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Encyclopedia > Uthman ibn Affan
‘Uthmān bn ‘Affān
Caliph Usman's Empire at its greatest extent, including its vassal states
Born 580, Ta’if, Saudi Arabia
Died July 656, Medina, Saudi Arabia
Reign 11 November 64417 July 656
Title(s) Thu Al-Nurayn, Amir al-Mu'minin
Buried Jannat al-Baqi
Predecessor Umar
Successor Ali
edit

‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. 580 - July 17, 656) was a sahaba (companion) . An early convert to Islam, he played a major role in early Islamic history, most notably as the third Caliph of the Rashidun Empire (644 to death) and the compilation of the Qur'an. Revered by Sunni Muslims as one of the Rashidun (four rightly guided Caliphs) of Islam, he is highly criticized by the Shia Muslims. Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 405 pixelsFull resolution (1307 × 662 pixel, file size: 30 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... Taif is in the mid-southwest of the country near to Mecca Ta’if ( transliteration: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... It has been suggested that Amir-al-Muminin be merged into this article or section. ... Jannat al-Baqi (جنة البقيع) (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, located across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Early life

Uthman was born in Ta’if, which is situated on a hill, and, the presumption is that Uthman was born during the summer months, since wealthy Meccans usually spent the hot summers in the cooler climate of Ta’if. He was born into the wealthy Umayyad (Banu Umayya) clan of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca, seven years after Muhammad. Uthman's father, Affan, died young while travelling abroad, but left a large inheritance for Uthman. Uthman followed the same profession as his father, and his business flourished, making him a millionaire, and one of the richest men among the Qurayshi tribe.[1] Taif is in the mid-southwest of the country near to Mecca Ta’if ( transliteration: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ...


Conversion to Islam

Part of a series on
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Schools of Law

HanafiShafi`iMalikiHanbali This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ...

Schools of Theology

MaturidiAsh'ariAthariMu'tazili Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In Islam, one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Athari ((al-Athariyya), the textualists, from the word Athar, report) is the smallest of the four schools of Sunni Islamic theology. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ...

Movements

DeobandiBarelwiSalafi The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Barelvi (Hindi: बरेलवी, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sufism in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelvi). ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ...

Five Pillars

ShahadaSalah
ZakahSawmHajj Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... , // Shāhāda is a town in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India, now in Nandurbār District (formerly in Dhule District). ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

Rightly Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr • Umar ibn al-Khattab
Uthman ibn AffanAli ibn Abi Talib The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam and in general around the world to refer to the first four caliphs who are seen as being model leaders. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ...

Hadith Collections
The Six major Hadith collections are the works of some individuals Islamic scholars who by their own initiative started collecting sayings that people attributed to Muhammad approximately 200 years after his death. ...

Sahih BukhariSahih Muslim
Al-Sunan al-Sughra
Sunan Abi Dawood
Sunan al-Tirmidhi
Sunan ibn Maja • Al-Muwatta
Sunan al-Darami
The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: سنن النسائي) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasai. ... Sunan Abu Daud (Arabic: ‎) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... Jami al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎), popularly Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎) is one of the Sunni Six major Hadith collections collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Sunan al-Darami is a Hadith collection consider by some Sunnis to be the sixth of the Six major Hadith collections. ...

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Uthman was an early convert to Islam, and is said to have spent a great deal of his wealth on charity. On returning from a business trip to Syria in 611, Uthman found out that Muhammad had declared his mission. Uthman, after a discussion with his friend Abu Bakr, decided to convert to Islam, and Abu Bakr took him to Muhammad to whom he declared his faith. Uthman thus became the second adult male to convert to Islam, after Abu Bakr. His conversion to Islam angered his clan, who strongly opposed Muhammad's teachings.[2] The only two people who supported Uthman's decision were Saadi, a maternal aunt of Uthman, and Umm Kulthum, who was his step-sister and who had also converted to Islam. Because of his conversion to Islam, Uthman's wives deserted him and he subsequently divorced them. Muhammad then asked Uthman to marry his daughter Ruqayyah bint Muhammad. In modern usage, the practice of charity means the giving of help to those in need. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... There is some disagreement among Muslims, and among historians of Islam, as to the identity of the first male convert to Islam (Muhammad excluded). ... Ruqayyah is viewed as the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid by some Sunnis and some Shia but some Shia and non-Muslim argue she is the daughter of Khadijahs assumed previous husband (see Genealogy of Khadijas daughters). ...


Migration to Abyssinia

Uthman and his wife Ruqayya migrated to Aksumite (Ethiopia) in 614-615, along with 11 men and 11 women, all Muslims. As Uthman already had some business contacts in Abyssinia (now Ethiopia), he continued to practice his profession as a trader. He worked hard, and his business soon flourished. After two years, the news spread among the Muslims in Abyssinia that the Quraysh of Mecca had accepted Islam, and that convinced Uthman, Ruqayya, and some other Muslims to return. When they reached Mecca however, it transpired that the news about the Quraysh's acceptance of Islam was false. Some of the Muslims who had come from Abyssinia returned, but Uthman and Ruqayya decided to stay. In Mecca, Uthman had to start his business afresh, but the contacts that he had already established in Abyssinia worked in his favour, and his business prospered once again.[3] Aksum was an important participant in international trade from the 1st century CE (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea) until circa the later part of the 1st millennium when it succumbed to a long decline against pressures from the various Islamic powers leagued against it. ...


Migration to Medina

In 622, Uthman and his wife, Ruqayya, migrated to Medina. They were amongst the third batch of Muslims who migrated to Medina. On arrival in Medina, Uthman stayed with Abu Talha ibn Thabit of the Banu Najjar. After a short while, Uthman purchased a house of his own and moved there. Being one of the richest merchants of Mecca, and having amassed a considerable fortune, Uthman did not need any financial help from his Ansari brothers, as he brought all his wealth with him to Medina. In Medina, the Muslims were generally farmers and were not very interested in trade, and thus most of the trading that took place in the town was handled by the Jews. Thus, there was considerable space for the Muslims in promoting trade and Uthman took advantage of this position, soon establishing himself as a trader in Medina. He worked hard and honestly, and his business flourished, soon becoming one of the richest men in Medina.[4]. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Harith ibn Rabi (Arabic: ) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... The Banu Najjar was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... Ansari (Arabic: انصاری) is a Nesbat or second name common in South Asia and Middle East. ...


Life in Medina

In 624, some Muslims from Medina departed to assist in the capture of a Quraysh caravan. At this time, Uthman's wife Ruqayya suffered from malaria and then caught smallpox. Uthman stayed at Medina to look after the ailing Ruqayya, and did not join those who left with Muhammad. Ruqayya died during the time the Battle of Badr was being fought, and the news of the victory of Badr reached Medina as Ruqayya was being buried. Because of the battle Muhammad could not attend the funeral of his daughter. Uthman participated in the Battle of Uhud which was fought in 625, and after that battle he married Muhammad's second daughter, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad. The next year, Uthman and Ruqayyah's son, Abd-Allah ibn Uthman died. When the Battle of the Trench was fought in 627, Uthman was in charge of a sector of Medina. After the Battle of the Trench a campaign was undertaken against the Jews of Banu Qaynuqa, and when the Jews were taken captive, the question of the disposal of the slaves became a problem. Uthman solved the issue by purchasing all the slaves, and depositing their price in the Bayt al-mal (Treasury). Any of these slaves who accepted Islam were set free by Uthman in the name of Allah. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... Daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ... Abd-Allah ibn Uthman was the male son of Uthman and Ruqayyah bint Muhammad. ... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 3,000 10,000 Casualties only few few hundreds or more The Battle of the Trench or Battle of the Ditch (Arabic غزوة الخندق), also known as or Battle of Confederates (Arabic غزوة الاحزاب) was an attack by the non-Muslim Ahzab... The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Bayt al-mal is an Arabic term that is translated as House of money. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


Treaty of Hudaibiyah

Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

In March of 628 (6 Hijri), Muhammad set out for Mecca to perform the ritual pilgrimage of Hajj. The Quraysh denied the Muslims entry into the city and posted themselves outside Mecca, determined to show resistance, even though the Muslims had no intention or preparation for battle. Muhammad camped outside Mecca, at Hudaybiyyah, and sent Uthman as his envoy to meet with the leaders of Quraysh and negotiate Muslim entry into the city. The Quraysh made Uthman stay longer in Mecca than he originally planned and refused to inform the Muslims of his whereabouts. This caused the Muslims to believe that Uthman had been killed by the people of Quraysh. On this occasion, Muhammad gathered his nearly 1,400 soldiers and called them to pledge to fight until death and avenge the rumoured death of Uthman, which they did by placing a hand on top of Muhammad's. It is reported that Muhammad placed one of his hands on top of the other and pledged on behalf of Uthman as well. This pledge took place under a tree and was known as the Pledge of the Tree and was successful in demonstrating to the Quraysh the determination of the Muslims. They soon released Uthman and sent down an ambassador of their own, Suhail ibn Amr to negotiate terms of a treaty that later became known as the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Pledge of the Tree (Arabic: بيعة الشجرة, transliterated ) or Pledge of Pleasure (Arabic: بيعة الرضوان, transliterated ) was a pledge that was sworn to Prophet Muhammad by his companions right before the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (6 AH, 628 AD/CE) under a tree to avenge the rumored death of Uthman ibn Affan. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Muhammad's last years

