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Encyclopedia > Uyghur people
Uyghur
ئۇيغۇر
Total population

approx. 20 million [1] Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Regions with significant populations
 China (Xinjiang)
 Pakistan
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Uzbekistan
 Mongolia
 Turkey
 Russia
Languages
Uyghur
Religion
Sunni Islam[2]
Related ethnic groups
Other Turkic peoples

The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigger, Uigur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; pinyin: Wéiwú'ěr) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. Today Uyghurs live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (also known by its controversial name East Turkistan or Uyghurstan). Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ... East Turkestan (also East Turkistan, Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, or Uyghurstan). ...


There are Uyghur diasporic communities in Pakistan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Germany and Turkey and a smaller one in Taoyuan County of Hunan province in south-central China.[3] Uyghur neighborhoods can be found in major Chinese cities like Beijing and Shanghai.[4] There are small communities in the United States, mainly in Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York City and Washington, DC, as well as Toronto and Vancouver in Canada. This article is about dispersion of peoples. ... Taoyuan County is located in Hunan Province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Identity

Historically the term "Uyghur" was applied to a group of Turkic-speaking tribes that lived in the Altay Mountains. Along with the Göktürks (Kokturks) the Uyghurs were one of the largest and most enduring Turkic peoples living in Central Asia. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Capital Ötüken Political structure Empire Göktürk Khans  - 551-553 Tumen Il-QaÄŸan  - 621-630 Bagatur-Shad Khieli-QaÄŸan History  - Established 551  - Disestablished 747 The Göktürkler(s) or Köktürkler(s) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


In the literature, the term Uyghur has a number of differing spellings, including Uigur, Uygur, Uighur, and Uyghur. The word means "Confederation of Nine Tribes" and is synonymous with the name Tokuz-Oguz. In Türkic inscriptions, the name Tokuz-Oguz is used for the subdued Uigurs, and the resisting are called Uigurs, pointing to semantical nuances between the two names[5]. Etymologically, Türkic "tokuz" = nine, and "gur" = tribe. In Chinese, the ancient Uigurs were called Chi-Di, meaning "Red Di" (i.e., "red-haired Di"). They were one of the Tele tribes that migrated in the 4th century from Hesi northward. The Chinese also referred to the Uyghurs as Hoy-Hu, Üan-Ga[6], and Chiu Hsing (English: "Nine Clans"). Another suggested etymology is a composite of "uigy" quick + "er/ir/ur" = man for "Quick People", [7] "Uygar" as "civilised", and derivations such as "unified, united", though none of these are justified on historical or linguistic grounds.[8] For the character in Polynesian mythology, see Tele (mythology). ...

An Uyghur girl in Xinjiang

The earliest use of the term "Uyghur" (Weihu) was during the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534 AD), in China. At that time, the Uyghur were part of the Gaoche (English: "High Wheels"), a group of Turkic tribes, which Chinese later called Tele people, from the Turkic word, "tele"[9] the "Nine-Family Tele" association, i.e., Tokuz-Oguzes) for "wheelwagon". This group included tribes such as Syr-Tardush (Chinese: Xueyantuo), Basmyl (Chinese: Baximi), Oguz (Chinese: Wuhu), Khazar (Chinese: Hesan), Alans (Chinese: A-lans), Kyrgyz (Chinese: Hegu), Tuva (Chinese: Duva) and Yakut (Chinese: Guligan) from the Lake Baikal Region. The forebears of the Tele belonged to those of Hun (Chinese: Xiongnu) descendants. According to Chinese Turkic scholars Ma Changshou and Cen Zhongmian, the Chinese word Tiele originates from the Turkic word "Türkler" (Turks), which is a plural form of "Türk" (Turk) and the Chinese word "Tujue" comes from the Turkic word "Türküt" which is a singular form of Türk.[10] The origin of Gaoche can be traced back to the Dingling peoples of about 200 BC, contemporary with the Chinese Han Dynasty.[11][12][13] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 145 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 09/10/2005 es: Khotan (Hotan / Hetian) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 145 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 09/10/2005 es: Khotan (Hotan / Hetian) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ... Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, 443 AD. A Buddhist stela from the Northern Wei period, build in the early 6th century. ... The Dingling/Gaoche/Chile/Tiele (丁零/高車/æ••å‹’/铁勒) peoples were an ancient Siberian people. ... The Dingling/Gaoche/Chile/Tiele (丁零/高車/æ••å‹’/铁勒) peoples were an ancient Siberian people. ... Xueyantuo (薛延陀) were an ancient Tiele people and khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of Tujue, who later aligned with Chinas Tang Dynasty against Eastern Tujue. ... Xueyantuo (薛延陀) were an ancient Tiele people and khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of Tujue, who later aligned with Chinas Tang Dynasty against Eastern Tujue. ... Oguz (Azerbaijani: ) is a rayon (an administrative division, equivalent of English region) of Azerbaijan. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... The Dingling/Gaoche/Chile/Tiele (丁零/高車/æ••å‹’/铁勒) peoples were an ancient Siberian people. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... The Dingling/Gaoche/Chile/Tiele (丁零/高車/æ••å‹’/铁勒) peoples were an ancient Siberian people. ... The Dingling/Gaoche/Chile/Tiele (丁零/高車/æ••å‹’/铁勒) peoples were an ancient Siberian people. ... For the contemporary Chinese author, see Ding Ling. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication...


The first use of "Uyghur" as a reference to a political nation occurred during the interim period between the First and Second Göktürk Kaganates (630-684 AD). After the collapse of the Uyghur Empire in 840 AD, Uyghur refugees resettled to the Tarim Basin, intermarrying with the local people.[citation needed] Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ...


In modern usage, "Uyghur" refers to settled Turkic urban-dwellers and farmers of Kashgaria and Jungaria or Uyghurstan who follow traditional Central Asian practices, as distinguished from nomadic Turkic populations in Central Asia[citation needed]. The Bolsheviks reintroduced the term "Uyghur" to replace the previously used Turki. The Soviets first used "Uyghur" in 1921 during a meeting of Turkic leaders in Tashkent. This meeting established the Revolutionary Uyghur Union (Inqilawi Uyghur Itipaqi), a communist nationalist organization that opened underground sections in principal cities of Kashgaria and was active until 1926, when the Soviets recognized the Sinkiang Provincial Government and concluded trade agreements with it. Comintern's structure included an Uyghur section. There is some evidence that Uyghur students and merchants living in Russia had already embraced the name prior to this date, drawing on Russian studies that claimed a linkage between the historical khanate and Xinjiang's current inhabitants. Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat. ... Dzungaria (also Junggar, Jungaria, Sungaria, Zungaria) is a physical region, covering approximately 777,000 km², within the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... East Turkestan (also East Turkistan, Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, or Uyghurstan). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Turki, strictly speaking, is an Arabic or Persian adjective formed from the noun Turk, used by European writers in two rather different senses. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including...


