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Encyclopedia > Uyghur
Uyghur

Uyghur woman in Khotan
Total population 8-10 million (est.)
Regions with significant populations China / Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Russia
Language Uyghur
Religion Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups Uzbeks, other Turkic peoples

The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwú'ěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. In China, Uyghurs live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (also known as East Turkestan). A community of Uyghurs also exists in Taoyuan County of Hunan province in South-central China. Uyghur neighborhoods also exist in major cities like Beijing an Shanghai. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 156 KB) 09/10/2005 es: Khotan (Hotan / Hetian) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Uyghur (ئۇيغۇرچه UyurqÉ™, or ئۇيغۇر تىلى Uyur tili; Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔语; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾語; Pinyin: WéiwúěryÇ”) is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghuristan), China. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Uyghur (ئۇيغۇرچه UyurqÉ™, or ئۇيغۇر تىلى Uyur tili; Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔语; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾語; Pinyin: WéiwúěryÇ”) is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghuristan), China. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ... Taoyuan County is located in Hunan Province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ...

Contents


Identity

Map of the Western (purple) and Eastern (blue) Göktürk khaganates at their height, c. AD 600. Lighter areas show direct rule; darker areas show spheres of influence.
Map of the Western (purple) and Eastern (blue) Göktürk khaganates at their height, c. AD 600. Lighter areas show direct rule; darker areas show spheres of influence.

Historically the term "Uyghur" (meaning "united" or "allied") was applied to a group of Turkic-speaking tribes that lived in what is now Mongolia. Along with the so-called Kokturks (also known as Göktürks) the Uyghurs were one of the largest and most enduring Turkic peoples living in Central Asia. They existed as a tribal federation ruled by the Juan Juan from 460545, and then by the Hephthalites from 541565 before being taken over by the Göktürk empire (Khaganate). Image File history File links Map of the Western (purple) and Eastern (blue) Gokturk khaganates at their height, c. ... Image File history File links Map of the Western (purple) and Eastern (blue) Gokturk khaganates at their height, c. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Khagan, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Juan Juan (wg), Ruanruan (py), Ru Ru (py) or Rouran 柔然 (py) was the name of a confederacy of nomadic tribes on the northern borders of China proper from late 4th century until late 6th century. ... Events March 27 night - Swabians invade the Gallic city of Lugo. ... Events The Ostrogoths besiegeRome. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Events January 1 - Flavius Basilius Junior appointed as consul in Constantinople, the last person to hold this office January 2 - Earthquake strikes Laodicea. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ...


Known as Huíhé (Simplified Chinese: 回纥; Traditional Chinese: 回紇), Weihu or Huihu in Chinese sources, under Khutlugh Bilge Kul Khagan's leadership, they established a Khaganate (empire) in the 8th century, replacing the Göktürks. Their ethnonym Huihu is the origin of the term Huíhuí (回回) that came to be used for Muslim in Chinese and is now used for the Hui minority in China. Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Bilge Khan (Arslan Bilgä Khağan Bengü Taşı; 683 or 684 - 734) was one of the most influential emperors of the Gokturk Empire. ... Khagan, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc. ... Khagan, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hui people (Chinese: 回族; Pinyin: ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ...


Uyghurs live mainly in Xinjiang, China, where they are the largest ethnic group, together with Han Chinese, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Russians. "Xinjiang" is the Han Chinese name for the province meaning "New Frontier." Uyghurs often refer to the region as East Turkestan. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazak or Qazaq), (in Kazakh: Қазақ []; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ...