In 629, Uthman fought in the Battle of Khaybar and later that year, he followed Muhammad to perform Umrah in Mecca. While in Mecca he visited his mother and found that his family was not as hostile to Islam as they used to be. In 630, the Quraysh broke the treaty of Hudaibiyah, and the Muslims attacked and conquered Mecca. General amnesty was granted to the people of the city, although an exception was made in the case of half a dozen people. Amongst those not granted amnesty was Abdullah ibn Saad, a foster brother of Uthman. Later, following an appeal by Abdullah's mother to Uthman, he was forgiven by Muhammad. Following the Conquest of Mecca Uthman's family converted to Islam and he rejoined his mother and siblings. Two weeks later, under the command of Muhammad, he participated in the Battle of Hunayn which was followed by the Siege of Ta'if. Combatants Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis Commanders Muhammad  ? Strength 1,600  ? Casualties 16  ? The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part... The Umrah or (Arabic: عمرة ) is a pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. ... ‘Abdullāh ibn Sa‘ad ibn AbÄ« as-SarhÌ£ (Arabic: ) was the foster brother of Uthman. ... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... For other uses, see Hunayn (disambiguation). ... The Siege of Taif took place in 630 CE, as the Muslims besieged the city of Taif after their victory in the Battle of Hunayn. ...


To Uthman, the conquest of Mecca and Ta’if were of particular significance, as he had considerable property in both cities, and he could now profitably develop them. He was also able to set up sub-offices for his businesses at Mecca and Ta’if. Uthman's wife, and the daughter of Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, died soon after the conquest of Mecca.


In 630 Muhammad decided to lead an expedition to Tabuk on the Syrian border. In order to finance the expedition Muhammad invited contributions from his followers. Uthman made the largest contribution: 1,000 dinars in cash, 1,000 camels for transport, and horses for the cavalry, which Muhammad greatly appreciated. In 631, Uthman, along with other Muslims moved, to Mecca to perform Hajj under Abu Bakr while Muhammad stayed in Medina. In Mecca, Uthman married Umm Saeed Fatima bint Al Walid b Abd Shams, a Qurayshi lady and returned to Medina with her. Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) is the capital city of the Tabuk province in north western Saudi Arabia. ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein. ...


In 632 Uthman, along with Muhammad, participated in the The Farewell Pilgrimage.[1] In 632 Muhammad died, and Uthman, like other Muslims, was griefstricken. This is a sub-article to Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca and the Succession to Muhammad. ...


Caliph Abu Bakr's era (632–634)

Uthman had a very close relationship with Abu Bakr, as it was due to him that Uthman had converted to Islam. When Abu Bakr was elected as the Caliph, Uthman was the first person after Umar to offer his allegiance. During the Ridda wars (Wars of Apostasy), Uthman remained at Medina, acting as Abu Bakr's adviser. On his death bed, Abu Bakr dictated his will to Uthman, saying that his successor was to be Umar.[5] For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ...


Caliph Umar's era (634–644)

Uthman was the first person to offer his allegiance to Umar. During the reign of Umar, Uthman remained at Medina as his adviser, and a member of his advisory council. Umar did not allow the companions, including Uthman, to leave Medina. The reason for this was that Umar didn't wish for the companions, who were famous and respected among the Muslims, to spread and have their own followers, which would, it was felt, have resulted in unnecessary divisions in Islam.


During the reign of Umar, considerable wealth flowed into the public treasury. Uthman advised that some amount be reserved in the treasury for future needs, instead of giving all of it as stipends to the Muslims, and this was accepted by Umar. A controversy then arose about the land in conquered areas. The army was of the view that all lands in conquered territories should be distributed among the soldiers of the conquering army, but others thought that the lands should remain as the property of the original owners, and the lands without claimants should be declared as state property. Uthman supported the latter view and this view was ultimately accepted. The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ...


At the time of the conquest of Jerusalem the Christians asked that Umar should come to Jerusalem to accept the surrender of the city. Uthman was of the view that it was not necessary for the Caliph of the Muslims to go to Jerusalem and that the enemy, when defeated, would surrender the city unconditionally. There was much force in Uthman's argument, but in order to win the good will of the Christians, Umar decided to go to Jerusalem to accept the surrender of the city. In the time of Umar, a severe famine broke out in the country and a large caravan belonging to Uthman that was carrying a large supply of food grains served the poor well. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


Election of Uthman

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Calligraphy of Uthman
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Calligraphy of Uthman

Umar, on his death bed formed a committee of six people to choose the next Caliph from amongst themselves. When `Umar was wounded by Abu Luluah and he saw that it was difficult for him to survive because of the deep wound, he formed a consultative committee and nominated for it `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan, `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Awf, az-Zubayr ibn al... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (680x1024, 389 KB)Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (680x1024, 389 KB)Source: http://www. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


This committee was comprised of:

Umar asked, that after his death, the committee should reach the final decision within three days, and the next Caliph should take the oath of office on the fourth day. If Talhah joined the committee within this period, he was to take part in the deliberations, but if he did not return to Medina within this period, the other members of the committee could proceed to make the decision. Abdur Rahman bin Awf withdrew his eligibility to be appointed as Caliph in order to act as a moderator and began his task by interviewing each member of the committee separately. He asked them to whom they will cast their vote. When Ali was asked, he said to Uthman. When Uthman was asked, he said to Ali, Zubayr said to Ali or Uthman and Saad said to Uthman.[5] For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Abdur Rahman bin Awf, (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (d. ... Sa`ad ibn Abī Waqqās (Arabic: ) was an early convert to Islam and important companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Abu ‘Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (Arabic: ‎) was a Sahaba, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... Talhah ibn Ubayd-Allah (d. ...


After Abdul Rahman consulted the other leaders of public opinion in Medina, who were in favour of Uthman, he arrived at the conclusion that the majority of the people favoured the election of Uthman. On the fourth day after the death of Umar, 11 November 644, 5 Muharram 24 Hijri, Uthman was elected as the third Caliph, with the title, "Amir al-Mu'minin". is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... It has been suggested that Amir-al-Muminin be merged into this article or section. ...


Reign as a Caliph (644–656)

On assuming office, Uthman issued a number of directives to the officials all over the dominions ordering them to hold fast the laws made by his predecessor Umar. Uthman's realm extended in the west to Morocco, in the east to South east Pakistan, and in the north to Armenia and Azerbaijan. During his caliphate a navy was organized, administrative divisions of the state were revised, and many public projects were expanded and completed. Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Naval redirects here. ...


Uthman sent prominent sahabas ("companions of Muhammad") as his personal deputies to various provinces to scrutinize the conduct of officials and the condition of the people. In total, Uthman ruled for twelve years. The first six years were marked by internal peace and tranquillity and he remained the most popular Caliph among the Rashidun, but during the second half of his caliphate a rebellion arose. In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...


Uthman had the distinction of working for the expansion of Islam and he sent the first official Muslim envoy to China in 650. The envoy, headed by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, arrived in the Tang capital, Chang'an, in 651 via the overseas route. The Hui people generally consider this date to be the official founding of Islam in China. The Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty recorded the historic meeting, where the envoy greeted Emperor Gaozong of Tang and tried to convert him to Islam. Although the envoy failed to convince the Emperor to embrace Islam, he was allowed to proselytize in China and ordered the establishment of the first Chinese mosque in the capital to show his respect for the religion. He also sent official Muslim envoys to Sri Lanka. For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Emperor Gaozong (628 - 683) was the third emperor of Tang Dynasty in China and he ruled from 649 to 683. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


Reforms of Uthman's era

Economic reforms

Uthman was a shrewd business man and a successful trader from his youth, which contributed a lot to the Rashidun Empire. Umar had fixed the allowance of the people and on assuming office, Uthman increased it by 25%. Umar had placed a ban on the sale of lands and the purchase of agricultural lands in conquered territories.[6] Uthman withdrew these restrictions, in view of the fact that the trade could not flourish. Uthman also permitted people to draw loans from the public treasury. Under Umar it had been laid down as a policy that the lands in conquered territories were not to be distributed among the combatants, but were to remain the property of the previous owners. The army felt dissatisfied at this decision, but Umar suppressed the opposition with a strong hand. Uthman followed the policy devised by Umar and there were more conquests, and the revenues from land increased considerably.[5] The army once again raised the demand for the distribution of the lands in conquered territories among the fighting soldiers but Uthman turned down the demand and it favoured the Dhimmis (non-Muslims in Islamic state). The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ...