Today, Uyghurs live mainly in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, where they are the largest ethnic group, together with Han Chinese, Hui, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Russians. Thousands of Uyghurs also live in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. "Xinjiang", meaning "New Frontier", is the official Chinese name of the Autonomous Region. This article is about the majority ethnic group within China. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ...


History

See also History of Mongolia, Turkic migration, History of Xinjiang Although people have inhabited Mongolia since the Stone Age, Mongolia only became politically important after iron weapons entered the area in the 3rd century B.C. In general, Mongolia at this point had a similar history to the rest of the nomadic steppe that lies between Siberia Northern Russia to... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... // [edit] Struggle between Xiongnu and Han China Traversed by the Silk Road, Xinjiang is the Chinese name for the Tarim and Dzungaria regions of what is now northwest China. ...


Orkhon Uyghur

Uyghur history can be divided into four distinct phases: Pre-Imperial (300 CE-630 CE), Imperial (630-840 CE), Idiqut (840-1209 CE), and Mongol (1209-1600 CE), with perhaps a fifth modern phase running from the death of the Silk Road in 1600 CE until the present. Uyghur history is the story of an obscure nomadic tribe from the Altai Mountains rising to challenge the Chinese Empire and ultimately becoming the diplomatic arm of the Mongol invasion.


Pre-745 CE

Map of the Western (purple) and Eastern (blue) Göktürk khaganates at their height, c. 600 CE. Lighter areas show direct rule; darker areas show spheres of influence.

The ancestors of the Uyghur include the nomadic Gaoche people and possibly the Tocharian peoples of the Tarim Basin. Gaoche, meaning 'High Cart', was a reference to the distinct high-wheeled, ox-drawn carts used to move yurts. The Gaoche were Altaic nomads who lived in the valleys south of Lake Baikal and around the Yenisei River (Turkic: "Ana Say", English: "Mother River"). They practiced some minor agriculture and were highly advanced metalsmiths due to the abundance of easily available iron ore in the Yenisei. They became vassals of the Huns and provided them with manufactured arms. After the Huns, they were passed as vassals to the Rouran and Hepthalite states. In 450 CE, the Gaoche planned a revolt against the Rouran that was defeated by the Türk (another Rouran vassal tribe). This incident marked the beginning of the historic Türk-Tiele animosity that plagued the Göktürk Khanate. When the Göktürk defeated the Rouran/Hepthalite state, they became the new masters of the Tiele (the name "Gaoche" was replaced by "Tiele" in historic records around this time). It was also at this time that the Uyghur tribe was first mentioned in Chinese records as a small tribe of 10,000 yurts in the South Baikal region. Image File history File links Gokturkut. ... Image File history File links Gokturkut. ... Capital Ötüken Political structure Empire Göktürk Khans  - 551-553 Tumen Il-QaÄŸan  - 621-630 Bagatur-Shad Khieli-QaÄŸan History  - Established 551  - Disestablished 747 The Göktürkler(s) or Köktürkler(s) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... The Dingling/Gaoche/Chile/Tiele (丁零/高車/æ••å‹’/铁勒) peoples were an ancient Siberian people. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ... Baikal redirects here. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Rouran (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Jou Jan, literally Soft-like), Juan Juan (Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally meaning the Wriggling Insects, a name given by the Toba ruling elites of northern China), or Ruru (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Ju Ju, literally meaning Fodder) was the name of a confederation of nomadic tribes on the... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Baikal may refer to either of the following: Lake Baikal — a lake in southern Siberia, Russia. ...


The Uyghur participated in a coalition of Tiele under the leadership of the Syr-Tardush tribe, who allied with the Chinese Sui Empire in 603 to defeat Tardu Khan and win their independence. This alliance existed with varying degrees of autonomy from 603 until 630 when the first Göktürk Khanate (553-630) was decisively defeated by Li Jing, a capable general sent by Emperor Tang Taizong. During this time the Uyghur occupied second position in the alliance after the Syr-Tardush. In the interregnum between the first and second Göktürk Khanates, the Uyghur toppled the Syr-Tardush and declared their independence. When a second Göktürk Khanate (682-745) was established during the reign of Empress Wu, the Uyghurs, together with other nomadic Turkic tribes, participated in the Gokturk empire. The empire declined following Bilge Khan's death in 734. After a series of revolts coordinated with their Chinese allies, the Uyghur emerged as the leaders of a new coalition force called the "Toquz Oghuz". In 744 the Uyghur, together with other related subject tribes (the Basmyl and Qarluq), defeated the Göktürk Khanate and founded the Uyghur Empire at Mount Ötüken, which lasted for about 100 years (744-840). Xueyantuo (薛延陀) were an ancient Tiele people and khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of Tujue, who later aligned with Chinas Tang Dynasty against Eastern Tujue. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Li Jing (李靖, pinyin: Lǐ Jìng, real name: 药师, pinyin: Yào ShÄ«, C.E. 571-649,) was a real-life Tang Dynasty general who has been assimilated into Chinese mythology. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... Xueyantuo (薛延陀) were an ancient Tiele people and khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of Tujue, who later aligned with Chinas Tang Dynasty against Eastern Tujue. ... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ... The Gokturks or Kokturks (Gök-Turks or Kök-Turks, with the meaning Celestial Turks), known as Tujue (突厥 tu2 jue2) in medieval Chinese sources, established the first known Turkic state around 552 under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (died 552) and his sons, and expanded rapidly to rule... Bilge Khan 毗伽可汗(Arslan Bilgä KhaÄŸan; 683 or 684 - 734) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Göktürk Empire. ... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic turkic tribe based on the transoxania steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... Ötüken (also spelled Etugen, Itügen or Odigan) is a sacred mountain of the ancient Turks. ...


Uyghur Empire: the golden age (744-840)

Map of the Uyghur Khaganate and areas under its dominion (in yellow) at its height(not correct) see Uyghur Empire, c. 820 CE.
See also: Uyghur Khaganate

Properly called the On-Uyghur (ten Uyghurs) and Toquz-Oghuz (nine tribes) Orkhon Khanate, the Uyghur Empire stretched from the Caspian Sea[citation needed] to Manchuria and lasted from 744 to 840 CE. It was administered from the imperial capital Ordu Baliq. During the imperial phase "Uyghur" came to mean any citizen of the Uyghur Empire, and not just a member of the Uyghur tribe. After the An Shi Rebellion, the Uyghur Empire considered conquering the Tang Empire,[citation needed] but chose instead to use an exploitive trade policy to drain off the wealth of China without actually destroying it. In return, they policed the borders and quelled internal rebellions. Large numbers of Sogdian refugees came to Ordu Baliq and converted the Uyghur from Buddhism to Manichaeanism. The Uyghurs thus inherited the legacy of Sogdian culture.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (830x449, 738 KB)[edit] Summary Map of the Uyghur Khaganate and areas under its dominion, c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (830x449, 738 KB)[edit] Summary Map of the Uyghur Khaganate and areas under its dominion, c. ... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... The An Shi Rebellion (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16, 755 to February 17, 763. ... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Sogdians, depicted on a Chinese Northern Qi stela, circa 550 AD. Sogdiana or Sogdia ( - Old Persian: Suguda-; Persian: ; Ancient Greek: ) was the ancient civilization of an Iranian people and a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Sogdians, depicted on a Chinese Northern Qi stela, circa 550 AD. Sogdiana or Sogdia ( - Old Persian: Suguda-; Persian: ; Ancient Greek: ) was the ancient civilization of an Iranian people and a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ...