History

Before the Uyghur Empire was founded the steppes from Mongolia to Central Asia were ruled by the Turkic Empire. The first Turkic Empire was destroyed by Emperor Li Shi-min of the Tang Dynasty and the second Turkic Empire was rebuilt during the reign of Empress Wu. At the time the Uyghur was a subject tribe under the Turks. In 744 the Uyghur, together with other subject tribes (the Basmil and Kharlukh), defeated the Turkic Empire and its allies and founded the Uyghur Empire at Ötüken. Their empire stretched from the Caspian Sea to Manchuria and lasted from 745 to 840. It was administered from the imperial capital Ordu Baliq. A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: степ - step), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a LAKE MY HOMIE DOGG of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 2 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 3 (dark red + medium red + light red) Northeast China Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 840, following a famine and a civil war, they were overrun by the Kirghiz, another Turkic people. The result was that the majority of tribal groups formerly under the umbrella of the Uyghurs migrated to what is now northern China, especially modern Xinjiang. A traditional Kyrgyz Manaschi performing part of the Manas epic poem at a yurt camp in Karakol Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: 新疆; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Joined by other Turkic tribal groups living in Zungaria and the Tarim Basin, they established the Idiqut kingdom that lasted until 1209 when they submitted to the Mongols under Genghis Khan. Others, occupying the western Tarim Basin (Fergana Valley) and parts of Kazakhstan bordering the Muslim Turco-Tajik Sultanate, converted to Islam before the 11th century and built a federation with Muslim institutions, called Kara-Khanlik, whose princely dynasties are called Kara-Khanids by historians. Dzungaria (also Jungaria, Sungaria, Zungaria; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar, Chinese: 準噶爾, Russian: Džungarija) is a geographical region covering approximately 777,000 km², within the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Genghis Khan (c. ... The Fergana Valley (also Ferghana Valley) is a region in the Tian Shan mountain ranges of Central Asia spreading across eastern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


After the rise of the Seljuk Turks in Iran the Kara-Khanids ('black khans dynasty') became nominal vassals of the Seljuks. Later they would serve the dual-suzerainty of the Kara-Khitans to the north and the Seljuks to the south. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liáo) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as the Liao empire). ...


In his, now dated, book Empire Of The Steppes René Grousset reports that the Uyghurs took up a settled agricultural lifestyle in the Tarim. They had an opportunity to resume nomadism after the Kirghiz were driven out of Mongolia by other tribes but the Uyghurs chose not to do so. René Grousset (1885-1952) was a French historian specializing in Asiatic and Oriental history. ...

Map of the Uyghur Khaganate and areas under its dominion (in yellow) at its height, c. AD 820.
Map of the Uyghur Khaganate and areas under its dominion (in yellow) at its height, c. AD 820.
Enlarge
Wall painting of Uyghur Princes, from the Bezeklik caves

A small number of Uyghurs also migrated to what is now the Gansu province in China, around the late 9th century, where they converted from Manicheism to Lamaism (Tibetan & Mongol Buddhism). Unlike other Turkic peoples further west they did not later convert to Islam. Thus they are unusual among Turkic peoples. Their descendants live there to this day, they are now known as Yugurs and are distinct from modern Uyghurs. Image File history File links Map of the Uyghur Khaganate and areas under its dominion, c. ... Image File history File links Map of the Uyghur Khaganate and areas under its dominion, c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1006 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uyghur Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1006 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uyghur Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Fresco painted in a Bezeklik cave. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Tibetan Buddhism, (formerly also called Lamaism after their religious gurus known as lamas), is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... Buddhism is a religion and philosophy focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama), who probably lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following the Buddhas death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and East Asia... The Yugur (Simplified Chinese: 裕固族; Traditional Chinese: 裕固族; Pinyin: Yùgù Zú), or Yellow Uyghur as they are traditionally known, are one of Chinas 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 13,719 persons according to the 2000 census. ...


Most inhabitants in the Besh Balik and Turfan regions did not convert to Islam until the 15th century expansion of the Yarkand Khanate, a Turko-Mongol successor state based in the western Tarim. Ãœrümqi Ãœrümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ãœrümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; Ancient Chinese 高昌, Pinyin Gāochāng, Wade-Giles: Kao-chang; 42°59′ N 89°11′ E) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Yarkand or Yecheng (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin: Yèchéng, also Chokkuka, anciently Suoju 莎車, also written Shache and Suoche; alt. ... The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ...


Before converting to Islam, Uyghurs included Manichaeans, Buddhists and even some Nestorian Christians. It is probable that, genetically and culturally, modern Uyghurs descend from the nomadic tribes of Mongolia, from the Turkic subjects of the Mongols as well as from the many Indo-European-speaking groups who preceded them in the Tarim Basin oasis-cities. Today one can still see Uyghurs with light-coloured skin and hair. Modern genetic study shows Uyghurs are geneticly closest to modern Turkey Turks [1]. Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ...


