Province, (Uzbek: Xorazm viloyati / Хоразм вилояти) or (Khorezm Province) as it is still more commonly known, is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan located in the northwest of the country in the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya River. ... Urgench (Uzbek: Urganch / Урганч) is city (1989 pop. ... Namangan Province (Uzbek:Namangan viloyati / Russian: Наманган вилояти) is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan, located in the southern part of the Fergana Valley in far eastern Uzbekistan. ... Namangan (Russian:Наманган), is a city (1994 pop. ... Navoiy Province is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan located in the southwest of the country. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Qashqadaryo Province (Uzbek: Qashqadaryo viloyati / Қашқадарё вилояти, old spelling Kashkadarya Province) is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan, located in the southern part of Uzbekistan in the basin of the Qashqadaryo River and the western slopes of the Pamir Mountains. ... Karshi is a city in southern Uzbekistan. ... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Nukus (Karakalpak: Nökis/Нөкис) is the sixth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and the capital of the autonomous Karakalpakstan Republic. ... Samarqand Province (Samarkand Province) (Uzbek: Samarqand viloyati/ Самарқанд вилояти) is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan located in the center of the country in the basin of Zarafshan River. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ... Srydarya Province or Сирдарё вилояти is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan, located in the center of the country on the left bank of Syr Darya River. ... Guliston (Gulistan) is the capital of Sirdarya Province in eastern Uzbekistan. ... Surkhandarya Province is in the southern part of Uzbekistan. ... Termez (Termiz in Uzbek; Termes in German) is a city in southern Uzbekistan near the border with Afghanistan. ... Toshkent Province is in the northeastern part of Uzbekistan, between the Syr Darya River and the Tien Shan Mountains. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Tashkent (Toshkent or Тошкент in Uzbek, Ташке́нт in Russian-meaning Stone City in English), the current capital of Uzbekistan, has in the past been called Chach, Shash and Binkent. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Uzbekistan

Along with many Commonwealth of Independent States economies, Uzbekistan's economy has recently shifted into high gear, recording 9.1% growth in the first quarter of 2007, along with a low inflation rate of 2.9%.[13] However, Craig Murray, author of "Murder in Samarkand", suggests that official statistics about Uzbekistan are not trustworthy.[14] The Government of Uzbekistan is moving cautiously towards a market-based economy for the Economy of Uzbekistan. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


Uzbekistan has a very low GNI per capita (US$460 giving a PPP equivalent of US$1860).[15] Economic production is concentrated in commodities: Uzbekistan is now the world's fourth-largest producer and the world's second-largest exporter of cotton, as well as the seventh largest world producer of gold. It is also a regionally significant producer of natural gas, coal, copper, oil, silver, and uranium.[16] Agriculture contributes about 37% of GDP while employing 44% of the labor force.[17] Unemployment and underemployment are estimated to be at least 20%.[18] Gross National Income (GNI) was used to as gross national product (GNP), even though it was a measure of income rather than output (or production). ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...

Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.

Facing a multitude of economic challenges upon acquiring independence, the government adopted an evolutionary reform strategy, with an emphasis on state control, reduction of imports, and self-sufficiency in energy. Since 1994, the state controlled media has repeatedly proclaimed the success of this "Uzbekistan Economic Model"[19] and suggested that it is a unique example of a smooth transition to the market economy while avoiding shock, pauperization, and stagnation. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ...


The gradualist reform strategy has involved postponing significant macroeconomic and structural reforms. The state in the hands of the bureaucracy has remained a dominant influence in the economy. Corruption permeates the society: Uzbekistan's 2005 Index of perception of corruption is 137 out of 159 countries. A February 2006 report on the country by the International Crisis Group illustrates one aspect of this corruption: The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Index of perception of corruption ordering the countries of the world according to the level of public perception of corruption of public and political functionaries. ... The International Crisis Group is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization whose mission is to prevent and resolve deadly conflicts through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy. ...