In 840, following a famine and a civil war, the Uyghur Empire was overrun by the Kyrgyz, another Turkic people. Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ...


Modern Uyghur

840 CE-1600 CE

Uyghur princesses. Bezeklik, Cave 9, ca. 8th/9th century CE, wall painting
Uyghur princes wearing Chinese-styled robes and headgears. Bezeklik, Cave 9

Following the collapse of the Uyghur Empire, the Uyghur refugees established states in three areas: present day Gansu, Xinjiang, and the Chu River the West of Tian Shan (Tengri-Tag) Mountains. Fresco painted in a Bezeklik cave. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1006 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uyghur Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1006 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uyghur Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Chu (or Chui or Chuy) (Russian: Чу, Kyrgyz: Чүй, Kazakh: Шу) is one of the longest rivers in Kyrgyzstan and drains the northern Kyrgyz ranges of the western Tian Shan, flowing through the Chuy valley near the Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek before leaving Kyrgyzstan and flowing into Kazakhstan. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ...


Those who fled west, together with other Turkic tribal groups living in Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin, established the Beshbalik-Turpan-Kucha state in the Tarim Basin, Turfan Depression, and Dzungaria. In the process, they merged with the local populations of Tocharians, whose language was Indo-European. It is probable that genetically and culturally, modern Uyghurs descended from the nomadic Turkic tribes and the Indo-European-speaking groups who preceded them in the Tarim Basin oasis-cities, as well as Uyghurs from Mongolia. Today one can still see Uyghurs with light-colored skin and hair. Modern studies have found that modern Uyghur populations represent an admixture of eastern and western Eurasian mtDNA[14] and Y chromosome[15] lineages. Dzungaria (also Jungaria, Sungaria, Zungaria; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar, Chinese: 準噶爾, Russian: Džungarija) is a geographical region covering approximately 777,000 km², within the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kucha/Kuchar (Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin KùchÄ“; also romanized as Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... The Turfan Depression or Turpan Depression (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Uighur: تۇرپان ئويمانلىغى, Turpan OymanliÄŸi) is a fault located around and south of the city-oasis of Turfan, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China, about 150 km southeast of the provincial capital Ãœrümqi. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ...


Yugor The eastern-most of the three Uyghur states was the Ganzhou Kingdom (870-1036 CE), with its capital near present-day Zhangye in the Gansu province of China. There, the Uyghur converted from Manicheism to Lamaism (Tibetan and Mongol Buddhism). Unlike other Turkic peoples further west, they did not later convert to Islam. Their descendants are now known as Yugurs (or Yogir, Yugor, and Sary Uyghurs, literally meaning "yellow Uyghurs") and are distinct from modern Uyghurs. In 1028-1036 CE, the Yugors were defeated in a bloody war and forcibly absorbed into the Tangut kingdom. Zhangye (simplified Chinese: 张掖; pinyin: Zhāngyì) is a prefecture-level city in Chinas Gansu province. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Tibetan Buddhism, (formerly also called Lamaism after their religious gurus known as lamas), is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... The Yugur (Simplified Chinese: 裕固族; Traditional Chinese: 裕固族; Pinyin: Yùgù Zú), or Yellow Uyghur as they are traditionally known, are one of Chinas 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 13,719 persons according to the 2000 census. ... The Tangut, also known as the Western Xia were a Qiangic-Tibetan people who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. They spoke Tangut language a now-extinct Tibeto-Burman language. ...


Karakhoja The central of the three Uyghur states was the Karakhoja kingdom (created during 856-866 CE), also called the "Idiqut" ("Holy Wealth, Glory") state, and was based around the cities of Turfan (winter capital), Beshbalik (summer capital), Kumul, and Kucha. A Buddhist state, with state-sponsored Buddhism and Manicheism, it can be considered the center of Uyghur culture. The Idiquts (title of the Karakhoja rulers) ruled independently until 1209, when they submitted to the Mongols under Genghis Khan and, as vassal rulers, existed until 1335. position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kumul or Hami (Uyghur: قۇمۇل/K̢umul; Chinese: 哈密; Pinyin: Hāmì) is an oasis in Xinjiang (China); it is also the name of a modern city and the sourrounding district. ... Kucha/Kuchar (Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin KùchÄ“; also romanized as Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... This article is about the person. ...


Kara-Khanids, or The Karahans (Great Khans Dynasty), was the westernmost of the three Uyghur states. The Karahans (Karakhanliks) originated from Uyghur tribes settled in the Chu River Valley after 840 and ruled between 940-1212 in Turkistan and Maveraünnehir. They converted to Islam in 934 under the rule of Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan (920-956) and, after taking power over Qarluks in 940, built a federation with Muslim institutions. Together with the Samanids of Samarkand, they considered themselves the defenders of Islam against the Buddhist Uyghur Idiqut and the Buddhist Scythian-Tocharian kingdom of Khotan. The first capital of the Karahans was established in the city of Balasagun in the Chu River Valley and later was moved to Kashgar. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Chu (or Chui or Chuy) (Russian: Чу, Kyrgyz: Чүй, Kazakh: Шу) is one of the longest rivers in Kyrgyzstan and drains the northern Kyrgyz ranges of the western Tian Shan, flowing through the Chuy valley near the Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek before leaving Kyrgyzstan and flowing into Kazakhstan. ... Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In 934, the Uighur king, Satuk Boghra Khan, accepted Islam. ... The Qarluq or Karluk (Chinese: ; pinyin: Géluólù) were originally a nomadic Turkic tribe based at the eastern foot of Altay Mountains in Central Asia. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Balasagun, also spelled as Balassagun was an ancient city in modern-day Kyrgyzstan and capital of the Kara-Khitan Khanate. ... Cascar redirects here. ...


The reign of the Karahans is especially significant from the point of view of Turkic culture and art history. During this period, mosques, schools, bridges, and caravansaries were constructed in the cities. Kashgar, Bukhara and Samarkand became centers of learning. During this period, Turkish literature developed. Among the most important works of the period is Kutadgu Bilig (English: "The Knowledge That Gives Happiness"), written by Yusuf Balasaghuni between the years 1060-1070. Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... The Kutadgu Bilig, or Qutadğu Bilig (English: IPA: , Middle Turkic IPA, proposed: //), is a Karakhanid work from the 11th century written by of Balasagun for the prince of Kashgar. ... Yusuf Has Hajib, as shown on the Kyrgyz 1000 som note. ...