The coins were of Persian origin, and had an image of the last persian emperor, Muslim added the sentence Bismillah to it.
The coins were of Persian origin, and had an image of the last persian emperor, Muslim added the sentence Bismillah to it.

In 651, the first Islamic coins were struck during the caliphate of Uthman, these were the Persian dirhams that had an image of the Persian emperor Yazdgerd III with the addition of the Arabic sentence Bismillah (بسم الله) (in the name of Allah). However the first original minting of the Islamic dirham was done in 695 during Umayyad period. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... Persia redirects here. ... Dirham is a unit of currency in several Arabic-speaking nations, including: Islamic Dirham The Moroccan dirham The United Arab Emirates dirham 1/1000 of the Libyan dinar 1/100 of the Qatari riyal 1/10 of the Jordanian dinar The dirham, spelt diram, is 1/100 of the Tajikistani... Yazdgerd III (Persian: یزدگرد سوم, made by God), last king of Sassanid dynasty, a grandson of Khosrau II (590–628), who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II of Persia in 628, and was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Phrases containing Allah Allah is Arabic for God and is the only god (monotheism) in the religion of Islam. ...


Umar, the predecessor of Uthman was very strict in the use of money from the public treasury. Apart from the meagre allowance that had been sanctioned in his favour, Umar took no money from the treasury. He did not receive any gifts, nor did he allow any of his family members to accept any gift from any quarter. During the time of Uthman there was some relaxation in such strictness. Uthman did not draw any allowance from the treasury for his personal use, nor did he receive a salary, he was a wealthy man with sufficient resources of his own, but unlike Umar, Uthman accepted gifts and allowed his family members to accept gifts from certain quarters.[1]. Romanino, Superintendent paying the workers, 1531-32, fresco, Castello del Buonconsiglio, Trento, Italy. ...


Public works

Under Uthman the people became economically more prosperous, and they invested their money in the construction of buildings. Many new and larger buildings were constructed through out the empire. During the caliphate of Uthman as many as five thousand new mosques were constructed. Uthman enlarged, extended, and embellished the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi at Medina and the Kaaba as well. With the expansion of the army, the cantonments were extended and enlarged, more barracks were constructed for the soldiers and stables for the cavalry were extended. Uthman provided separate pastures for state camels. This article is about the political and historical term. ... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet ( Arabic: ) [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... A cantonment is a temporary or semi-permanent military quarters, typically in South India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. ... A barracks housing conscripts of Norrbottens regemente in Boden, Sweden. ... Leland Stanfords horse stable, still in use Horse kept in stable A stable is a building in which livestock, usually horses, are kept. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ...


During the caliphate of Uthman, guest houses were provided in main cities to provide comfort to the merchants coming from far away places. More and more markets were constructed and Uthman appointed Market Officers to look after them. In Iraq, Egypt and Persia numerous canals were dug, which stimulated agricultural development. In the cities, particular attention was directed towards the provision of the water supply. In Medina, a number of wells were dug to provide drinking water for the people and in Mecca the water supply was also improved. Water was brought to Kufa and Basra by canals. Shuaibia was the port for Mecca but it was inconvenient, so Uthman selected Jeddah as the site of the new seaport, and a new port was built there. Uthman also reformed the police departments in cities. Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ...


Administration

In his testament, Umar had instructed his successor not to make any change in the administrative set up for one year after his death. For one year Uthman maintained the pattern of political administration as it stood under Umar, later making some amendments.


Under Umar, Egypt was divided into two provinces, Upper and Lower Egypt. Uthman made Egypt one province and created a new province for North Africa. Under Umar, Syria was divided into two provinces but Uthman made it one province. During Uthman’s reign the empire was divided into twelve provinces. These were:  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...

  1. Medina
  2. Mecca
  3. Yemen
  4. Kufa
  5. Basra
  6. Jazira
  7. Fars
  8. Azerbaijan
  9. Khorasan
  10. Syria
  11. Egypt
  12. North Africa

The provinces were further divided into districts (more than 100 districts in the empire) and each district or main city had its own Governor, Chief judge and Amil (tax collector). The governors were appointed by Uthman and every appointment was made in writing. At the time of appointment, an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the conduct of the governors. On assuming office, the governor was required to assemble the people in the main mosque, and read the instrument of instructions before them. Uthman appointed his kinsmen as governors of four provinces: Egypt, Syria, Bosra and Kufa.[7] The kindest explanation for this reliance on his kin is that the Rashidun Empire had expanded so far, so fast, that it was becoming extremely difficult to govern, and that Uthman felt that he could trust his own kin not to revolt against him. However Shia Muslims did not see this as prudence; they saw it as nepotism, and an attempt to rule like a king rather than as the first among equals. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Al-Jazira (Arabic, الجزيرة) is the traditional Arabic name for the region of northeastern modern-day Syria and northwestern modern-day Iraq. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Chief Judge is a title that can refer to the highest-ranking judge of a court that has more than one judge. ... A tax collector is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Qur'an

Main article: Qur'an

Uthman is perhaps best known for forming the committee which compiled the text of the Qur’an as it exists today. The reason was that various Muslim centres, like Kufa and Damascus, had begun to develop their own traditions for reciting and writing down the Qur'an. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...

This copy of the Qur'an is believed to be the oldest one, compiled during Caliph Uthman's reign.
This copy of the Qur'an is believed to be the oldest one, compiled during Caliph Uthman's reign.

Uthman feared that the nascent Rashidun Empire would fall apart in religious controversy if everyone did not have access to the original text of Qur'an. Towards the end of his reign, the committee finished compiling the text, and Uthman had it copied and sent to each of the Muslim cities and garrison towns, commanding that variant versions of the Qur'an be destroyed, and only the one version used. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


While Shi'a and Sunni accept the same sacred text, the Qur'an, some claim that Shi'a dispute the current version, i.e. they add two additional surahs known as al-Nurayn and al-Wilaya.[8] Nonetheless, Shi'as claim that they are falsely accused of this, as they believe, like Sunnis, that the Qur'an has never been changed and it is with reference from sunni hadeeth books that this inference is drawn not only by uninformed shias but sunnis too.[9][10] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... There are two verses named Surah of Wilaya and Nurayn that are claimed to be included in the Quran. ...


Zayd ibn Thabit was put in charge of the operation.[6](Note that John Wansbrough and some Western historians believe that the Qur'an was completed later than Uthman's time; theirs is a minority opinion.) Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... John Edward Wansbrough (19 February 1928, Peoria Illinois - 10 June 2002, Montaigu-de-Quercy France) was a historian of Islam who taught at SOAS in London. ...


Military expansion

Main article: Muslim conquests

Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet...

Byzantine attempt to re-capture Egypt

With the death of Umar and the disposal of 'Amr ibn al-'As from the governorship of Egypt, the Byzantines seized Alexandria, thinking it to be the right time to take action. Uthman again sent 'Amr ibn al-'As to defend Egypt and made him governor and commander-in-chief of Egypt. Amr defeated the Byzantine forces in the Battle of Nikiou, a few hundred miles from Fustat. After the defeat of the Byzantine army at Naqyus the Rashidun army laid siege to Alexandria, which fell when a Copt opened the gates of city one night, in return for amnesty. ˤAmr ibn al-ˤĀs (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (born c. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Byzantine Empire Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Manuel Strength 150,000 Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Nikiou was a battle between Arab Muslim troops under Amr ibn al-Aas and the Roman Empire, in Egypt, in the Spring of 646. ... Fostat (also spelled Fustat; Arabic: ) was the first capital city of Egypt under Arab rule. ... The Byzantine Army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine Navy. ... The Rashidun Caliphate Army or Rashidun army was the primary military body of the Rashidun Caliphates armed forces of 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun caliphate Navy. ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ...


After re-conquering Alexandria, 'Amr ibn al-'As ordered the demolition of the walls of the city to obstruct any future invasion by Byzantine forces. Amr was again dismissed from his post due to his loose financial administration.


Conquest of North Africa

After the withdrawal of the Byzantines from Egypt, North Africa had declared its independence under its king, Gregory. The dominions of Gregory extended from the borders of Egypt to Morocco. Abdullah ibn Saad would send raiding parties to the west and as a result of these raids the Muslims got considerable treasure. The success of these raids made Abdullah ibn Saad feel that a regular campaign should be undertaken for the conquest of North Africa. ‘Abdullāh ibn Sa‘ad ibn Abī as-Sarḥ (Arabic: ) was the foster brother of Uthman. ...