Much of Uzbekistan’s GDP growth comes from favourable prices for certain key exports, especially cotton, gold, corn, and increasingly gas, but the revenues from these commodities are distributed among a very small circle of the ruling elite, with little or no benefit for the populace at large.[20][21] At cotton-harvest time, all students are mobilized as unpaid labour[22].

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, "the government is hostile to allowing the development of an independent private sector, over which it would have no control".[23] Thus, the national bourgeoisie in general, and the middle class in particular, are marginalized economically, and, consequently, politically. Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


The economic policies have repelled foreign investment, which is the lowest per capita in the CIS.[24] For years, the largest barrier to foreign companies entering the Uzbekistani market has been the difficulty of converting currency. In 2003, the government accepted the obligations of Article VIII under the International Monetary Fund,[25] providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and the tightening of borders have lessened the effect of this measure.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... IMF redirects here. ...


Inflation, although lower than in the mid-1990s, remained high until 2003 (an estimated 50% in 2002 and 21.9% in 2003[26]). Tight economic policies in 2004 resulted in a drastic reduction of inflation, to 3.8% (although alternative estimates based on the price of a true market basket, put it at 15%[27]). However, the relief appears to be transient, as the IMF estimate of CPI-based inflation in Uzbekistan in 2005 is 14.1%.[28] The term market basket or commodity bundle refers to a specific type of basket, or a fixed list of items used specifically to track the progress of inflation in an economy or specific market. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The government of Uzbekistan restricts foreign imports in many ways, including high import duties. Excise taxes are applied in a highly discriminatory manner to protect locally produced goods. Official tariffs are combined with unofficial, discriminatory charges resulting in total charges amounting to as much as 100 to 150% of the actual value of the product, making imported products virtually unaffordable.[29] Import substitution is an officially declared policy and the government proudly reports a reduction by a factor of two in the volume of consumer goods imported.[30] A number of CIS countries are officially exempt from Uzbekistan import duties.


The Republican Stock Exchange (RSE) 'Tashkent' opened in 1994. It houses a securities exchange, real estate traders, the national investment fund and the national securities depositary. It does not trade all joint-stock companies each month and therefore market capitalisation varies widely.[31]


Uzbekistan's external position has been strong since 2003. Thanks in part to the recovery of world market prices of gold and cotton, the country's key export commodities, expanded natural gas and some manufacturing exports, and increasing labour migrant transfers the current account turned into a large surplus - of between 9 and 11 per cent of GDP in 2003-05 - and foreign exchange reserves, including gold, more than doubled to around US$3 billion.[32]


Demographics

Boys pose for a picture at Registan. Over a third of Uzbekistan's population is under 14 years old.

Uzbekistan is Central Asia's most populous country. Its 27.7 million people[1] comprise nearly half the region's total population. Uzbekistan is Central Asias most populous country. ... Categories: Central Asia geography stubs | Buildings and structures in Uzbekistan ...


The population of Uzbekistan is very young: 34.1% of its are people are younger than 14. According to official sources, Uzbeks comprise a majority (80%) of the total population. Other ethnic groups include Russians 5.5%, Tajiks 5%, Kazakhs 3%, Karakalpaks 2.5%, and Tatars 1.5%.[33] There is some controversy about the percentage of the Tajik population. While official numbers from Uzbekistan put the number at 5%, some Western scholars believe it to be much higher, going as high as 40%.[34]. There is also an ethnic Korean population that was forcibly relocated to Uzbekistan by Stalin in the 1930s. There are also small groups of Armenians in Uzbekistan, mostly in Tashkent and Samarkand. The nation is 88% Muslim (mostly Sunni, with a 5% Shi'a minority), 9% Eastern Orthodox and 3% other faiths. The US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2004 reports that 0.2% of the population are Buddhist (these being ethnic Koreans). The Bukharian Jews have lived in Central Asia, mostly in Uzbekistan, for thousands of years. There were also an estimated 93,000 Jews in Uzbekistan in the early 1990s (source Library of Congress Country Studies). But now, since the collapse of the USSR, most Central Asian Jews left the region for the United States or Israel. Only about 500-1,500 Jews remain in Uzbekistan. Language(s) Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajiki) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni, with sizable Ithna Ashari and Ismaili minorities) TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... This article is about the people. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Languages Traditionally Bukhari, Russian and Hebrew spoken in addtion. ...