Both the Idiqut and the Kara-Khanid states eventually submitted to the Kara Khitais. After the rise of the Seljuk Turks in Iran, the Kara-Khanids became nominal vassals of the Seljuks as well. Later they would serve the dual-suzerainty of the Kara-Khitans to the north and the Seljuks to the south. Finally all three states became vassals to Genghis Khan in 1209. This article needs cleanup. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liáo) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as the Liao empire). ... This article is about the person. ...


Most inhabitants of the Besh Balik and Turfan regions did not convert to Islam until the 15th century expansion of the Yarkand Khanate, a Turko-Mongol successor state based in western Tarim. Before converting to Islam, Uyghurs were Manichaeans, Zoroastrians, Buddhists, or Nestorian Christians. Ãœrümqi Ãœrümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ãœrümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Chagatay Khanate

See also Chagatay Khanate


The Chagatai Khanate was a khanate of the Mongol Empire that comprised the lands controlled by Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), second son of the Mongol emperor Genghis Khan. Chagatai's ulus, or hereditary territory, consisted of the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili River (today in eastern Kazakhstan) and Kashgaria (in the western Tarim Basin) to Transoxiana (modern Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan). After the death of his father, he inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states and northern Iran, which he ruled until his death in 1242. These lands later came to be known as the Chagatai Khanate, part of the Mongol Empire. These territories would later become the Turco-Mongol states. For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the person. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ... The Ili River is a river in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... The Central Asian Republics are five countries located in Central Asia that were former Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan The Central Asian Republics are sometimes referred to as Central Asia, although others prefer this term to be reserved for a larger geographic region within Asia rather than a designation given... The Turco-Mongols were the aristocratic, nomadic, mostly Turkic-speaking horsemen of Turkic and Mongolian descent in Central Asia who served as rulers and conquerors in Central and Western Asian societies during the Middle Ages. ...


After the death of the Chagatayid ruler Qazan Khan in 1346, the Chagatai Khanate was divided into western (Transoxiana) and eastern (Moghulistan/Uyghuristan) halves, which was later known as "Kashgar and Uyghurstan," according Balkh historian Makhmud ibn Vali (Sea of Mysteries, 1640). Kashgar historian Muhammad Imin Sadr Kashgari called the country Uyghurstan in his book Traces of Invasion (Asar al-futuh) in 1780. Power in the western half devolved into the hands of several tribal leaders, most notably the Qara'unas. Khans appointed by the tribal rulers were mere puppets. In the east, Tughlugh Timur (1347-1363), an obscure Chaghataite adventurer, gained ascendancy over the nomadic Mongols, and converted to Islam. In 1360, and again in 1361, he invaded the western half in the hope that he could reunify the khanate. At their greatest extent, the Chaghataite domains extended from the Irtysh River in Siberia down to Ghazni in Afghanistan, and from Transoxiana to the Tarim Basin. Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Moghulistan is a geographic unit inclusive of Zungharia, Uyghuristan in the Turpan Basin area and parts of modern Kazakhstan and Kyrghystan between Xianjing and Transoxania in the Tarim basin. ... Though interrupted in history and now unrealized as a modern nation-state, Uyghuristan (also Uyghurstan, Uighuristan, Uighurstan, Uyguristan, Uygurstan, Uiguristan, Uigurstan) is the political aspiration of the Uyghur people, the largest indigenous population of East Turkestan, which is now an administrative unit of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Tughlugh Timur (1347-1363) came from obscure origins to lead Mongol nomads of the Chagatai Khanate. ... Irtysh (Иртыш ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Central Asia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ...


Tughlugh Timur was unable to completely subjugate the tribal rulers. After his death in 1363, the Moghuls left Transoxiana, and the Qara'unas' leader Amir Husayn took control of Transoxiana. Tīmur-e Lang (Timur the Lame), or Tamerlane, a Muslim native of Transoxania who claimed descent from Genghis Khan, desired control of the khanate for himself and opposed Amir Husayn. He took Samarkand in 1366, and was recognized as emir in 1370, although he continued to officially act in the name of the Chagatai khans. For over three decades, Timur used the Chagatai lands as the base for extensive conquests, conquering the rulers of Herat in Afghanistan, Shiraz in Persia, Baghdad in Iraq, Delhi in India, and Damascus in Syria. After defeating the Ottoman Turks at Angora, Timur died in 1405 while marching on Ming Dynasty China. The Timurid Dynasty continued under his son, Shah Rukh, who ruled from Herat until his death in 1447. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... // Combatants Timurid Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Timur Beyazid I Strength 140,000 men 85,000 men [1] Casualties 15,000-25,000 killed and wounded[] 15,000-40,000 killed and wounded[] The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place at the field... For other uses, see Ming. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids, self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia... Shah Rukh or Shah Rokh means King-faced in Persian and can refer to: Shah Rukh Khan - Bollywood actor Shah Rukh (Shah Rokh, Shahrokh) is the name of many princes. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ...


By 1369, the western half (Transoxonia and further west) of the Chagatai Khanate had been conquered by Tamerlane in his attempt to reconstruct the Mongol Empire. The eastern half, mostly under what is now Xinjiang, remained under Chagatai princes that were at times allied or at war with Timurid princes. Finally, in the 17th century, all the remaining Chagatay domains fell under the theocratic regime of Apak Khoja and his descendant, the Khojijans, who ruled East Turkestan under Jungar and/or Manchu overlordships. For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Apak Khoja is an Ak Taghlik Naqshbandi sectarian ruler of post-Chagatay city state of Kashgar in modern day Xinjiang. ... East Turkestan (also transliterated: East Turkistan; Uyghur: Sherqiy Türkistan), also known as Uyghurstan, is the part of greater Turkistan in Xinjiang, China and far eastern Central Asia. ... Jüün Ghar was a tribe of the Oyirad Mongols. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: MÇŽnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ...


Both Transoxonia and the Tarim Basin of East Turkestan became known as Moghulistan or Mughalistan, named after the ruling class of Chagatay and Timurid states which descended from the "Moghol" (Mongol) tribe of Doghlat, but was completely Islamicized and Turkified in language. It was the same Moghol Timurid ruling class that established the Timurid rule on the Indian Subcontinent known as the Mughal Empire. Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Moghulistan is a geographic unit inclusive of Zungharia, Uyghuristan in the Turpan Basin area and parts of modern Kazakhstan and Kyrghystan between Xianjing and Transoxania in the Tarim basin. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605...