Uthman gave him permission after considering it in Majlis al Shura and a force of 10,000 soldiers was sent as reinforcements. The army assembled at Barqah in Cyrenaica, and from there they marched west to capture Tripoli, after Tripoli they marched to Sbeitla, the capital of King Gregory. Gregory was defeated and killed in the battle due to the tactics used by Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr. After the battle of Sufetula the people of North Africa sued for peace and they agreed to pay an annual tribute. Instead of annexing North Africa, the Muslims preferred to make it a vassal state and when the stipulated amount of the tribute was paid, the army withdrew to Barqah. Shura is an Arabic word for consultation; specifically the duty in Sharia (Islamic law) of the ruler to consult his followers in making decisions. ... This article is about the Arabic name used to refer to the region of Cyrenaica in eastern Libya during its Islamic, Ottoman or subsequent eras. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Sbeitla (Arabic: ‎) is a small town in north-central Tunisia. ... Abd Allah al-Zubayr or Ibn Zubayr or Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr (624 - 692) (Arabic: عبد الله بن الزبير) was the son of Zubair, who was the nephew of Khadija, and Asma bint Abu Bakr. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


First Muslim invasion of Iberian Peninsula (Spain)

According to the general books of Islamic history, the conquest of the Spainish section of the Iberian Peninsula is attributed to Tariq ibn-Ziyad and Musa bin Nusair in 711 - 712, in the time of the Umayyad Caliph, al-Walid I (Walid ibn Abd al-Malik). According to Muslim historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari,[11] Spain was first invaded some sixty years earlier during the caliphate of Uthman. Other prominent Muslim historians like, Ibn Kathir,[12] have also quoted the same narration. Motto (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem  1(Spanish) Royal March Spain() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Demonym Spanish, Spaniard Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I  -  President of the Government Formation 15th century   -  Dynastic union 1516   -  Unification... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad or Taric ben Zeyad (d. ... Musa bin Nusair (640—716) was a Yemeni Muslim governor and general under the Umayyads. ... The Arab Empire in its greatest extent. ... A list of Islamic Historians include: Muslims Ali ibn al-Athir(1160 - 1233) - He wrote Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh Ibn Ishaq(d. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ...


According to the account of al-Tabari, when North Africa had been duly conquered by Abdullah ibn Saad, two of his generals, Abdullah ibn Nafiah ibn Husain, and Abdullah ibn Nafi' ibn Abdul Qais, were commissioned to invade the coastal areas of Spain by sea. On this occasion Uthman is reported to have addressed a letter to the invading force. In the course of the letter, Uthman said: This article is about the body of water. ...

Constantinople will be conquered from the side of Al-Andalus. Thus if you conquer it you will have the honour of taking the first step towards the conquest of Constantinople. You will have your reward in this behalf both in this world and the next.

No details of the campaigns in Spain during the caliphate of Uthman are given by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari or by any other historian. The account of al-Tabari is merely to the effect, that an Arab force aided by a Berber force landed in Spain, and succeeded in conquering the coastal areas of Al-Andalus. We do not know where the Muslim force landed, what resistance they met, and what parts of Spain they actually conquered. Anyhow, it is clear that the Muslims did conquer some parts of Spain during the caliphate of Uthman. Presumably the Muslims established some colonies on the coast of Spain. There are reasons to presume that these Muslims entered into trade relations with the rest of Spain and other parts of Europe. The areas were lost shortly after because of the general disorder in the empire. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Campaign against Nubia (Sudan)

A campaign was undertaken against Nubia during the Caliphate of Umar in 642, but the campaign was inconclusive and the army were pulled out of Nubia with out any success. Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ...

Location of Dongola within Sudan

Ten years latter in 652, Uthman’s governor of Egypt, Abdullah ibn Saad, sent another army to Nubia. This army penetrated deeper into Nubia and laid siege to the Nubian capital of Dongola. The Muslims demolished the cathedral in the center of the city, the battle was once again inconclusive, because of the Nubian archers who let loose a shower of arrows aimed at the eyes of the Muslim warriors. As the Muslims were not able to overpower the Nubians, they accepted the offer of peace from the Nubian king. According to the treaty that was signed, each side agreed not to make any aggressive moves against the other. Each side agreed to afford free passage to the other party through its territories. Nubia agreed to provide 360 slaves to Egypt every year, while Egypt agreed to supply grain to Nubia according to demand. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Dongola (also spelled Dunqulah or Dunqula and formerly sometimes known as Al Urdi) is the capital of the state of Northern in Sudan, on the banks of the Nile. ... Dongola (also spelled Dunqulah or Dunqula and formerly sometimes known as Al Urdi) is the capital of the state of Northern in Sudan, on the banks of the Nile. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... For the breed of goat of the same name, see Anglo-Nubian. ... Slave redirects here. ... Grain redirects here. ...


Conquest of the islands of Mediterranean Sea

Further information: History of Islam in southern Italy

During Umar's reign, the governor of Syria, Muawiyah I, sent a request to build a naval force to invade the islands in the Mediterranean Sea but Umar rejected the proposal because of risk of death of soldiers at sea. During his reign Uthman gave Muawiyah permission to build a navy after concerning the matter closely. The Muslim force landed on Cyprus in 649. There was only a small Byzantine garrison on the island, which was overpowered without any difficulty. The islanders submitted to the Muslims, and agreed to pay a tribute of 7,000 dinars per year. The conquest of Cyprus was the first naval conquest of the Muslims. After Cyprus Muslim naval fleet headed towards the island of Crete and then Rhodes and conquered them with out much resistance. In 652-654, the Muslims lunched a naval campaign against Sicily and they succeeded in capturing a large part of the island. Soon after this Uthman was murdered, no further expansion was made, and the Muslims accordingly retreated from Sicily. In 655 Byzantione emperor Constans II led a fleet in person to attack the Muslims at Phoinike (off Lycia) but it was defeated: 500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and the emperor himself risked being killed. The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: ; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Constans and his son Constantine. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ...


Byzantine attempt to re-conquer Syria

After the death of Umar, the Byzantine emperor, Constantine III, decided to re-capture the Levant, which had been lost to the Muslims during Umar’s reign. A full-scale invasion was planned and a force of 80,000 soldiers was sent to re-conquer Syria. Muawiyah, the governor of Syria, called for reinforcements and Uthman ordered the governor of Kufa to send a contingent, which together with the Syrians defeated the Byzantine army. This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... Roman coin depicting, on its face, Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas Heraclius Constantine or Constantine III (May 3, 612 - April 20/24 or May 26, 641) was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudocia, and ruled as Emperor for four months... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Re-Conquest of Armenia and Georgia

Armenia and Georgia were conquered during the reign of Umar, first under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid and Ayadh ibn Ghanam. Later, Habib ibn Muslaimah was sent for a full-scale invasion up to the Black sea. During Uthman’s reign, a revolt broke out, and Uthman commissioned Habib ibn Muslaimah to re-conquer Armenia and Georgia. The whole of the region was re-conquered. There was not much fighting, and on the approach of the Muslim armies, the Armenians laid down arms, and accepted the usual terms of the payment of Jizya (tribute). Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan were made one province under the name Azerbaijan; Ashat ibn Qais was the last governor of this province during Uthman's reign. Khālid ibn al-WalÄ«d (592-642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-ullah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God, Gods Withdrawn Sword, or simply Sword of Allah), was one of the two famous Arab generals of the Rashidun army during the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ...


Occupation of Anatolia

The Byzantine forts in the region of Tarsus were conquered during Umar’s reign, soon after the Conquest of Antioch, by Khalid ibn Walid and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah. During Uthman’s reign the region was recaptured by Byzantine forces and a series of campaigns were launched to regain control of the region. In 647 Muawiyah the governor of Syria sent an expedition against the Anatolia, they entered in Cappadocia, and sacked Caesarea Mazaca. In 648 the Rashidun army raided into Phrygia. A major offensive into Cilicia and Isauria in 650–651 forced the Byzantine emperor Constans II to enter into negotiations with Caliph Uthman's governor of Syria, Muawiyah. The truce that followed allowed a short respite, and made it possible for Constans II to hold on to the western portions of Armenia. In 654–655 on the orders of Caliph Uthman, an expedition was preparing to attack the Byzantine capital Constantinopole but did not carry out the plan due to the civil war that broke out in 656. The Taurus Mountains in Turkey marked the western most frontiers of Rashidun Caliphate in Anatolia during Caliph Uthman's reign. For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... 68. ... Combatants Muslims Byzantine Empire Christian Arabs Commanders Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Khalid ibn al-Walid Unknown Strength 17,000 40,000-50,000 Casualties Unknown but few hundreds. ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ... AbÅ« Ubaidah Ä€mir ibn Abdullāh ibn al-Jarrāḥ (Arabic: ابو عبيده عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح), more commonly known as AbÅ« Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrāḥ, was one of the ten companions of Muhammad popularly known to have been promised Paradise by the Prophet himself. ... Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: ; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Caesarea Mazaca (modern Kayseri) is an ancient town of Anatolia which served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. ... The Rashidun Caliphate Army or Rashidun army was the primary military body of the Rashidun Caliphates armed forces of 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun caliphate Navy. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now Antalya province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. ... Constans and his son Constantine. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... DirektaÅŸ, Yedi Göller (Seven Lakes), Ala DaÄŸlar. ...