At least 10 percent of the Uzbekistan's labour force works abroad (mostly in Russia and Kazakhstan).[35]


Uzbekistan has a 99.3% literacy rate among adults older than 15,[36] which is attributable to the free and universal education system of the Soviet Union.


Languages

The Uzbek Language is the only official state language [37]. Russian is still an important language for interethnic communication, including much day-to-day technical, scientific, governmental and business use. Tajiki is also used in some areas (Tajiks are found primarily in the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara, with scattered populations elsewhere). Uzbek (O‘zbek tili in Latin script, Ўзбек тили in Cyrillic script) is an Eastern Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ...


Communications

According to the official source report, as of 1 July 2007, there were 3.7 million users of cellular phones in Uzbekistan.[38] The largest mobile operator in terms of number of subscribers is MTS-Uzbekistan (former Uzdunrobita and part of Russian Mobile TeleSystems) and it is followed by Beeline (part of Russia's Beeline) and Coscom (owned by US MCT Corp., but there is news that it is selling its asset to TeliaSonera.[39] Telephones - main lines in use: 1. ...


As of 1 July 2007, the estimated number of internet users was 1.8 million, according to UzACI.


Transportation

Tashkent, the nation's capital and largest city, has a three-line subway built in 1977, and expanded in 2001 after ten years' independence from the Soviet Union. Uzbekistan is currently the only country in Central Asia with a subway system, and it is considered to be one of the cleanest systems in the world.[citation needed] There are government operated trams, buses and trolley buses running across the city. There are also many taxis, both registered and unregistered. Uzbekistan has car-producing plants which produce modern cars. The car production is supported by the government and the Korean auto company Daewoo. The Uzbek government acquired a 50% stake in Daewoo in 2005 for an undisclosed sum, and in May 2007 UzDaewooAuto, the car maker, signed a strategic agreement with General Motors-Daewoo Auto and Technology (GMDAT).[40] The government also bought a stake in Turkey's Koc in SamKocAuto, a producer of small buses and lorries. Afterwards, it signed an agreement with Isuzu Motors of Japan to produce Isuzu buses and lorries.[41] Railways: total: 3,380 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 3,380 km 1. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... This article is about the chaebol Daewoo Group. ...


Train links connect many towns within Uzbekistan, as well as neighbouring ex-republics of the Soviet Union. Moreover, after independence two fast-running train systems were established. There is also a large airplane plant that was built during the Soviet era- Tashkent Chkalov Aviation Manufacturing Plant or ТАПОиЧ in Russian. The plant originated during World War II, when production facilities were evacuated south and east to avoid capture by advancing Nazi forces. Until the late 1980s, the plant was one of the leading airplane production centers in the USSR, but with collapse of the Soviet Union its manufacturing equipment became outdated, and most of the workers were laid off. Now it produces only a few planes a year, but with interest from Russian companies growing in it, there are rumors of production-enhancement plans.


