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Encyclopedia > Uveitis
Uveitis
Classification & external resources
Hypopyon in anterior uveitis, seen as yellowish exudate in lower part of anterior chamber of eye
ICD-10 H20.
ICD-9 364
DiseasesDB 13676
eMedicine oph/580  emerg/284

Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the "uvea" but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Hypopyon seen as yellowish exudate in lower part of anterior chamber of eye Hypopyon is a leukocytic exudate, seen in the anterior chamber of the eye. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // H00-H59 - Diseases of the eye and adnexa (H00-H06) Disorders of eyelid, lacrimal system and orbit (H00) Hordeolum and chalazion (H000) Hordeolum and other deep inflammation of eyelid (H001) Chalazion (H01) Other inflammation of eyelid (H010) Blepharitis (H011) Noninfectious dermatoses of eyelid (H02) Other disorders of eyelid (H020) Entropion... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... A human eye. ... For the Pacific island, see Wallis Island. ...


Uveitis is estimated to be responsible for approximately 10% of the blindness in the United States.[citation needed] Uveitis requires an urgent referral and thorough examination by an ophthalmologist, along with urgent treatment to control the inflammation. Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ...

Contents

Types

Uveitis is usually categorized anatomically into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitic forms.

  • Anywhere from two-thirds to 90% of uveitis cases are anterior in location (anterior uveitis), frequently termed iritis - or inflammation of the iris and anterior chamber. This condition can occur as a single episode and subside with proper treatment or may take on a recurrent or chronic nature. Symptoms include red eye, injected conjunctiva, pain and decreased vision. Signs include dilated ciliary vessels, presence of cells and flare in the anterior chamber, and keratic precipitates ("KP") on the posterior surface of the cornea.
  • Intermediate uveitis consists of vitritis - inflammatory cells in the vitreous cavity, sometimes with snowbanking, or deposition of inflammatory material on the pars plana.
  • Posterior uveitis is the inflammation of the retina and choroid.
  • Pan-uveitis is the inflammation of all the layers of the uvea.

Iritis is a form of anterior uveitis and refers to the inflammation of the iris of the eye. ... The human iris The iris is the green/grey/brown area. ... The anterior chamber if the fluid-filled space inside the eye between the iris and the corneas innermost surface, the endothelium . ... Many primary care physicians often deal with patients with red eyes In medicine, red eye is a non-specific term to describe an eye that appears red due to illness, injury, or some other condition. ... The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Intermediate uveitis refers to inflammation localized to the vitreous and peripheral retina. ... Vitreous humour is the clear aqueous solution that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the vertebrate eyeball. ... The pars plana is part of the uvea, one of the three layers that comprise the eye. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... The choroid, also known as the choroidea or choroid coat, is the vascular layer of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera. ...

Causes

A myriad of conditions can lead to the development of uveitis, including systemic diseases as well as syndromes confined to the eye. In anterior uveitis, no specific diagnosis is made in approximately one-half of cases. However, anterior uveitis is often one of the syndromes associated with HLA-B27. Human Leukocyte Antigen B*27 (subtypes B*2701-2724) is a class I surface antigen encoded by the B locus in the MHC on chromosome 6. ...


Systemic disorders causing uveitis

Systemic disorders that can cause uveitis include: White G. "Uveitis." AllAboutVision.com. Retrieved August 20, 2006.</ref>