Re-conquest of Fars (Iran)

The province of Fars in Persia was conquered by the Muslims during the Caliphate of Umar. In Uthman’s reign, like other provinces of Persia, Fars also broke into revolt. Uthman directed Abdullah ibn Aamir, the Governor of Basra, to take immediate steps to retrieve the situation. Accordingly, he marched with a large force to Persepolis; the city surrendered and agreed to pay tribute. From here the army marched to Al j bard, where, after a brief resistance, the Muslims captured the city, and the citizens agreed to pay tribute. Thereafter the Muslim force advanced to Jor. The Persians gave battle but they were defeated and the city was captured by the Muslims. Peace was made with the usual terms, the payment of Jizya. While the army was still in Jor, Persepolis again broke into revolt; Abdullah ibn Aamir then took his forces to Persepolis and laid siege to the city. After a violent battle the Muslims were able to regain control of the city once again. All of the leaders among the Persians who were involved in instigating the revolt were hunted down and executed. With the fall of Persepolis, other cities in Fars also submitted unconditionally. Thus the Muslims once again became the masters of Fars. Uthman’s appointed governor of Fars, after analyzing the situation, sent Islamic missionaries to various cities of the region to convert the people to Islam to avert future revolts. A large number of people embraced Islam. // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Abdullah ibn Aamir (Arabic:عبدالله بن عامر ) was a governor of Busra (647 – 656) and an extremely successful military general during the reign of Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


Re-conquest of Sistan (Iran and Afghanistan)

Further information: History of Arabs in Afghanistan

In the 7th century, the Persian Empire's province of Sistan extended from the modern day Iranian province of Sistan to central Afghanistan and the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Ethnic Arab fighters who battled or migrated to the area now known as Afghanistan during conflicts dating back from the 7th century[1] till the recent Soviet-Afghan War when they assisted fellow Muslims in fighting the Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ...


Sistan was captured during the reign of Umar, and like other provinces of the Persian Empire, it also broke into revolt during Uthmans reign in 649. Uthman directed the governor of Bosra, Abdullah ibn Aamir to re-conquer the Persian province of Sistan. A column was sent to Sistan under the command of Rabeah ibn Ziyad. The first confrontation took place at Zaliq, a border town, during a Persian festival and with the Muslims victorious, the citizens asked for peace. It is said that the Muslim commander, Rabeah ibn Ziyad, stuck a pole in the ground and asked the Persians to pile gold and silver up to the top. Once it was done the Muslims left the citizens in peace. For the town in Jordan, see Bozrah. ...


Qarquqya, five miles from Zaliq was captured with out resistance. After that the army marched to Zaranj, in modern day south western Afghanistan. After a long siege, Zaranj finally surrendered with the usual terms of Jizya. Thereafter the Muslims marched northward into Afghanistan to subjugate the rest of the province, and the city of Qarbatin was conquered after a battle. Rabeah returned to Zaranj with a large amount of treasure and captives. Rabeah remained the governor of Sistan for two years, then he left for Bosra. As soon as he left the province of Sistan, it broke into revolt once again and expelled Rabeah's successor. The city Zaranji is the capital of the Afghan province of Nimruz located in the southwest of the country close to the Iranian border. ...

Rashidun Empire at its peak under third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman- 654      Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate      Vassal sates of Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Empire at its peak under third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman- 654      Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate      Vassal sates of Rashidun Caliphate

This time after obtaining the approval of Uthman, Abdullah ibn Aamir appointed Abdur Rahman ibn Sumra to command the army in the invasion of Sistan. Abdur Rahman ibn Sumra led the army to Sistan, and, after crossing the frontier and overcoming resistance in the border towns, advanced to Zaranj. The old story of siege, blockade and surrender was repeated. Abdur Rahman ibn Sumra made peace, with the Persians undertaking to pay an annual tribute of 20 million dirham. The Persians also presented 100,000 slaves. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 394 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 690 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 394 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 690 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation...


From Zaranj, the Muslim force advanced into the interior of Afghanistan and, after capturing the main town of Helmand, all towns were subjugated. Most of the towns surrendered without offering resistance. The Muslims reached the hill town of Zor, in modern day central Afghanistan. It is said that after capturing the town, Abdulrehman ibn Sumra entered the temple in the town, which had a huge idol with eyes of precious stones, he ordered it broken, saying to the priest that he did so to prove that this idol was capable of doing nothing, and constructed a mosque on the site. Thereafter Abdulrehman ibn Sumra marched northwards up to the Hindu Kush mountains in the northeast and captured Ghazni after some resistance and Kabul without any stiff resistance. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


After making these conquests, Abdur Rahman returned to the provincial capital Zaranj and stayed there as governor till the end of the caliphate of Uthman.


Re-conquest of Tabaristan (Iran)

The Māzandarān Province (Tabaristan), which lies south of the Caspian Sea, was conquered during the reign of Umar, under the command of Nuaim ibn Muqarrin’s brother, Suwaid ibn Muqarrin. During Uthman’s reign it broke into revolt, and Uthman directed Saeed ibn Al Aas, the Governor General of Kufa, to suppress it. Saeed ibn Al Aas led a strong force of 80,000 warriors to Tabaristan under his personal command. The force included such eminent persons as `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas, `Abd Allah ibn `Umar and Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr. Mazandaran (See other names[3]) is a Caspian province in the north of Iran, Located on the Southern coast of Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by Golestan, Semnan and Tehran provinces (All forming Greater Mazandaran, Each separated from Mazandaran respectively in 1997, 1976 and 1960 [4]). Province also lies... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Abd-Allah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس ) was a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Abdullah ibn Umar (Arabic: عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب) (ca. ...


The army first entered Qom, which surrendered to them and they then advanced to Tamlisa, a coastal town. It put up a stiff resistance and after a fierce battle the Muslims overpowered the city. All the men were slaughtered and the women and children were made slaves. The harsh treatment by the Muslims of the citizens of Tamlisa, struck terror into the hearts of the people of other towns and they lost the will to resist. Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ...


The army thereafter overran the Gīlān Province and other parts of Tabaristan. Even the hilly tract which had not been conquered during the caliphate of Umar was brought under Muslim rule. Having re-conquered the whole of Tabaristan, Saeed ibn Al Aas planned to march to Khorasan, but when he found that Abdullah ibn Aamir, the Governor General of Basra, was already in Khorasan, Saeed ibn Al Aas returned to Kufa. GÄ«lān (Persian: گیلان, ) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, known during ancient times as part of Hyrcania. ...


Re-conquest of Azerbaijan and Dagestan

Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia) were conquered during the reign of Umar and most of the region surrendered to the Muslims without a fight and agreed to pay tribute. Later in his reign it broke into revolt and was re-conquered by force, defeating the Persian forces were General Asfandyar and his brother Bahram. The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ...


During the Caliphate of Uthman, Utba bin Farqad remained the governor of the Azerbaijan province, which included modern day Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and Dagestan, it was included in the military dominion of the province of Kufa. When Walid ibn Uqbah became the governor of Kufa he re-called Utba bin Farqad. In his absence the Azerbaijan province broke into revolt and Uthman directed Walid ibn Uqba to undertake the campaign to re-conquer it. Walid lunched a two pronged attack on Azerbaijan, one from Armenia and the main army under his personal command from Kufa. No pitched battles were fought during the conquest and most towns surrendered and agreed to pay a tribute of 0.8 million dirham annually. Ashat ibn Qais was made governor of Azerbaijan. Walid ibn Uqba (Arabic: ) was one of the companions of Muhammad. ...


Re-conquest of Khorasan (Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan)

Further information: History of Arabs in Afghanistan

Khorasan, the province of the Persian Empire expanded from what is now north eastern Iran to western Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan. It was conquered during the reign of Umar, under the command of Ahnaf ibn Qais. After the death of Umar, Khorasan broke into revolt under Sassanid Emperor Yazdgerd III (betrayed and killed in 651), before he could lead the Persians against the Muslims. Ethnic Arab fighters who battled or migrated to the area now known as Afghanistan during conflicts dating back from the 7th century[1] till the recent Soviet-Afghan War when they assisted fellow Muslims in fighting the Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Yazdgerd III (Persian: یزدگرد سوم, made by God), last king of Sassanid dynasty, a grandson of Khosrau II (590–628), who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II of Persia in 628, and was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ...