Currently Turkic and Islamic cultural elements are dominant in the Tarim, which reflects Turkic emigration to that region especially during the Mongol period. The same situation has resulted in the replacement of previous religious traditions by Islam.


This has had an effect on modern politics because of a very long off-and-on relationship—politically, militarily and culturally—with China. Chinese rule was, in the remote past in these regions, solid at times until the An Lu Shan Rebellion and the Battle of Talas—both in the 750s. Chinese rule in the region existed, at times, as far back as AD 100 or so. This history goes a long way to explain the troubled relationship with past and present Chinese institutions and with the dominant Chinese ethnic group, the Han Chinese. An Lushan (安禄山; Hanyu Pinyin: ān lùshān) (703 - 757) was a military leader of non-Han Chinese origin during the China. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Chinese Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih Gao Xianzhi Li Siye Duan Xiushi Strength around 150,000 over 30,000 (20,000 Tang troops + troops of Chinese protectorates + Qarluq mercenaries) Casualties Unknown Gao retreated with several thousand survivors The Battle of Talas in CE 751 was a... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ...


Modern usage of the Uyghur ethnonym is used to give an ethnic definition to a traditional Central Asian distinction between nomads and settled farmers. It refers to the descendants of settled Turkic urban oasis-dwelling and agricultural populations of Xinjiang as opposed to those Turkic groups that remained nomadic. An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara In geography, an oasis is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ...


'Uyghur' is widely credited as having been used for the first time in 1921 with the establishment of the Organization of Revolutionary Uyghur (Inqilawi Uyghur Itipaqi), a Communist nationalist group with intellectual and organizational ties to the Soviet Union. There is some evidence that Uyghur students and merchants living in Russia had already embraced the name prior this date, drawing on Russian studies that claimed a linkage between the historical khanate and Xinjiang's current inhabitants. 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


Official recognition of the Uyghurs came under the rule of Sheng Shicai who deviated from the official Kuomintang five races of China stance in favor of a Stalinist policy of delineating fourteen distinct ethnic nationalities in Xinjiang. Sheng Shicai (Chinese: 盛世才; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Sheng Shih-tsai) (1897 - 1970) was a Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhōngguó Guómíndǎng), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...


Uyghurs today

The "Kokbayraq" flag. This flag is used by Uyghurs as a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement. The Chinese government prohibits using the flag in the country.
The "Kokbayraq" flag. This flag is used by Uyghurs as a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement. The Chinese government prohibits using the flag in the country.

Following 9/11, China stated its support to the United States of America in the war on terror and many human rights organizations are concerned that this is being used as a pretext to crack down on ethnic Uyghurs. Most Uyghur exile groups today claim their cultural rights are being suppressed by the Chinese government and that the PRC responds to Uyghur expressions of their culture, religion or demands for independence with human rights violations. A large proportion of the Uyghur diaspora supports Pan-Turkic groups and there are several organisations such as the East Turkestan Party. The name Xinjiang is considered offensive by many advocates of independence who prefer to use historical or ethnic names such as Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan (with Turkestan sometimes spelled as Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. Image File history File links Xinjianj_uigur. ... Image File history File links Xinjianj_uigur. ... East Turkestan Independence Movement is a broad term that refers to advocates of an independent, self-governing Xinjiang, which they refer to as East Turkestan. ... PRC redirects here. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... Look up Diaspora in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Turanism be merged into this article or section. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: 新疆; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Though most Uyghur seperatists support peaceful, secular Uyghur nationalism, there are some radical Islamic militant groups (such as the East Turkestan Islamic Movement) vying for independence as well. This has caused much confusion with regard to names and belief of Uyghur political groups. Often the Chinese government refers to general "East Turkestan" to refer to terrorists. East Turkestan Islamic Movement is a militant Islamic group which seeks to separate East Turkestan from the Peoples Republic of China. ... Terrorism, as defined by the United States Department of Defense, is the calculated use of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. ...


