FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Utopianism" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Utopianism
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into utopia. (Discuss)

Utopianism refers to the various social and political movements, and a significant body of religious and secular literature, based upon the idea of paradise on earth. It is related to the concept of Utopia. Utopianism is the opposite of a Dystopia. In a Utopic Soceity, everyone's needs are met, and all rights upheld. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ... Paradise, by Jan Bruegel The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. ... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ... A dystopia (alternatively, cacotopia[1], kakotopia or anti-utopia) is a fictional society that is the antithesis of utopia. ...

Contents

[edit]

Various conceptions of past and future paradise

In many cultures, societies, religions and cosmogonies, there is some myth or memory of a distant past when humankind lived in a primitive and simple state, but at the same time one of perfect happiness and fulfillment. In those days, the various myths tell us, there was an instinctive harmony between man and nature. Men's needs were few and their desires limited. Both were easily satisfied by the abundance provided by nature. Accordingly, there were no motives whatsoever for war or oppression. Nor was there any need for hard and painful work. Humans were simple and pious, and felt themselves close to the gods. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ...


These mythical or religious archetypes are inscribed in all the cultures and resurge with special vitality when people are in difficult and critical times. However, the projection of the myth does not take place towards the remote past, but either towards the future or towards distant and fictional places (for example, The Land of Cockaygne, a straightforward parody of a paradise), imagining that at some time of the future, at some point of the space or beyond the death must exist the possibility of living happily. Pieter Bruegel the Elders The Land of Cockaigne, painted in 1567. ...


These myths of the earliest stage of humankind have been referred to by various names, as the following examples will demonstrate:


Golden Age

The Golden Age by Lucas Cranach the Elder.
Enlarge
The Golden Age by Lucas Cranach the Elder.

The Greek poet Hesiod, around the 8th century BC, in his compilation of the mythological tradition (the poem Works and Days), explained that, prior to the present era, there were other four progressively most perfect ones, the oldest of which was called the Golden age. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x693, 167 KB) Das goldene Zeitalter um 1530 Holz 73,5 x 105,5 in München Bayrische Staatsgemäldesammlung File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Golden... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x693, 167 KB) Das goldene Zeitalter um 1530 Holz 73,5 x 105,5 in München Bayrische Staatsgemäldesammlung File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Golden... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Events and trends Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Hesiod (Hesiodos) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, believed to have lived around the year 700 BCE. From the 5th century BCE, literary historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer. ... The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Classical mythology. ... The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ...


Also Plutarch, the Greek historian and biographer of the 1st century, dealt with the blissful and mythic past of the humanity. Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arcadia Arcadia, e g in Sir Philip Sidney's prose romance The Old Arcadia (1580). Originally a region in the Peloponnesus, Arcadia became a synonym for any rural area that serves as a pastoral setting, as a locus amoenus ("delightful place"): Arcadia is a poetical name for fantasy land (having more or less the same notation as Utopia ), named after the Greek land. ... Philip Sidney Sir Philip Sidney (November 30, 1554 - October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Ages most prominent figures. ... The Countess of Pembrokes Arcadia, also known simply as The Arcadia is by far Sir Philip Sidneys most ambitious work. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... Look up Synonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Titians The Pastoral Concert Pastoral refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and feed. ...


The Bibilical Garden of Eden


The Biblical Garden of Eden as depicted in Genesis 2 (Authorized Version of 1611): 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew Gan Ēden, גַּן עֵדֶן) is described by the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man - Adam - and woman - Eve - lived after they were created by God. The past... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This articles subsection called Criticism is missing references or citation of sources. ...

And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. [...]
And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. [...]
And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; [...] And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; and the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.

The Land of Cokaygne


The Land of Cokaygne [also spelled Cockaygne or Cockaigne] (in the German tradition referred to as "Schlaraffenland"[1]) has been aptly called the "poor man's heaven", being a popular fantasy of pure hedonism and thus a foil for the innocent and instinctively virtuous life that is depicted in all the other accounts mentioned above. Cockaygne is a land of extravagance and excess rather than simplicity and piety. There is freedom from work, and every material thing is free and available. Cooked larks fly straight into one's mouth; the rivers run with wine; sexual promiscuity is the norm; and there is a fountain of youth which keeps everyone young and active. Pieter Bruegel the Elders The Land of Cockaigne, painted in 1567. ... Hedonism (Greek: hēdonē pleasure + –ism) describes any way of thinking that gives pleasure a central role. ... Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a man or a woman. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... A sex worker. ... The Fountain of Youth by Lucas Cranach the Elder The Fountain of Youth is a legendary spring that reputedly restores the youth of anyone who drinks of its waters. ...


There is a medieval poem (c. 1315) written in rhyming couplets which is entitled "The Land of Cokaygne": A couplet is a pair of lines of verse that form a unit. ...

Far in the sea, to the west of Spain,
Is a country called Cokaygne.
There's no land not anywhere,
In goods or riches to compare.
Though Paradise be merry and bright
Cokaygne is of far fairer sight....
[edit]

Finding utopia

All these myths also express some hope that the idyllic state of affairs they describe is not irretrievably and irrevocably lost to mankind, that it can be regained in some way or other. An idyll is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life, written in the style of Theocrituss short pastoral poems, the Idylls. ...