In 651, Uthman sent Abdullah ibn Aamir, the governor of Bosra, to re-conquer Khorasan. Abdullah ibn Aamir marched with a large force from Bosra to Khorasan. After capturing the main forts in Khorasan, he sent many columns in various directions in Khorasan, the strategy was to avoid the Persians and to gather together in a large force. The town of Bayak, in modern day Afghanistan, was taken by force but the Muslim commander fell fighting in the battle. After Bayak, the Muslims marched towards Tabisan, which was captured with little resistance. Next, after a long siege, the army captured the city of Nishapur. From there the army captured other small towns in the Khurassan region. After consolidating their position in most of Khurassan, they marched towards Herat in Afghanistan, which surrendered peacefully. After getting control of the region the Muslims marched towards the city of Mary, in modern day Turkmenistan. The city surrendered along with other towns of the region except one, Sang, which was later taken by force. The campaign in Khorasan ended with the conquest of Balkh in 654. Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Mary is a city of Turkmenistan, capital of the Mary Province. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...


Campaign in Transoxiana

After consolidating the Muslim authority in Khorasan, Abdullah ibn Aamir crossed the Amu Darya (Oxus River) and invaded Uzbekistan in southern Transoxiana. Details of these campaigns are not known but the source books tell us that a greater part of southern Transoxiana submitted to the suzerainty of Muslim rule. The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ...


Re-conquest of Makran (Pakistan)

Makran was conquered during the reign of Umar, in 644, when three columns were sent by three different routes under the command of Hakam ibn Amr, Shahab ibn Makharaq and Abdullah ibn Utban. At the western bank of the Indus River they defeated the Hindu king of Sindh, Raja Rasil. Umar ordered them to consolidate their position on the western bank of the Indus River and not to cross it.[13] Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ...


During the reign of Caliph Uthman, Makran broke into revolt along with other Persian dominions. Uthman sent his commander, Ubaidhullah ibn Ma’ mar Tamini, to re-conquer Makran, along with other adjoining areas of Persia. In 650, the army under his command conquered it after series of skirmishes, however no pitched battles were fought.[14] Ubaidullah ibn Ma’mar was made the first governor of the Makran region. Later he was given the governorship of another Persian region and was replaced, first by Umair ibn Usman ibn Saeed, and then Saeed ibn Qandir Qarshi, who remained governor until Caliph Uthman was murdered.[15]


Conquest of Baluchistan (Pakistan)

In the 7th century, what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan, was divided into two main regions, its south-western parts were part of the Kermān Province of the Persian Empire and the north-eastern region was part of the Persian province of Sistan. The southern region was included in Makran. Kermān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


In early 644, Umar sent Suhail ibn Adi from Bosra to conquer the Kermān Province of Iran; of which he was made governor. From Kermān he entered western Balochistan and conquered the region near the Persian frontiers.[16] South-western Balochistan was conquered during the campaign in Sistan the same year.


During Caliph Uthman’s reign in 652, Balochistan was re-conquered during the campaign against the revolt in Kermān, under the command of Majasha ibn Masood. It was the first time that western Balochistan had come directly under the Laws of Caliphate and it paid an agricultural tribute.[17] In those days western Balochistan was included in the dominion of Kermān. In 654, Abdulrehman ibn Samrah was made governor of Sistan and an army was sent under him to crush the revolt in Zarang, which is now in southern Afghanistan. After conquering Zarang a column moved northward to conquer areas up to Kabul and Ghazni in the Hindu Kush mountains. At the same time another column moved towards the Quetta District in the north-western part of Balochistan and conquered an area up to the ancient city of Dawar and Qandabil (Bolan).[18] By 654, the whole of what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan was under the rule of the Rashidun Empire, except for the well-defended mountain town of QaiQan (now Kalat), which was conquered during Caliph Ali’s reign.[19] Abdulrehman ibn Samrah made Zaranj his provincial capital and remained governor of these conquered areas from 654 to 656, until Uthman was murdered. Quetta is a district in the north west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. ... Kalat or Qalat (Urdu: قلات) is a historical town located in Kalat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. ...


Campaign in Sindh (Pakistan)

The province of Sistan was the largest province of the Persian Empire, its frontiers extending from Sindh in the east, to Balkh (Afghanistan) in the northeast.[20] The Islamic conquest of some parts of Sindh was extension of the campaign to conquer the Persian Empire in 643, by sending seven armies from seven different routes, to different parts of empire.


The army first entered Sindh during the reign of Umar, in 644. It was not a whole scale invasion of Sindh, but was merely an extension of the conquests of the largest province of Persia, Sistan and Makran regions. In 644, the columns of Hakam ibn Amr, Shahab ibn Makharaq and Abdullah ibn Utban concentrated near the west bank of Indus River and defeated the Hindu king of Sindh, Raja Rasil, his armies retreated and crossed the river.


In response to Umar’s question about the Makran region, the messenger from Makran who brought the news of the victory told him:

'O Commander of the faithful!
It's a land where the plains are stony;
Where water is scanty;
Where the fruits are unsavoury
Where men are known for treachery;
Where plenty is unknown;
Where virtue is held of little account;
And where evil is dominant;
A large army is less for there;
And a less army is use less there;
The land beyond it, is even worst (referring to Sind).

Thereupon, Umar, after listening to the unfavourable situation for sending an army, instructed Hakim bin Amr al Taghlabi that for the time being Makran should be the easternmost frontier of the Rashidun Empire, and that no further attempt should be made to extend the conquests. Thereupon, the commander of the army in Makran said the following verses:

If the Commander of faithful wouldn’t have stopped us from going beyond, so we would have bought our forces to the temple of prostitutes.[13]

He was referring to the Hindu temple in the interior of Sindh where prostitutes used to give a part of their earnings as charity. The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... Whore redirects here. ...


After the death of Umar, these areas, like other regions of the Persian Empire, broke into revolt and Uthman sent forces to re-conquer them. Uthman also sent his agent, Haheem ibn Jabla Abdi, to investigate the matters of Hind. On his return he told Uthman about the cities, and, after listening to the miserable conditions of the region Uthman avoided campaigning in the Sindh interior, and, like Umar he ordered his armies not to cross the Indus river.[21] The name India may refer to either the region of Greater India (the Indian subcontinent), or to the contemporary Republic of India contained therein. ...


Agitation against Uthman

Unlike his predecessor, Umar, who maintained discipline with a stern hand, Uthman was lenient and kind hearted man; he focused more on the prosperity of his people. Under Uthman, the people became economically more prosperous and on the political plane they came to enjoy a larger degree of freedom. No institutions were devised to channel political activity, and, in the absence of such institutions, the pre-Islamic tribal jealousies and rivalries, which had been suppressed under Islam, erupted once again. In view of the democratic and liberal policies adopted by Uthman, the people took advantage of the liberties allowed them, and as such became a headache for the State, which culminated in the assassination of Uthman.[22] For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ...


Uthman fell victim to the tyrannies of his people, not because his rule was tyrannical or unjust, but because, in advance of his time, he aspired to be kind and liberal, in an age suited for an autocratic rule alone. Moreover, the foreign powers became nervous at the success of the Muslims under the leadership of Uthman, and now their only hope lay in aiding and abetting subversive movements within the territories of Islam. Under such circumstances, leaders, like Abdullah Ibn Saba, felt that it was a good opportunity to accomplish their aims of rebellion. Their activities were aimed at the subversion of Islam by creating doubts among the Muslims with regard to certain matters of their belief, and thus disunite them. However, the figure Abdullah Ibn Saba is believed by Shia Muslims to be an imaginary one created by Sunni historians to use as an excuse. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Abdullah Ibn Saba (ca. ...


It is believed that the movement had its links with foreign countries. Due to the lack of any particular political department to deal with the growing political agitation in the Islamic state, the political leaders in various towns launched a campaign of vilification against Uthman. Initially, they started with arguments over Uthman's kinsmen, who were governors of Egypt, Bosra and Kufa and they were joined by the companions who supported Ali. The most prominent of these were Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and Ammar ibn Yasir, who supported the right of Ali to become caliph because of his close relationship with Muhammad. The campaign was also supported by some companions who had a personal grievance with Uthman, like ‘Amr ibn al-’As, who was stripped of the governorship of Egypt by Uthman, and Uthman's adopted son, Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifa, who Uthman had refused to appoint as a governor of any province. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (631–658) was the son of Islams first caliph, Abu Bakr and Asma bint Umais. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ...


The actual reason for the seditionist movement is disputed among the Shia and Sunni Muslims.[23] Many anonymous letters were written to the leading companions of Muhammad, complaining against the tyrannical rule of Uthman's appointed governors. Moreover, letters were sent to the leaders of public opinion in different provinces underlining the tyrannical rule and mishandling of power by the relatives of Uthman. This created unrest in the empire and finally Uthman had to investigate the matter in an attempt to ascertain the authenticity of the rumours[24]. The movement however exploited differences between the Hashemite (Ali's clan) and Umayyad (Uthman's clan) clans of Quraysh. Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ...


Sunni Muslims consider these claims about the governors of Uthman, who achieved much success during their reign, to be incorrect and nothing more than a false claim. Sunni Muslims believe this to be a tactic used by seditionists to overthrow the realm of Uthman, by making him lose control over the main provinces of Egypt, Syria, Kufa and Bosra, where as a matter of loyalty, Uthman had appointed his own kinsmen. On the other hand Shia Muslims suggest that these claims were correct, and Uthman's kinsmen, although they achieved success as governors, failed to lead the people according to the principles of Islam, giving references to various early narrations present in primary sources of Islamic history. Sunni Muslims reject these narrations, on the basis that their authenticity is disputed.