Notable Uyghurs

Famous Uyghurs and people claimed to be Uyghur include Tumen, Kul Tigin, Bilge Khan, Bayanchur Khan, Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan, Kashgarli Mehmud (Mehmud Kashgari), Yusuf Balasaguni (Yusuf Has Hajip), Al-Farabi (Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Uzalagh al-Farabi), Sultan Said Khan, Abdurashid Khan, Amannisa Khan, Yakub Beg , Ipar Khan (Xiang Fei), Ehmetjan Qasimi, Mehmet Emin Boghra, Turghun Almas, Alptekins (Isa Yusuf Alptekin & Erkin Alptekin), Rebiya Kadeer, Ismail Tiliwaldi, Abu Bakker Qassim, A'Del Abdu Al-Hakim, and Wuer Kaixi. Image File history File links Ehmetjan. ... Image File history File links Ehmetjan. ... Second president of East Turkistan Republic existed from 1944 to 1949. ... East Turkistan Republic (or ETR) can refer to: The First East Turkistan Republic (1933-1934) The Second East Turkistan Republic (1943-1949) The general idea in favor of establishing an independent republic in what is currently the PRC-administered province of Xinjiang, popular among some Uyghur nationalists This is a... Bumin Khan (death: 552 AD) was the founder of the Kokturk state. ... Kul Tigin (Kül (Köl, Gül, Göl) Tigin Khan Bengü İnançu Apa Tarkan Taşı) (685 - 731 or 732 AD) was a Turkic leader. ... Bilge Khan (Arslan Bilgä Khağan Bengü Taşı; 683 or 684 - 734) was one of the most influential emperors of the Gokturk Empire. ... Famous King of Uygur Empire(747-759 AD), with the title of Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Tutmish Bilge Qaghan, Categories: Possible copyright violations ... In 934, the Uighur king, Satuk Boghra Khan, accepted Islam. ... Mahmud Kashgari ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad was born in Kashgar East Turkistan (Modern Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Night interview with Yakub Beg, King of Kashgaria, 1868 Yakub Beg (1820 - May 16, 1877) was a Tajik adventurer who became head of the kingdom of Kashgaria. ... The Fragrant Concubine (Chinese: 香妃; pinyin: , Uyghur Iparhan) is a figure in Chinese legend who was taken as a consort by the Qianlong Emperor during the 17th century. ... Second president of East Turkistan Republic existed from 1944 to 1949. ... Turghun Almas (30 October 1924 - 11 September 2001) was an Uyghur historian and poet born in Kashgar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rebiya Kadeer (Uyghur: رابىيه قادىر; Simplified Chinese: 热比娅·卡德尔; Traditional Chinese: 熱比婭·卡德爾; Hanyu Pinyin: ) ( 21st January 1947 - ) is a prominent Uyghur businesswoman and political activist from the northwest region of Xinjiang. ... Ismail Tiliwaldi (simplified Chinese: 司马义•铁力瓦尔地; Uyghur: سماىلى ۋاندىىلىت) (born November, 1944, born in Shufu) is the chairman of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Abu Bakker Qassim is a Uyghur from Chinas western frontier, Xinjiang (also known as East Turkistan) who was held in Camp Iguana the US naval base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba after being classified as no longer enemy combatant (NLEC) by the Combatant Status Review Tribunal (CSRT). ... ADel Abdu Al-Hakim is a citizen of China. ...   Wúěr Kāixī (吾爾開希 Uyghur: Uerkesh Daolet) (1968-) is a famous Uyghur student leader in the Tiananmen protests of 1989. ...


References

  • Mackerras, Colin. Ed. and trans. 1972. The Uighur Empire according to the T'ang Dynastic Histories: a study in Sino-Uyghur relations 744–840. University of South Carolina Press.
  • Millward, James A. and Nabijan Tursun, "Political History and Strategies of Control, 1884–1978" in Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland (ISBN 0765613182).
  • Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam, Oasis identities: Uyghur nationalism along China's Silk Road, New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

External links

Language

Guantanamo Uyghur FOIA Documents

  • Uyghur testimony before Combatant Status Review Tribunal in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

See also

Find more information on Uyghur by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

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 News stories from Wikinews Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

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Uyghur language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (740 words)
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