Military

Uzbekistan possesses the largest military force in the Central Asian region, having around 65,000 people in uniform, although according to some other statistics Kazakhstan has the largest and most competent army in Central Asia with about 70,000 people in its army. Its structure is inherited from the Soviet armed forces, although it is moving rapidly toward a fully restructured organization, which will eventually be built around light and Special Forces. The Uzbekistan Armed Forces equipment is not modern, and training, while improving, is neither uniform nor adequate for its new mission of territorial security. The government has accepted the arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union, acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (as a non-nuclear state), and supported an active program by the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) in western Uzbekistan (Nukus and Vozrozhdeniye Island). The Government of Uzbekistan spends about 3.7% of GDP on the military but has received a growing infusion of Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and other security assistance funds since 1998. Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S., Uzbekistan approved the U.S. Central Command's request for access to a vital military air base, Karshi-Khanabad Airbase, in southern Uzbekistan. However Uzbekistan demanded that the U.S. withdraw from the airbases after the Andijan massacre and the U.S. reaction to this massacre. The last US troops left Uzbekistan in November 2005. Uzbekistan possesses the largest military force in Central Asia, with around 65,000 people in uniform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nukus (Karakalpak: Nökis/Нөкис) is the sixth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and the capital of the autonomous Karakalpakstan Republic. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Vozrozhdeniya Island. ... Karshi-Khanabad is an airbase in south-eastern Uzbekistan leased by the government of Uzbekistan to the United States. ... In May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan reached a head when Uzbek troops fired into a crowd of protesters in the eastern city of Andijan, killing an estimated 400 to 1000 people on 13 May, in what has been termed the Andijan massacre. ...


Foreign relations

Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991. However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in 1999. Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in UN-organized groups to help resolve the Tajikistan and Afghanistan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability. Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


Previously close to Washington (which gave Uzbekistan half a billion dollars in aid in 2004, about a quarter of it military), the government of Uzbekistan has recently restricted American military use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad for air operations in neighboring Afghanistan.[42] Uzbekistan was an active supporter of U.S. efforts against worldwide terrorism and joined the coalitions that have dealt with both Afghanistan and Iraq. The relationship between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called "color revolutions" in Georgia and Ukraine (and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan). When the U.S. joined in a call for an independent international investigation of the bloody events at Andijon, the relationship took an additional nosedive, and President Islom Karimov changed the political alignment of the country to bring it closer to Russia and China, countries which chose not to criticize Uzbekistan's leaders for their alleged human rights violations. Karshi-Khanabad is an airbase in south-eastern Uzbekistan leased by the government of Uzbekistan to the United States. ... Color revolutions or Flower revolutions are the names given collectively to a series of related movements that have developed in post_communist societies in Eastern Europe and are possibly spreading elsewhere. ... Andijan (also Andijon, Andizhan, Andizan) is a city of western Uzbekistan. ...


In late July 2005, the government of Uzbekistan ordered the United States to vacate an air base in Karshi-Kanabad (near the Uzbekistan`s border with Afghanistan) within 180 days. Karimov had offered use of the base to the U.S. shortly after 9/11. It is also believed by some Uzbeks that the protests in Andijan were brought about by the UK and US influences in the area of Andijan. This is another reason for the hostility between Uzbekistan and the West. The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ...


Uzbekistan is a member of the United Nations (since March 2, 1992), the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Partnership for Peace, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). It belongs to the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) and the Economic Cooperation Organization (comprised of the five Central Asian countries, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan). In 1999 , Uzbekistan joined the GUAM alliance (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova), which was formed in 1997 (making it GUUAM), but pulled out of the organization in 2005. Uzbekistan is also a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and hosts the SCO’s Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) in Tashkent. Uzbekistan joined the new Central Asian Cooperation Organization (CACO) in 2002. The CACO consists of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. It is a founding member of, and remains involved in, the Central Asian Union, formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and joined in March 1998 by Tajikistan. The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... Map of the ECO member states The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental international organization involving ten Asian nations. ... For GUAM, an eastern European international organization, see GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing - Tashkent Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Zhang Deguang Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ... Map of the CACO. : Member states. ...