Under the Chagatay Khanate's rule in East Turkestan, the culture of the original subjects of the Karakhanids became somewhat of a "national culture" of the largely Muslim state, that the Buddhist populations of the former Karakhoja Idikut-ate largely converted into the Muslim faith, and that all Chagatai-speaking Muslims, regardless whether they lived in Turpan or Kashgar, became known by their occupations as Moghols (ruling class), Sarts (merchants and townspeople) and Taranchis (farmers). This triple division of classes among the same Muslim Turkic folk also existed in Transoxonia, regardless whether they were under Timurid or Chagatay, or even Uzbek and Khojijan princes. Even today, the sense of ethnic kinship between the modern Uyghur and Uzbek peoples remain strong. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Moghol is a Mongolian language spoken in Afghanistan by a few people around Herat. ... Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia which has had shifting meanings over the centuries. ... The chief Taranchi mosque in Kuldja (now Yining), from Henri Lansdells 1885 book describing his visit there in 1882 The term Taranchi denotes the Muslim sedentary population living in oases around the Tarim Basin in todays Xinjiang or East Turkestan, whose mother tongue is Turkic, of the Qarluq...


It is widely believed that the modern Uyghur nation acquired its current demographic composition and its current cultural identity during the East Turkestani Chagatay period. The Chagatay period in East Turkestan was marked by instability and internecine warfare, with Kashgar, Yarkant and Qomul as major centers of warfare and warlord rule. Some Chagatay princes allied with the Timurids and Uzbeks of Transoxonia, and some sought help from the Buddhist Kalmyks. The Chagatay prince Mirza Haidar Kurgan escaped his war-torn homeland Kashgar in the early 16th century to Timurid Tashkent, only to be evicted by the invading Shaybanids. Escaping to the mercy of his Mughal Timurid cousins, which was then rulers of Delhi, India, he gained his final post as governor of Kashmir and wrote the famous Tarikh-i-Rashidi, widely acclaimed as the most comprehensive work on the Uyghur civilization during the East Turkestani Chagatay reign.[16] The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Shaybanid dynasty was a 16th century Uzbek dynasty founded by Muhammad Shaybani. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


The Khojijans were originally the Aq Tagh tariqa of the Naqshbandi order, which originated in Timurid Transoxonia. Struggles between two prominent Naqshbandi tariqas the Aq Taghlik and the Kara Taghlik engulfed the entire East Turkestani Chagatay domain in late 17th century, which Apaq Khoja finally triumphant both as a national religious and political leader. The last ruling Chagatay princess married one of the ruling Khojijan princes (descendants of Apaq) and became known as Khanum Pasha. She ruled with brutality after the death of her husband, and singlehandedly slaughtered many of her Khojijan and Chagatayid rivals. She was known to have boiled alive the last Chagatayid princess that could have continued the dynasty. The Khojijan Dynasty fell into chaos despite the brutality of Khanum Pasha, and became a vassal of the invading Jungar Kalmyks. Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... Jüün Ghar was a tribe of the Oyirad Mongols. ... The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


The triumph of the Manchu Qing Dynasty over the Jungars brought Manchu military governorship to the Ili Valley north of Kashgar. Some Khojijan princes put up a struggle against Qing overlordship, but all were finally pacified and became local rulers in a fragmented East Turkestan that recognized Qing suzerainty. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


Post-1600 CE

The Manchus, semi-nomads from present-day northeast China, vastly expanded the Qing empire, which they founded in 1644, to include much of Mongolia, East Turkistan, and Tibet. The Manchus invaded East Turkistan in 1759 and dominated it until 1864. During this period, the Uyghurs revolted 42 times against Qing Dynasty rulers. In the revolt of 1864, the Uyghurs were successful in expelling the Qing Dynasty officials from East Turkistan, and founded an independent Kashgaria kingdom, called Yettishar (English: "country of seven cities"). Under the leadership of Yakub Beg, it included Kashgar, Yarkand, Hotan, Aksu, Kucha, Korla and Turfan). The kingdom was recognized by the Ottoman Empire (1873), Tsarist Russia (1872), and Great Britain (1874), which established a mission in the capital, Kashgar. The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ... Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat. ... Night interview with Yakub Beg, King of Kashgaria, 1868 Yakub Beg (1820 - May 16, 1877) was a Tajik adventurer who became head of the kingdom of Kashgaria. ... Cascar redirects here. ... Mosque in Hotan Hotan (Uyghur: خوتەن/; Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: , formerly: Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; also spelled Khotan)[1] is an oasis town in Khotan Prefecture and its capital as well, population 114,000 (2006). ... Position of Aksu in China. ... Kucha/Kuchar (Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin KùchÄ“; also romanized as Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... Location of Korla Korla (simplified Chinese: 库尔勒; traditional Chinese: 庫爾勒;pinyin: Kùěrlè) is a city south of Karashahr (Yanqi), and is the capital of the Bayinguoleng Mongolian Prefecture, the largest prefecture in China. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


Large Qing Dynasty forces under the overall command of General Zuo Zongtang attacked East Turkestan in 1876. Fearing Tsarist expansion into East Turkestan, Great Britain supported the Manchu invasion forces through loans by British banks (mostly through Boston Bank, located in Hong Kong). After this invasion, East Turkestan was renamed "Xinjiang" or "Sinkiang", which means "New Dominion" or "New Territory", and it was annexed by the Manchu empire on November 18, 1884. Portrait of General Tso, by Piassetsky, 1875 Zuǒ Zōngtáng (左宗棠, Styled Jigao 季高) (November 10, 1812-September 5, 1885), spelled Tso Tsung-tang in Wade-Giles and known simply as General Tso or General Tsuo to Westerners, was a gifted Chinese military leader born in Wenjialong, north of Changsha... East Turkestan (also transliterated: East Turkistan; Uyghur: Sherqiy Türkistan), also known as Uyghurstan, is the part of greater Turkistan in Xinjiang, China and far eastern Central Asia. ... East Turkestan (also transliterated: East Turkistan; Uyghur: Sherqiy Türkistan), also known as Uyghurstan, is the part of greater Turkistan in Xinjiang, China and far eastern Central Asia. ...


In 1911, the Nationalist Chinese, under the leadership of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, overthrew Qing Dynasty rule and established a republic, the first in Asia. Official recognition of the Uyghurs came under the rule of Sheng Shicai who deviated from the official Kuomintang (English: "Five races of China") stance in favor of a Stalinist policy of delineating fourteen distinct ethnic nationalities in Xinjiang. The Uyghur independence activists staged several uprisings against Nationalist Chinese rule. Twice, in 1933 and 1944, some Uyghur activists were successful in setting up two independent Islamic Eastern Turkestan Republic. These independent Republics were subsequently overthrown by the Nationalist Chinese with the military assistance and political support of the Soviet Union, which opposed the Uyghur independence movement throughout this period. In 1949, the Nationalist Chinese were defeated by the Chinese communists and East Turkestan was annexed by the People's Republic of China. Sun Yat-sen (Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: Sūn Zhōngshān; Simplified Chinese: 孙中山; Pinyin: Sūn Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the Father of Modern China. ... Sheng Shicai (Chinese: 盛世才; Pinyin: Shèng Shìcái; Wade-Giles: Sheng Shih-tsai) (1897 - 1970) was a Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... East Turkistan Republic (or ETR) can refer to: The First East Turkestan Republic (1933-1934) The Second East Turkestan Republic (1943-1949) The general idea in favor of establishing an independent republic in what is currently the PRC-administered province of Xinjiang, popular among some Uyghur nationalists This is a... East Turkestan (also transliterated: East Turkistan; Uyghur: Sherqiy Türkistan), also known as Uyghurstan, is the part of greater Turkistan in Xinjiang, China and far eastern Central Asia. ...