Uthman's emissaries to the provinces

The situation was becoming tense and it was required to investigate the very roots of the anti-government propaganda and its aims. Some time around 654, Uthman called all the governors of his 12 provinces to Medina to discuss the problem. In this Council of Governors, Uthman directed the governors that they should adopt all the expedients they had suggested, according to local circumstances. Later, in the Majlis al Shurah (council of ministry), it was suggested to Uthman that reliable agents should be sent to various provinces to investigate the matter and report about the sources of such rumours. Uthman accordingly sent his agents to the main provinces, Muhammad ibn Maslamah was sent to Kufa; Usama ibn Zayd was sent to Basra; Ammar ibn Yasir was sent to Egypt, while `Abd Allah ibn `Umar was sent to Syria. The emissaries who had been sent to Kufa, Basra, and Syria submitted their reports to Uthman, that all was well in Kufa, Basra and Syria. The people were satisfied with the administration, and they had no legitimate grievance against it. Some individuals here and there had some personal grievances of minor character, with which the people at large were not concerned. Ammar ibn Yasir, the emissary to Egypt, however, did not return to Medina. The rebels had carried on with their propaganda in favour of the Caliphate of Ali. Ammar ibn Yasir had been affiliated with Ali; he betrayed Uthman, and instead joined the opposition in Egypt. Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, reported about the activities of the seditionists in Egypt. He wanted to take action against Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (foster son of Ali), Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifa (adopted son of Uthman) and Ammar ibn Yasir.[7] However, Uthman did not want Abdullah ibn Saad to be harsh against them because he held them in high regard. After the failure of emissary to Egypt, Uthman was watching further developments in Egypt. Muhammad Ibn Maslamah (589 - 666), also known as Muhammad bin Maslama Ansari, was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Usama ibn Zayd (also spelled Osama)(Arabic: ) was the son of Zayd ibn Harithah, Muhammads freed slave, adopted son and one of the first Muslims. ...


Further measures

In 655, Uthman directed the people who had any grievance against the administration to assemble at Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj. He assured them that all their legitimate grievances would be redressed. He directed the governors and the "Amils" through out the empire to come to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj. In response to the call of Uthman, the seditionists came in large delegations from various cities to present their grievances before the gathering.[22]


Uthman addressed the people and gave a long explanation of the criticism about himself and his administration and then said:

I have had my say. Now I am prepared to listen to you. If any one of you has any legitimate grievance against me or my Government you are free to give expression to such grievance, and I assure you that, I will do my best to redress such grievance.

The seditionists realized that the people supported the defence offered by Uthman and were not in the mood to listen to them.[2] That was a great psychological victory for Uthman. It is said, according to Sunni Muslims accounts, that, before returning back to Syria, the governor Muawiyah, Uthman’s cousin, suggested Uthman to come with him to Syria as the atmosphere there was peaceful. Uthman rejected his offer saying that he didn't want to leave the city of Muhammad (referring to Medina). Muawiyah then suggested that he be allowed to send a strong force from Syria to Medina to guard Uthman against any possible attempt by rebels to harm him. Uthman rejected it too saying that the Syrian forces in Medina would be an incitement to a civil war, and he could not be a part to such a move.[7] This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


Agitation in Medina

After the Hajj of 655 things remained quiet for some time. With the dawn of the year 656, Medina, the capital city of Uthman, became a hotbed of intrigue and unrest. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr returned to Medina from Egypt, and assisted in leading a campaign against the Caliphate of Uthman.


When the crisis deepened in Medina, Uthman addressed the congregation in the Masjid-e-Nabawi and gave an explanation of all the claims against him. The general public was again satisfied with Uthman. He had hoped that after his speech in which he had explained his position, and offered full defence for his actions, the false propaganda against him would cease. The agitation against Uthman was not being led on the basis of any principles; it was prompted by ulterior motives to overthrow his Government.[22] Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet ( Arabic: ) [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ...


Armed revolt against Uthman

The politics of Egypt played the major role in the propaganda war against the caliphate, so Uthman summoned Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, to Medina to consult with him as to the course of action that should be adopted. Abdullah ibn Saad came to Medina, leaving the affairs of Egypt to his deputy, and in his absence, Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifa staged a coup d'état and took power. On hearing of the revolt in Egypt, Abdullah hastened back but Uthman was not in a position to offer him any military assistance and, accordingly, Abdullah ibn Saad failed to recapture his power.[25] Coup redirects here. ...


In middle of 656, Uthman’s governor of Kufa, Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari, failed to control the province. In Basra the governor, Abdullah ibn Aamir, left for Hajj, and in his absence the affairs of the province fell into a state of confusion. Egypt was already the hot bed of the seditionist movement and thus the three main provinces of Egypt, Kufa, and Basra came to be cut off from the Caliphate of Uthman, and became the center of revolt. Abd-Allah ibn Qays, better known as Abu Musa al-Ashari (Arabic: ابوموسی) (d. ...


Rioters in Medina

From Egypt a contingent of about 1,000 people were sent to Medina. Their instructions were to overthrow the government of Uthman, and to murder him. Similar contingents marched from Kufa and Basra to Medina.[26] They sent their representatives to Medina to contact the leaders of public opinion. The representatives of the contingent from Egypt waited on Ali, and offered him the Caliphate in succession to Uthman, which Ali turned down. The representatives of the contingent from Kufa waited on Al-Zubayr, while the representatives of the contingent from Basra waited on Talhah, and offered them their allegiance as the next Caliph, which were both turned down. This move on the part of the rebels neutralized the bulk of public opinion in Medina and it could no longer offer a united front, so it became a divided house. Uthman could enjoy the active support of the Umayyads, and a few other people in Medina.[23] The rest of the people of Medina chose to be neutral and help neither side. Talhah ibn Ubayd-Allah (d. ...


Siege of Uthman

Main article: Siege of Uthman

The situation in Medina was a big gain for the rebels. When they felt satisfied that the people of Medina would not offer them any resistance, they entered the city of Medina and laid siege to the house of Uthman. The rebels declared that no harm from them would come to any person who choose not to resist them. Uthman strongly instructed his supporters to refrain from violence but his 400 palace slaves appealed for permission to fight against the rebels, along with a thousand other citizens of Medina. Uthman freed all 400 slaves and ordered them to stay away from the civil war between the Muslims. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


The early stage of the siege of Uthman’s house was not severe,[27] the rebels merely hovered around the house and did not place any restrictions on him. Uthman went to the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi as usual, and led the prayers. The rebels offered prayers under the leadership of Uthman. While Uthman addressed the people in the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi he was criticized by seditionists. At this the supporters of Uthman took up cudgels on his behalf. Tempers flared up on both sides, hot words were exchanged between the parties, and that led to the pelting of stones at one another. One of the stones hit Uthman, he fell unconscious and was carried to his house, still unconscious. Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet ( Arabic: ) [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ...


The proceedings in the mosque showed that most of the people of Medina preferred to be neutral and watch developments. When the rebels felt that the people of Medina were not likely to offer active support to Uthman, they changed their strategy, and tightened the siege of the house of Uthman. Uthman was denied the freedom to move about and was not allowed to go to the mosque.


As the days passed, the rebels became bolder and intensified their pressure against Uthman.[27] They forbade the entry of any food or provisions, and later water as well, into his house. Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan, a widow of Muhammad, came to see Uthman and brought some water and provisions for him but she was not allowed to enter. Another widow of Muhammad, and the daughter of the late Caliph Abu Bakr, Aisha, made a similar attempt, and she was also prevailed upon by the rebels to go back. Ramlah binte Abi-Sufyan, رملة بنت أبي سفيان, aka Umm Habiba, أم حبيبة, was the daughter of Abu Sufyan. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ...


With the departure of the pilgrims from Medina to Mecca, the hands of the rebels were further strengthened, and as a consequence the crisis deepened further. The rebels understood that after the Hajj, the Muslims gathered at Mecca from all parts of the Muslim world might march to Medina to relieve Uthman. They therefore decided to take action against Uthman before the pilgrimage was over. During the siege, Uthman was asked by his supporters, who outnumbered the rebels, to let them fight against the rebels and rout them. Uthman prevented them in an effort to avoid the bloodshed of Muslim by Muslim. The gates of the palace of Uthman were shut and guarded by the renowned warrior, Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr.[27] The sons of Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, were also among those who guarded the gates of the palace.[citation needed] There was a skirmish between the rebels and the supporters of Uthman at the gate, some rebels were killed, and were finally pushed back. Among the supporters of Uthman, Hasan ibn Ali, Marwan and some other people were wounded.[citation needed] Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


When Uthman came to know of this action he said:

No, I do not want to spill the blood of Muslims, to save my own neck.