In September 2006, UNESCO presented Islom Karimov an award for Uzbekistan's preservation of its rich culture and traditions. Despite criticism, this seems to be a sign of improving relationships between Uzbekistan and the West. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


The month of October 2006 also saw a decrease in the isolation of Uzbekistan from the West. The EU announced that it was planning to send a delegation to Uzbekistan to talk about human rights and liberties, after a long period of hostile relations between the two. Although it is equivocal about whether the official or unofficial version of the Andijan Massacre is true, the EU is evidently willing to ease its economic sanctions against Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, it is generally assumed among the Uzbekistan`s population that the government will stand firm in maintaining its close ties with the Russian Federation and in its theory that the 2004-2005 protests in Uzbekistan were promoted by the USA and UK. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... In May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan reached a head when Uzbek troops fired into a crowd of protesters in the eastern city of Andijan, killing an estimated 400 to 1000 people on 13 May, in what has been termed the Andijan massacre. ... Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Uzbekistan
See also: Music of Uzbekistan, Kurash, Islam in Uzbekistan, and Scout Association of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan has a wide mix of ethnic groups and cultures, with the Uzbek being the majority group. In 1995 about 71% of Uzbekistan's population was Uzbek. The chief minority groups were Russians (8%), Tajiks (5%), Kazaks (4%), Tatars (2.5%), and Karakalpaks (2%). It is said however that the number of non-Uzbek people living in Uzbekistan is decreasing as Russians and other minority groups slowly leave and Uzbeks return from other parts of the former Soviet Union. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Dance of a bacha in Samarkand between 1905 and 1915 Uzbek classical music is called shashmaqam, which arose in Bukhara in the late 16th century when that city was a regional capital. ... Kurash is the native ancient type of upright jacket wrestling practiced in Uzbekistan. ... Gur-e Amir in Samarkand was built by the order of Timur, a ferocious Central Asian warlord, who, proclaiming his royal descent from Genghis Khan, in the 14th century conquered much of the Middle East, Turkey, Central Asia, and India. ... Membership badge of Scouting in Uzbekistan Scouting in Uzbekistan was founded in 1995, and is working toward World Organization of the Scout Movement recognition. ... Language(s) Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajiki) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni, with sizable Ithna Ashari and Ismaili minorities) TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... The words kazaks, kazak may be a transliteration from Russian language of Kazakhs, people of Kazakhstan Cossacks (Russian: kazak) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ...


When Uzbekistan gained independence in 1991, it was widely feared that Muslim fundamentalism would spread across the region. The expectation was that a country long denied freedom of religious practice would undergo a very rapid increase in the expression of its dominant faith. As of 1994, well over half of Uzbekistan's population was said to be Muslim, though in an official survey few of that number had any real knowledge of the religion or knew how to practice it. However, Islamic observance is increasing in the region. Islam is a religion of peace and sinceriety to other muslims and non-muslims . ...


Uzbekistan has a high literacy rate, with about 99.3% of adults above the age of 15 being able to read and write. However with only 88% of the under 15 population currently enrolled in education this figure may drop in the future[citation needed] . Uzbekistan has encountered severe budgeting shortfalls in its education program. The education law of 1992 began the process of theoretical reform, but the physical base has deteriorated, and curriculum revision has been slow. Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ...


Uzbekistan`s universities churn out almost 600,000 graduates annually.


Environment

Uzbekistan's environmental situation ought to be a major concern among the international community. Decades of questionable Soviet policies in pursuit of greater cotton production has resulted in a catastrophic scenario. The agricultural industry appears to be the main contributor to the pollution and devastation of the air and water in the country.[43] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Soviet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


The Aral Sea disaster is a classic example. The Aral Sea used to be the fourth largest inland sea on Earth, acting as an influencing factor in the air moisture.[44] Since the 1960s, the decade when the misuse of the Aral Sea water began, it has shrunk to less than 50% of its former area, and decreased in volume threefold. Reliable - or even approximate - data has not been collected, stored or provided by any organization or official agency. The numbers of animal deaths and human refugees from the area around the sea can only be guessed at. The question of who is responsible for the crisis - the Soviet scientists and politicians who directed the distribution of water during the sixties, or the post-Soviet politicians who did not allocate sufficient funding for the building of dams and irrigation systems - remains open. The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... This article is about the body of water. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Due to the almost insoluble Aral Sea problem, high salinity is widespread in Uzbekistan. The vast majority of the nation's water resources are used for farming, which consumes nearly 94% of the water usage.[45] This results in a heavy use of pesticides and fertilizers.[45] Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Multi media