Behçets disease, is a chronic condition due to disturbances in the body’s immune system. ... Associated with the haplotype HLA-A29 in 99% of the cases. ... This article is about the disease. ... Herpes zoster, colloquially known as shingles, is the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (one of the Herpesviridae group), leading to a crop of painful blisters over the area of a dermatome. ... In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ... Juvenile arthritis is a type of arthritis typically affects children before the age of sixteen. ... Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, mucocutaneous lymph node disease, infantile polyarteritis and Kawasaki syndrome, is a poorly-understood illness that affects the mucous membranes, lymph nodes, blood vessel walls, and the heart. ... Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe, and the fastest-growing infectious disease in the United States. ... Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) is a disease syndrome affecting the eye that is characterized by peripheral atrophic chorioretinal scars, atrophy or scarring adjacent to the optic disc and maculopathy. ... Psoriatic arthritis (or Arthropathic psoriasis) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects around 20% of people suffering from the chronic skin condition Psoriasis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Reactive arthritis. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection with the dog or cat roundworm, Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, respectively. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones, joints, and even the... Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH syndrome) is a condition seen in humans and dogs characterized by uveitis (inflammation of the inside of the eye), poliosis (whitening of hair), vitiligo (loss of pigment in the skin), and meningitis, although dogs with this syndrome rarely develop meningitis. ...

Masquerade syndromes

Masquerade syndromes are ophthalmic disorders that clinically present as either an anterior or posterior uveitis, but are not primarily inflammatory. The following are some of the most common:

  • Anterior segment
  • Posterior segment
  • Lymphoma
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Reticulum cell sarcoma
  • Retinitis pigmentosa
  • Retinoblastoma

The word Foreign means originating elsewhere or in the physiological context outside the body. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. ... // Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. ...

Symptoms

  • Redness of the eye
  • Blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Dark, floating spots along the visual field
  • Eye pain

Treatment

The prognosis is generally good for those who receive prompt diagnosis and treatment, but serious complication (including cataracts, glaucoma, band keratopathy, retinal edema and permanent vision loss) may result if left untreated. The type of uveitis, as well as its severity, duration, and responsiveness to treatment or any associated illnesses, all factor in to the outlook.[1] Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ...


Uveitis is typically treated with glucocorticoid steroids, either as topical eye drops (such as betamethasone, dexamethasone or prednisolone) or oral therapy with prednisolone tablets. In addition topical cycloplegics, such as atropine or homatropine, may be used.[1] Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ... Betamethasone dipropionate is a corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive abilities, used especially where water retention is undesirable. ... Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid hormones. ... The structure of prednisolone Prednisolone is the active metabolite of prednisone. ... The structure of prednisolone Prednisolone is the active metabolite of prednisone. ... Cycloplegia is the paralysis of the ciliary muscle, resulting in a loss of accommodation. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Homatropine (Equipin®, Isopto Homatropine®) is an anticholinergic medication that inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and thus the parasympathetic nervous system. ...


Antimetabolite medications, such as methotrexate are often used for recalcitrant or more aggressive cases of uveitis. Experimental treatment with Infliximab infusions may prove helpful. An antimetabolite is a chemical with a similar structural to a substance (a metabolite) required for normal biochemical reactions, yet different enough to interfere with the normal functions of cells, including cell division. ... Methotrexate (rINN) (IPA: ), abbreviated MTX and formerly known as amethopterin, is an antimetabolite drug used in treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. ... It has been suggested that Infliximab (Remicade) be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders. ... This is a list of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ BNF 45 March 2003

Otherwise known as the doctors prescribing Bible the British National Formulary (BNF) contains a wide spectrum of information on prescribing and pharmacology, among others indications, side effects and costs of the prescription of all medication drugs available on the National Health Service. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dr. Koop - Uveitis (368 words)
Uveitis is an inflammation of the the uvea, the layer between the sclera and the retina, which includes the iris, ciliary body, and the choroid.
Uveitis is an inflammation inside the eye, affecting the uvea.
The most common form of uveitis is anterior uveitis, which involves inflammation in the front part of the eye, which is usually isolated to the iris.
Uveitis- Health Encyclopedia and Reference (599 words)
Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, a part of the eye.
Uveitis may come on suddenly with redness and pain, or it may be slow in onset with little pain or redness, but gradual blurring of vision.
Uveitis in the front and middle part of the eye (iritis or cyclitis) is commonly more sudden in onset, generally lasting six to eight weeks, and in the early stages can usually be controlled by the frequent use of drops.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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