Separatism

The "Kokbayraq" flag. This flag is used by Uyghurs as a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement. It is almost identical to the flag of Turkey except with a blue background. The Government of the People's Republic of China prohibits using the flag in the country.

Following 9/11, China voiced its support for the United States of America in the war on terror. The Chinese government has often referred to Uyghur nationalists as "terrorists" and received more global support for their own "war on terror" since 9/11. Human rights organizations have become concerned that this "war on terror" is being used by the Chinese government as a pretext to repress ethnic Uyghurs.[17] Uyghur exile groups also claim that the Chinese government is suppressing Uyghur culture and religion, and responding to demands for independence with human rights violations.[18] Flag of the East Turkestan Republic. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of the East Turkestan Republic. ... State power within the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the Peoples Liberation Army, (PLA). ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ...


According to at least one outside source, Beijing has "decimated Uighur culture."

In traditional Uyghur cities like Kashgar, a vibrant bazaar town on the border of Central Asia, the authorities tore down Uyghur stalls across the central square, where Muslim men once gathered for open-air shaves before heading to the central mosque. The local government replaced them with a bland plaza patrolled by Chinese troops. In another unpopular move, Beijing offered financial incentives for ethnic Chinese migrants to come to the province and set up businesses. Now, ethnic [Han] Chinese dominate nearly all big businesses in the region.[19] Cascar redirects here. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article is about the majority ethnic group within China. ...

Many Uyghur in the diaspora support Pan-Turkic groups. Several organizations, such as the East Turkestan Party, provide support for the Chinese Uyghurs. For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ...


Though most Uyghur political groups support peaceful, secular Uyghur nationalism, there are some radical Islamist militant groups (such as the East Turkestan Islamic Movement and East Turkestan Liberation Organization) advocating independence from China. This has caused much confusion with regard to names and beliefs of Uyghur political groups. Often the Chinese government refers generally to East Turkestan nationalists as "terrorists". Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... East Turkestan Islamic Movement is a militant Islamic group which seeks to separate East Turkestan from the Peoples Republic of China. ... The East Turkistan Liberation Organization (Sharq azat Turkistan) is a Muslim armed separatist group operating in Xinjiang, China and Kyrgyzstan. ... East Turkestan (also transliterated: East Turkistan; Uyghur: Sherqiy Türkistan), also known as Uyghurstan, is the part of greater Turkistan in Xinjiang, China and far eastern Central Asia. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


The Chinese government often imprisons Uyghur nationalists and has executed some individuals. On February 9, 2007, Ismail Semed was executed by the Peoples Republic of China for "attempting to split the motherland"[20]. In March 2006, Huseyin Celil, a Canadian Muslim religious leader was arrested and later convicted for "separatist activities" and sentenced to life imprisonment because of his alleged links to groups seeking independence for Xinjiang. Ismail Semed was allegedly a founding member of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, a militant organization affiliated with Al-Qaeda. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a communist state, comprising most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. ...


The name Xinjiang, which means "new territory" in Chinese, is considered offensive by many advocates of Uyghur independence who prefer to use historical or ethnic names such as Uyghurstan, Chinese Turkestan or East Turkestan (with Turkestan sometimes spelled as Turkistan). For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Culture

Three Uyghur girls at a Sunday market in the oasis city Khotan (Hotan / Hetian), in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.

The relics of the Uyghur culture constitute major collections in the museums of Berlin, London, Paris, Tokyo, St. Petersburg, and New Delhi. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, scientific and archaeological expeditions to the region of Eastern Turkestan’s Silk Road discovered numerous cave temples, monastery ruins, and wall paintings, as well as valuable miniatures, books, and documents. Explorers from Europe, America, and even Japan were amazed by the art treasures found there, and soon their reports caught the attention of an interested public around the world. The manuscripts and documents discovered in Xinjiang (Uyghurstan/Eastern Turkestan) reveal the very high degree of civilization attained by the Uyghurs. This Uyghur power, prestige, and civilization, which dominated Central Asia for over a thousand years, went into a steep decline after the Manchu invasion of their homeland. Throughout the history of Central Asia, they left a lasting imprint on both the culture and tradition of the people of central Asia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 204 KB) 09/10/2005 es: Khotan (Hotan / Hetian) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 204 KB) 09/10/2005 es: Khotan (Hotan / Hetian) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... East Turkestan (also East Turkistan, Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, or Uyghurstan). ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: MÇŽnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ...


Chinese ambassador Wang Yen De to the Karakhoja Uyghur Kingdom in 981-984: "I was impressed with the extensive civilization I have found in the Uyghur Kingdom. The beauty of the temples, monasteries, wall paintings, statues, towers, gardens, housings and the palaces built throughout the kingdom cannot be described. The Uyghurs skilfully make things of silver and gold, vases and pitchers. Some say that God has infused this talent into these people only."


Albert von Le Coq: "The Uyghur language and script contributed to the enrichment of civilizations of the other peoples in Central Asia. Compared to the Europeans of that time, the Uyghurs were far more advanced. Documents discovered in Uyghur Region prove that an Uigur farmer could write down a contract, using legal terminology. How many European farmers could have done that at that period ? This shows the extent of Uyghur civilization of that time." Albert von Le Coq (1860 - 1930) was a German archaeologist and explorer of Central Asia. ...


Currently, Turkic and Islamic cultural elements are dominant in the Tarim Basin, which reflects a thousand years of Turkic rule in the region and resulted in the replacement of previous religious traditions. Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ...


Both Uyghur and Han locals live by the unofficial "Xinjiang time", two hours removed from the official Beijing time. Businesses and government offices have modified hours to compensate for the difference from official Beijing time (e.g. opening at 10 am and closing at 8 pm).