The Uzbek anthem on Y-tube- -/-://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJfceQzUdbA


The Uzbek S.S.R.'s anthem on Y-tube- -/-://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVRL_MxdvMw


References

  1. ^ a b CIA World Factbook, Uzbekistan
  2. ^ US Department of State, 2004 Country report on Human Rights Practices in Uzbekistan, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, February 28, 2005
  3. ^ IHF, Human Rights in OSCE Region: Europe, Central Asia and North America - Uzbekistan, Report 2004 (events of 2003), 2004-06-23
  4. ^ OMCT and Legal Aid Society, DENIAL OF JUSTICE IN UZBEKISTAN - an assessment of the human rights situation and national system of protection of fundamental rights, April 2005.
  5. ^ Embassy of Uzbekistan to the US, Press-Release: THE MEASURES, TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN IN THE FIELD OF PROVIDING AND ENCOURAGING HUMAN RIGHTS, October 24, 2005
  6. ^ UZBEKISTAN DAILY DIGEST, UZBEKISTAN'S OMBUDSMAN REPORTS ON 2002 RESULTS, December 25, 2007
  7. ^ http://usinfo.state.gov/eur/Archive/2005/Sep/26-966275.html
  8. ^ Uzbekistan: Report Cites Evidence Of Government 'Massacre' In Andijon - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY
  9. ^ Uzbekistan: Independent international investigation needed into Andizhan events | Amnesty International
  10. ^ Press-service of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan:
  11. ^ Kreml.Org | Áîäéöáîóëéå Óïâùôéñ Óôáìé Ðï×Ïäïí Äìñ Âåóðòåãåäåîôîïçï Äá×Ìåîéñ Îá Õúâåëéóôáî
  12. ^ http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+uz0029)
  13. ^ http://www.interfax.ru/e/B/0/26.html?menu=2&id_issue=11715240
  14. ^ Murder in Samarkand - by Craig Murray
  15. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GNIPC.pdf
  16. ^ IRIN | Country Profile | Uzbekistan
  17. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Uzbekistan
  18. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Uzbekistan
  19. ^ Пресс-служба Президента Республики Узбекистан
  20. ^ International Crisis Group - Uzbekistan: In for the Long Haul
  21. ^ New Report Paints Grim Picture of Uzbekistan
  22. ^ BBC NEWS | Programmes | Newsnight | Child labour and the High Street
  23. ^ Index of Economic Freedom
  24. ^ http://www.state.gov/e/eb/ifd/2005/42196.htm
  25. ^ Press Release: The Republic of Uzbekistan Accepts Article VIII Obligations
  26. ^ Uzbekistan (12/07)
  27. ^ Asian Development Outlook 2005 - Uzbekistan - ADB.org
  28. ^ Republic of Uzbekistan and the IMF - Page 1 of 4
  29. ^ NTE 2004 FINAL 3.30.04 latest.doc
  30. ^ Министерство иностранных дел Республики Узбекистан
  31. ^ Uzbekistan Online - News Maps Weather News Politics Economy Law Hotels Flights Cars People
  32. ^ Welcome to F&A Investment Limited
  33. ^ 1996 data; CIA World factbook, Uzbekistan
  34. ^ D. Carlson, "Uzbekistan: Ethnic Composition and Discriminations", Harvard University, August 2003
  35. ^ International Crisis Group, Uzbekistan: Stagnation and Uncertainty, Asia Briefing N°67, 22 August 2007 (free registration needed to view full report)
  36. ^ 2003 data; CIA World Factbook, Uzbekistan
  37. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan
  38. ^ Uzbekistan agency for Communication and Information (UzACI) [1] and UzDaily.com [2]
  39. ^ TeliaSonera says to buy mobile player MCT Corp
  40. ^ Uzbekistan, General Motors sign strategic deal
  41. ^ http://www.uzdaily.com/?c=118&a=1242][http://www.uzdaily.com/?c=118&a=1336
  42. ^ http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/w-eur/2005/jun/15/061505239.html
  43. ^ Uzbekistan - Environment
  44. ^ MSF Around the World
  45. ^ a b http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+uz0029)