One way would be to look for the earthly paradise -- for a place like Shangri-La, hidden in the Tibetan mountains and described by James Hilton in his Utopian novel Lost Horizon (1933). Such paradise on earth must be somewhere if only man were able to find it. Christopher Columbus followed directly in this tradition in his belief that he had found the Garden of Eden when, towards the end of the 15th century, he first encountered the New World and its peoples. Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the novel, Lost Horizon, written by British writer James Hilton in 1933. ... This article is becoming very long. ... James Hilton (September 9, 1900 - December 20, 1954) was a popular English novelist of the first half of the 20th century. ... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ... The cover of the 1961 paperback edition Lost Horizon is a fantasy adventure novel by James Hilton. ... Christopher Columbus portrait, painted by Alejo Fernándõ between 1505 and 1536. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew Gan Ēden, גַּן עֵדֶן) is described by the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man - Adam - and woman - Eve - lived after they were created by God. The past... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ...


Another way of regaining the lost paradise (or Paradise Lost, as 17th century English poet John Milton calls it) would be to wait for the future, for the return of the Golden Age. According to Christian theology, man's Fall from Paradise, caused by man alone when he disobeyed God ("but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it"), has resulted in the wickedness of character that all human beings have been born with since ("Original Sin") and, consequently, in the mediocre world full of crime and vice we are still living in. The Christians believe in a future that is radically different from, and much better than, the here and now. In other cultures and religions, there are similar beliefs. Title page of the first edition Paradise Lost (1667) is a poopy epic poem by the 17th century English poet John Milton. ... John Milton, English poet John Milton (December 9, 1608 – November 8, 1674) was an English poet, best-known for his epic poem Paradise Lost. ... The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centred on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Michelangelos painting of the sin of Adam and Eve (the Fall) According to Christian tradition, Original sin is the general and non-personal condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born. ... Vice is the opposite of virtue. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

[edit]

Theorising Western Utopias

The idea of a Utopia has existed since Plato and continues to the present day. While there is little to suggest a conscious development of a single Utopian strand of thought, there is enough influence present in the writings and lives of Western Utopists to show a tradition of Utopian theorising. (Kumar 1991) For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


The tradition can be described as a heretical tradition. In its broadest form, this is a philosophy of rejection of a current system based upon observation of its workings, and suggestion of a new system that may question the methods or even fundamental values of the writer's time and place. (Manuel and Manuel 1979)


For example, Plato's description of Socrates (who featured heavily in Plato's Republic, a work that was to influence Utopists in future) is evocative of this archetype. In More's Utopia, More explicitly wrestles with this idea in Book One, where he debates the merits of a philosopher - or Utopist - entering public life, where his views might be compromised. Socrates (Greek: Σωκράτης, invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; 470–399 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Plato. ... Saint Thomas More (7 February 1478 — 6 July 1535) was an English lawyer, author, statesman, and Catholic martyr. ... wikisource contains Utopia De Optimo Reipublicae Statu deque Nova Insula Utopia (translated On the Best State of a Republic and on the New Island of Utopia) or more simply Utopia is a 1516 book by Sir Thomas More. ...


One of the interesting developments in Western thought about utopia has been the shift from spatially distant regions to a distant future. That made them more 'real', as people found it now easier to think about that as something that can be achieved.(Habermas, 1989 [2])

[edit]

The End of Utopianism?

While rarely considered mainstream in the first place, the reputation of Utopian thought suffered greatly following the Second World War. Thinkers like Karl Popper lambasted the grand designs implicit in a Utopia, while dystopias such as Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four became the primary method of Utopian expression and rejection. (Kumar 1987) Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph. ... A dystopia (alternatively, cacotopia[1], kakotopia or anti-utopia) is a fictional society that is the antithesis of utopia. ... Eric Arthur Blair (June 25, 1903 – January 21, 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) is a dystopian novel written by the English writer George Orwell and first published by Secker and Warburg in 1949. ...


Still, post-war era also found some Utopianist fiction for some future harmonic state of humanity (eg. Demolition Man (film)). Demolition Man is a 1993 American science fiction-action film. ...

[edit]

See also

[edit]

Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  • Kumar, Krishan (1991) Utopianism (Milton Keynes: Open University Press) ISBN 0-33-515361-5
  • Manuel, Frank & Manuel, Fritzie (1979) Utopian Thought in the Western World (Oxford: Blackwell) ISBN 0-67-493185-8
  • Kumar, K (1987) Utopia and Anti-utopia in Modern Times (Oxford: Blackwell) ISBN 0-63-116714-5
[edit]

External links

  • Utopia and Utopianism is an academic journal specializing in the subjects of utopia and utopianism.
Concepts of Heaven
Jewish Kingdom of Heaven | Garden of Eden | New Jerusalem
Christian Celestial Kingdom | Empyrean | Dante's Paradiso | Pearly gates | Spirit world
Islamic Jannah | Houri | Sidrat al-Muntaha
Ancient Greek Elysium | Hesperides
Celtic Annwn | Tír na nÓg | Mag Mell
Norse Valhalla | Asgard
Other cultures Paradise | Olam Haba | Svarga | Aaru | The Summerland | Myth of Er | Fortunate Isles |
Related concepts Afterlife | Hell | Underworld | Reincarnation | Nirvana | Millennialism | Utopianism | Golden Age | Arcadia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Utopia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2054 words)
These are often grouped in a greater "utopian socialist" movement, due to their shared characteristics: an egalitarian distribution of goods, frequently with the total abolition of money, and citizens only doing work which they enjoy and which is for the common good, leaving them with ample time for the cultivation of the arts and sciences.
Religious utopias, perhaps expansively described as a garden of delights, existence free of worry amid streets paved with gold, in a bliss of enlightenment enjoying nearly godlike powers, are often a reason for perceiving benefit in remaining faithful to a religion, and an incentive for converting new members.
Society for Utopian Studies is the Main Page for the Society for Utopian Studies, an international, interdisciplinary association devoted to the study of utopianism in all its forms, with a particular emphasis on literary and experimental utopias.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m