Literature

The Uyghurs are known as educated people, they worked in chanceries and embassies of different states, and they were teachers, military officers, and ambassadors in Rome, Istanbul, and Bagdad, scholars in Tebriz. There are hundreds of famous Uyghur scholars and the Uyghur literature is vast. Some of Uyghur books have been translated into different western languages. The Uyghurs had been printing their books for hundreds of years before Gutenberg invented his printing press.[citation needed] In the 11th century the Uyghurs accepted the Arabic alphabet.[citation needed]


Most of the early Uyghur literary works were translations of Buddhist and Manichean religious texts, but there were also narrative, poetic, and epic works. Some of these have been translated into German, English, Russian, and Turkish. After embracing Islam, world-renowned Uyghur scholars emerged, and Uyghur literature flourished. Among hundreds of important works surviving from that era are Qutatqu Bilik (Wisdom Of Royal Glory) by Yüsüp Has Hajip (1069-70), Mähmut Qäşqäri's Divan-i Lugat-it Türk- A Dictionary of Turkic Dialects(1072), and Ähmät Yüknäki's Atabetul Hakayik. Perhaps the most famous and well loved pieces of modern Uyghur literature are Abdurehim Otkur's Iz, Oyghanghan Zimin, Zordun Sabir's Anayurt and Ziya Samedi's (former minister of culture in Sinkiang Government in 50's) novels Mayimkhan and Mystery of the years .[citation needed] A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... The Kutadgu Bilig, or QutadÄŸu Bilig (English: IPA: , Middle Turkic IPA, proposed: //), is a Karakhanid work from the 11th century written by of Balasagun for the prince of Kashgar. ... Yusuf Has Hajib, as shown on the Kyrgyz 1000 som note. ... Mahmud Kashgari ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad was born in Kashgar East Turkistan (Modern Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China). ... Abdurehim Tileshüp Ötkür (1923-5 October 1995) (Uyghur:ئابدۇرېھىم تىلەشۈپ ئۆتكۈر) was a popular Uyghur author and poet. ... Zordun Sabir is a popular Uyghur author. ... Ziya Samedi (Russian:Зия Самеди) (1914-20 November 2000) was a Uyghur author who emigrated to Kazakstan. ...


Ferdinand de Saussure: "Those who preserved the language and written culture of Central Asia were the Uyghurs."[citation needed] Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ...


Medicine

The Uyghurs had an extensive knowledge of medicine and medical practice. Chinese Song Dynasty (906-960) sources indicate that a Uyghur physician named Nanto traveled to China and brought with him many kinds of medicine unknown to the Chinese. There were 103 different herbs for use in Uyghur medicine recorded in a medical compendium by Li Shizhen (1518-1593), a Chinese medical authority. Some scholars believe that acupuncture was originally a Uyghur discovery, not a Chinese discovery.[21] For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Li Shizhen (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Shih-Chen) (1518 - 1593 CE, Ming Dynasty), was one of the greatest physicians and pharmacologists in Chinese history. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ...


Tartar scholar, professor Rashid Rahmeti Arat in Zur Heilkunde der Uighuren (Medical Practices of the Uygurs) published in 1930 and 1932, in Berlin, discussed the Uygur medicine. Relying on a sketch of a man with an explanation of acupuncture, he and some Western scholars suspect that acupuncture was not a Chinese, but a Uygur discovery.


Today, traditional Uyghur medicine can still be found at street stands. Similar to other traditional medicine, diagnosis is usually made through checking the pulse, symptoms, and disease history, and then the pharmacist pounds up different dried herbs, making personalized medicines according to the prescription. Modern Uyghur medical hospitals adopted the Western medical system and adopt Western pharmaceutical technology to produce traditional medicines.


Art

Wall painting at Bezeklik caves in Flaming Mountains, Turpan Depression

The cave paintings at Bezeklik and Kizil Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 261 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: Las cuevas de Bezeklik. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 261 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: Las cuevas de Bezeklik. ... Fresco painted in a Bezeklik cave. ... Fresco painted in a Bezeklik cave. ... The Kizil Caves (also romanized Qizil Caves) are a set of 236 Buddhist caves located 75 kilometres northwest of Kucha on the northern bank of the Muzat River in Baicheng County, Xinjiang province, China. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Music


Russian scholar Pantusov writes that the Uyghurs manufactured their own musical instruments; they had 62 different kinds of musical instruments and in every Uyghur home there used to be an instrument called a "dutar". Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Dotar Khorasan The dutar (also dotar or doutar) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Central Asia. ...


Orthography

Main article: Uyghur alphabet

Throughout the centuries, the Uyghurs have used the following scripts: The Uyghur alphabet is any of the following: A descendant of the Sogdian alphabet, used for texts of Buddhist, Manichæan and Christian contents for 700–800 years in East Turkestan. ...

  1. Confederated with the Göktürks in the 6th and 7th centuries, they used the Orkhon script.
  2. In the 5th century, they adopted Sogdian italic script which became known as the Uyghur script. This script was used for almost 800 years, not only by the Uyghurs, but also by other Turkic peoples, by the Mongols, and by the Manchus in the early stage of their rule in China.

After having studied the Chinese historical chronicles, Uighur historian Turghun Almas asserts, that Uighur script came into the world several centuries before Christ. Capital Ötüken Political structure Empire Göktürk Khans  - 551-553 Tumen Il-QaÄŸan  - 621-630 Bagatur-Shad Khieli-QaÄŸan History  - Established 551  - Disestablished 747 The Göktürkler(s) or Köktürkler(s) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... Sogdians, depicted on a Chinese Northern Qi stela, circa 550 AD. Sogdiana or Sogdia ( - Old Persian: Suguda-; Persian: ; Ancient Greek: ) was the ancient civilization of an Iranian people and a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ...

  1. After embracing Islam in the 10th century, the Uyghurs adopted the Arabic alphabet, and its use became common in the 11th century.
  2. During a short period of time (1969-1987), Uyghurs in China used a Latin script (yengi yazik).
  3. Today the Uyghurs of the former Soviet Union use Cyrillic, the Uyghurs of Xinjiang (Eastern Turkestan) use a modified Arabic script, and the Uyghurs of Turkey use the Latin alphabet.

The Uighur Script The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...

See also

Turghun Almas, historian, author of Uyghurlar and History of Huns This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... East Turkestan (also transliterated: East Turkistan; Uyghur: Sherqiy Türkistan), also known as Uyghurstan, is the part of greater Turkistan in Xinjiang, China and far eastern Central Asia. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The United States held approximately two dozen Uyghurs detained in Guantanamo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.uyghurcongress.org/En/AboutET.asp?mid=1107905016 Show China
  2. ^ CNN.com - Xinjiang: On the new frontier - Apr 21, 2005
  3. ^ Ethnic Uygurs in Hunan Live in Harmony with Han Chinese
  4. ^ Chinese Cultural Studies: Ethnography of China: Brief Guide
  5. ^ Gumilev, L.N., "Ancient Turks", Moscow, 'Science', 1967, Ch. 27 http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/OT/ot27.htm
  6. ^ Gumilev L.N., "Hunnu in China", Moscow, 'Science', 1974, http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/HPH/hph16.htm
  7. ^ M. Zakiev, 2003, Origin of Türks and Tatars, pp. 54, 58, ISBN 5-85840-317-4, [http://s155239215.onlinehome.us/turkic/20Roots/ZakievGenesis/ZakievGenesis43-75En.htm in English
  8. ^ Reference?
  9. ^ Hamilton, 1962
  10. ^ Ma Changshou and Cen Zhongmian, A Historical Collection on the History of the Turks. (Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1958): 6-7.
  11. ^ Golden, Peter. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1992), 94.
  12. ^ Sima Qian, Shiji. Records of the Historian. Vol. 110: Xiongnu; and Ban Gu, Han Shu, History of the Han Dynasty, Vol. 94: Xiongnu.
  13. ^ Book of Sui, vol. 84 (c. 600 AD).
  14. ^ msh238 2265..2280
  15. ^ The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity - Wells et al. 98 (18): 10244 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  16. ^ PHI Persian Literature in Translation
  17. ^ China 'crushing Muslim Uighurs' BBC News Online, 2007-04-21. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
  18. ^ The Plight of the Uyghur People
  19. ^ The New Republic, "Home Court Advantage", by Joshua Kurlantzick, Post Date, March 25, 2008
  20. ^ RFA: Uyghur Activist Executed in China
  21. ^ Professor Rashid Rahmeti Arat, Zur Heilkunde der Uighuren (Medical Practices of the Uygurs), Berlin (1930 and 1932)