World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights is a self-governing group of non-governmental, not-for-profit organizations that act to protect human rights throughout Europe, North America and Central Asia. ... The World Organisation Against Torture (Organisation Mondiale Contre la Torture, OMCT) is the world’s largest coalition of non-governmental organisations fighting against arbitrary detention, torture, summary and extrajudicial executions, forced disappearances and other forms of violence. ... The Legal Aid Society is the United States oldest and largest provider of legal services to the indigent. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The International Crisis Group is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization whose mission is to prevent and resolve deadly conflicts through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy. ... AlterNet, a project of the non-profit Independent Media Institute, is a progressive news website that was launched in 1998 and receives over 2 million visitors per month. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Manfred Nowak is an Austrian human rights lawyer. ... This article is about the radio broadcast service. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Organisation Against Torture (Organisation Mondiale Contre la Torture, OMCT) is the world’s largest coalition of non-governmental organisations fighting against arbitrary detention, torture, summary and extrajudicial executions, forced disappearances and other forms of violence. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the radio broadcast service. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Crisis Group is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization whose mission is to prevent and resolve deadly conflicts through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy. ... Craig Murray (born October, 1958)[1] is a British political activist, university rector and former ambassador to Uzbekistan. ...

See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Afghanistan-Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge is a bridge built over the river Amu Darya connecting the Uzbek city of Termez with the city of Jeyretan in the province of Balkh in northern Afghanistan. ... The Government of Uzbekistan is moving cautiously towards a market-based economy for the Economy of Uzbekistan. ... It has been suggested that Bukharan Jewish Cuisine be merged into this article or section. ... The human rights record of Uzbekistan reflects its status as a dictatorship. ... List of Presidents of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov (1991 - present) Last election See also Politics of Uzbekistan Categories: | | ... According to the Constitution of Uzbekistan, the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan and the deputy ministers are appointed by the president. ... The movement toward economic reform in Uzbekistan has not been matched by movement toward political reform. ... The Senate is the Upper House of the Supreme Assembly or National Assembly (Oliy Majlis) of Uzbekistan. ... The Supreme Court of Uzbekistan is the most senior body of civil, criminal, and administrative law in the Republic of Uzbekistan. ... // Railways total: 3,380 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 3,380 km 1. ... The Trans-Caspian railway (later called the Central Asiatic Railway) is a railway that follows the path of the Silk Road through much of western Central Asia. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ...

External links

Find more about Uzbekistan on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • Government of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbekistan Asia
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  • Library of Congress - A Country Study: Uzbekistan
  • Uzbekistan travel guide from Wikitravel
Geographic locale
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This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan TürkçeÉ™sı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Old Tatar language (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (sg. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the people. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... Syrian Turkmen or Syrian Turkomen[1] are Syrian citizens of Oghuz Turkish descent, who had been living in the Syrian province of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria. ... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 2650 Teleuts in Russia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Nomadic Empires, sometimes also called Steppe Empires, Central or Inner Asian Empires, are the empires erected by the bow wielding, horse riding, Eurasian nomads, from Classical Antiquity (Scythia) to the Early Modern era (Dzungars). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Uzbekistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4026 words)
Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or O‘zbekiston Jumhuriyati), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia.
Uzbekistan is a dry, double-landlocked country of which 10% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys.
Uzbekistan had been one of the poorest republics of the Soviet Union; much of its population was engaged in cotton farming in small rural collective farms (kolkhozy).
A Fact Sheet: Uzbekistan and ADB - ADB.org (1558 words)
Uzbekistan, with its 26.3 million people, is the most populous of the Central Asian republics and one of two double-landlocked countries in the world.
However, Uzbekistan is one of the poorer former republics of the Soviet Union.
Uzbekistan is the 15th largest shareholder among regional members and the 22nd largest overall.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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