The Sui Dynasty (隋朝 Hanyu Pinyin: suí cháo, 581-618) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/chinethn.html
  • Findley, Carter Vaughn. 2005. The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516770-8; 0-19-517726-6 (pbk.)
  • Hessler, Peter. Oracle Bones: A Journey Through Time in China. New York: Harper Perennial, 2006.
  • Human Rights in China: China, Minority Exclusion, Marginalization and Rising Tensions, London, Minority Rights Group International, 2007
  • Kamberi, Dolkun. 2005. Uyghurs and Uyghur identity. Sino-Platonic papers, no. 150. Philadelphia, PA: Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Mackerras, Colin. Ed. and trans. 1972. The Uighur Empire according to the T'ang Dynastic Histories: a study in Sino-Uyghur relations 744–840. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-279-6
  • Millward, James A. and Nabijan Tursun, Political History and Strategies of Control, 1884–1978 in Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland ISBN 0-7656-1318-2
  • Rall, Ted. Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East? New York: NBM Publishing, 2006.
  • Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam, Oasis identities: Uyghur nationalism along China's Silk Road, New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

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  • Uyghur News Site
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan TürkçeÉ™sı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Old Tatar language (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Image File history File links Turkic_language_map3. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Bulgar soldiers, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Syrian Turkmen or Syrian Turkomen[1] are Syrian citizens of Oghuz Turkish descent, who had been living in the Syrian province of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria. ... This article is about the people. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 2650 Teleuts in Russia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Nomadic Empires, sometimes also called Steppe Empires, Central or Inner Asian Empires, are the empires erected by the bow wielding, horse riding, Eurasian nomads, from Classical Antiquity (Scythia) to the Early Modern era (Dzungars). ... Capital Ötüken Political structure Empire Göktürk Khans  - 551-553 Tumen Il-QaÄŸan  - 621-630 Bagatur-Shad Khieli-QaÄŸan History  - Established 551  - Disestablished 747 The Göktürkler(s) or Köktürkler(s) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The following is a list of ethnic groups in China. ... The Achang (阿昌族), also known as the Ngacang (their own name) or Maingtha (Burmese name) are an ethnic group. ... Bamileke languages (ISO 639 alpha-3, bai) Bye - k thx bai Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria Band Aid (band) BAI - Soviet early armoured car, predecessor of BA-6 Bai, a Chinese ethnic group, and their Bai language Banco Africano de Investimentos, in Angola BAI the official name of ferry company Brittany... The Blang village of Manpo, Xishuangbanna. ... The Bonan (also Baoan) people (保安族; pinyin: bÇŽoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... Buyei minority Shitou village, west Guizhou The Buyei (also spelled Puyi, Bouyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix, IPA: [], or Puzhong, Burao, Puman; Chinese: 布依族; Pinyin: BùyÄ«zú) are an ethnic group living in southern China. ... The Dai (or the Thai peoples of China) is the officially recognized name of an ethnic group living in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan Province of China), and also in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar. ... The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the former name Dahur is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. ... The Deang (德昂族 : Déáng Zú) (also spelled Deang) people are an ethnic group. ... The Derung people (also spelled Drung or Dulong; own name in IPA: [tɯɹɯŋ]; Chinese: 独龙族, Pinyin: Dúlóngzú) are an ethnic group. ... Dong Minority Bridge, Chenyang, Guangxi, China. ... The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔); Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán YÇ”) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... The Gelao people (own name: Klau, Chinese: 仡佬族 Gēlǎozú) are an ethnic group. ... This article is about the majority ethnic group within China. ... Typical daily attire of ethnic Hani in China. ... The Nanai people (self name нани; tr. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Jingpo or Kachin people (Chinese: 景颇族 Jǐngpōzú; own names: Jingpo, Tsaiva, Lechi) are an ethnic group who largely inhabit northern Myanmar (Kachin State). ... The Jino (also spelled Jinuo) people (Chinese: 基诺族 JÄ«nuòzú; own name: tÉ•yno or kino) are an ethnic group. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Lahu girls The Lahu people (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; own names: Ladhulsi or Kawzhawd; Vietnamese: La Hủ) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ... Languages Lhoba, Tibetan Religions Animism Tibetan Buddhist (primarily in Tibet) An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Li (黎; pinyin Lí:李) or Hlai is a minority Chinese ethnic group. ... It has been suggested that Lisu Church be merged into this article or section. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: MÇŽnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Maonan (self name: Anan meaning local people) people are an ethnic group. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... The Monpa (Chinese: 门巴族, ménbàzú, Tibetan: མོན་པ།) are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent in the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of 50,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. ... Ethnic Mongols in China (Chinese: 蒙古族) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols. ... The Mulao (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; own name: Mulam) people are an ethnic group. ... The Nakhi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China. ... The Nu people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Nùzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Oroqen people(鄂伦春族) are an ethnic group in northern China. ... The Pumi people (Chinese: 普米族 Pǔmǐzú, own name: /phʐẽmi/) are an ethnic group. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The She (畲) people are an ethnic group. ... The Shui people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shuǐzú) are an ethnic group living in the Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan areas of southwestern China. ... Tajiks in China (Chinese: 塔吉克族, Pinyin: ) are one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Chinese Tatars (塔塔尔族 TÇŽtÇŽÄ›rzú) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... The Tu (土) people are an ethnic group. ... The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. ... The Va nationality (also spelled Wa; Chinese: 佤族 WÇŽzú; own names: Va, Ava, Parauk, i. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... This article is about the Yao ethnic group in Asia. ... The Yi people (own name in the Liangshan dialect: ꆈꌠ, official transcription: Nuosu, IPA: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the older name Lolo is now considered derogatory in China, though used officially in Vietnam as Lô Lô and in Thailand as Lolo) are a modern ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The Zhuang people (Traditional Chinese: 壯族, Simplified Chinese: 壮族, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhuàngzú; own name: Bouчcueŋь/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... Undistinguished ethnic groups in China (未识别民族: Wèi Shíbié Mínzú; sometimes translated as Undistinguished nationalities) are ethnic groups in the Peoples Republic of China that have not been officially recognised as individual ethnic groups. ...

 
 

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