Death

Finding the gate of Uthman's palace strongly guarded by his supporters, the rebels climbed the back wall and entered inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. It is said that Uthman was reading the Qur’an when the rebels entered his room and struck blows at his head.[28] Naila, the wife of Uthman, threw herself on his body to protect him. Naila was the wife of Uthman, the third Caliph of the Islamic Empire. ...

Uthman was reading the Qur'an when he was assassinated, it is believed that this Qur'an, present at museum in Toshkent, has the blood spots of Uthman
Uthman was reading the Qur'an when he was assassinated, it is believed that this Qur'an, present at museum in Toshkent, has the blood spots of Uthman

Raising her hand to protect him she had her fingers chopped off and was pushed aside, and further blows were struck until he was dead. The slaves of Uthman fell on the people whose blows had killed Uthman and, in turn, killed them. There was some fighting between the rebels and the slaves of Uthman, with casualties on both the sides, after which the rebels looted the house.[29] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x561, 575 KB) Photograph of PD-by-age material Other versions original File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Quran Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x561, 575 KB) Photograph of PD-by-age material Other versions original File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Quran Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Tashkent (Toshkent or Тошкент in Uzbek, Ташке́нт in Russian-meaning Stone City in English), the current capital of Uzbekistan, has in the past been called Chach, Shash and Binkent. ...


After the murder of Uthman, the rioters wanted to mutilate his body and were keen that he be denied burial. When some of the rioters came forward to mutilate the body of Uthman, his two widows, Nailah and Ramlah bint Sheibah, covered him, and raised loud cries which deterred the rioters.


When the women raised loud lamentations over the body of Uthman, the rebels left the house and the supporters of Uthman at gate hearing it, entered, but it was too late.[30]


Thereafter the rioters maintained a presence round the house in order to prevent the dead body from being carried to the graveyard.


The funeral

After the body of Uthman had been in the house for three days, Naila, Uthman's wife, approached some of his supporters to help in his burial, but only about a dozen people responded. These included Marwan, Zayd ibn Thabit, 'Huwatib bin Alfarah, Jabir bin Muta'am, Abu Jahm bin Hudaifa, Hakim bin Hazam and Niyar bin Mukarram.[31] The body was lifted at dusk, and because of the blockade, no coffin could be procured. The body was not washed, as Islamic teaching states that martyrs' bodies are not washed before burial. Thus Uthman was carried to the graveyard in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his assassination.[32] Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ...


According to one account, permission was obtained from Ali to bury the body. According to another account, no permission was obtained, and the body was carried to the graveyard in secret. Yet a third account states that when the rioters came to know that the body was being carried to the graveyard they gathered to stone the funeral, but Ali forbade them to resort to any such act, and they withdrew.


Some people say that Ali attended the funeral, but there is, however, overwhelming evidence to the effect that Ali did not.[33] Naila followed the funeral with a lamp, but in order to maintain secrecy the lamp had to be extinguished. Naila was accompanied by some women including Ayesha, Uthman's daughter.


The burial

The body was carried to Jannat al-Baqi, the Muslim graveyard. Jannat al-Baqi (جنة البقيع) (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, located across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ...

Grave of Caliph Uthman in Jannat al-Baqi cemetery, Medina-Saudi Arabia.
Grave of Caliph Uthman in Jannat al-Baqi cemetery, Medina-Saudi Arabia.

It appears that some people gathered there, and they resisted the burial of Uthman in the graveyard of the Muslims. The supporters of Uthman insisted that the body would be buried in Jannat al-Baqi.[34] Those who were opposed to such burial grew in strength, and, fearing lest such opposition might take a more ominous turn, the body of Uthman was taken to the neighbouring graveyard of the Jews, Hush Kaukab, and buried there in a hurry. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jannat al-Baqi (جنة البقيع) (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, located across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ...


The funeral prayers were led by Jabir bin Muta'am, and the dead body was lowered into the grave without much of a ceremony. After burial, Naila the widow of Uthman and Ayesha the daughter of Uthman wanted to speak, but they were advised to remain quiet due to possible danger from the rioters[35].


Family of Uthman

Main article: Family tree of Uthman

Uthman belonged to the Umayyad branch of the Quraish tribe, and was Muhammad's nephew. He was the son of Affan ibn Abi al-'As and Urwa bint Kariz. Urwa bore only two children from Affan: Uthman and his sister Amna. After the death of Affan, Urwa married Uqbah ibn Abu Mu'ayt, to whom she bore three sons and a daughter: This is a sub-article to Uthman Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ... Affan ibn Abi al-As is the ancestor of a Sahaba. ... Urwa bint Kariz was among the Sahabas ancestors. ... Uqba ibn Abu Muayt was a member of the Quraish tribe. ...

Before converting to Islam, Uthman had two wives namely, Walid ibn Uqba (Arabic: ) was one of the companions of Muhammad. ... Umm Kulthum bint Uqba (Arabic: ) was the daughter of Uqba ibn Abu Muayt and sister of Walid ibn Uqba. ...

  • Umm'Amr bint Jandab
  • Fatimah bint Al Walid

He had following children from them,


From Umm'Amr bint Jandab

  • Amr
  • Khalid
  • Aban
  • Umar
  • Maryam

From Fatimah bint al-Walid

  • Walid
  • Said
  • Umm Said.

Amr, was the eldest son of Uthman, and during the pre-Islamic period, Uthman was known by the surname of Abu'Amr.


After his conversion to He was married to

  • Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Muhammad's daughter. Ruqayyah and Uthman had a son, Abd-Allah ibn Uthman, but he died early, because of him after Islam he was called by the surname Abu'Abdullah.

When she died, Uthman was married to her sister, Ruqayyah is viewed as the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid by some Sunnis and some Shia but some Shia and non-Muslim argue she is the daughter of Khadijahs assumed previous husband (see Genealogy of Khadijas daughters). ... Abd-Allah ibn Uthman was the male son of Uthman and Ruqayyah bint Muhammad. ...

After the death of Muhammad's daughters, Uthman married to following women and had following children from them. Daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ...


From Fakhta bint Ghazwan

  • Abdullah bin Uthman al-asghar, he died in early age.

From Umm Al-Nabeen bint Einiyah

  • Abdulmalik bin Uthman, he too died in early age.

From Ramla biny Sheibah

  • Ayesha bint Uthman
  • Umm Aban bint Uthman
  • Umm Amr bint Uthman

From Nailah bint Fraizah

  • Maryum

Legacy

It is said that Uthman was one of the most handsome and charming men of his time.[36] Uthman was well known for his generosity. During Muhammad's time, while in Medina, he financed the project for the construction of the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi and purchased the well Beer Rauma, which he dedicated to the free use of all Muslims. Uthman’s generosity continued after he became caliph.


Uthman led a simple life even after becoming the Caliph of the Rashidun Empire, though it would have been easy for a successful businessman such as him to lead a luxurious life. The caliphs were paid for their services from bait al-mal, the public treasury, but Uthman never took any salary for his service as a Caliph, as he simply didn't need it.[2] Uthman also developed a custom to free slaves every Friday, look after the widows and orphans, and give unlimited charity. His patience and endurance were among the characteristics that made him a successful leader. He was a devoted Muslim, As a way of taking care of Muhammad’s wives, he doubled their allowances. Uthman also built a Palace for himself in Medina, known as Al-Zawar having doors of precious wood, although he built it with his own money, but Shia Muslims consider it his first step towards ruling like a King.[1] Uthman's sister Amna bint Affan was married to Abdur Rahman bin Awf, one of the closest companion of Muhammad. A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ... Abdur Rahman bin Awf, (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (d. ...


Sunni view of Uthman

According to the Sunni account of Uthman, he was married to two of Muhammad’s daughters at separate times, earning him the name Zun-Nurayn (Dhun Nurayn) or the "Possessor of Two Lights.". In this he was supposed to outrank Ali, who had married only one of Muhammad's daughters.


Sunni Muslims also consider Uthman as one of the ten Sahaba (companions) for whom Muhammad had testified that they were destined for Paradise, and one of the six with whom Muhammad was pleased when he died. He was a wealthy and very noble man. When he became khalifa, he used the same method Umar did. A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: Hadith) is about a comment made by Muhammad. ... Omdurman, Sudan. ...


Ultimately regardless of Hadhrat Usman's (RA) weakness in administration it was his softness when he refused to "shed muslim blood to save my neck" that stands as his epitah. It is also the same epitah of Abel (Habeel) who refused to fight his brother and was murdered by his brother Cain (Qabeel). In this time of turmoil and bloodshed Hadhrat Usman (RA) stands as a beacon of light who refused to participate in the kill and be killed civil conflict started by external powers. The claims against his wealth do not detract from Hadhrat Usman's (RA) personal sacrifice against the evil which had entered the Muslim body politic.


The main negative item against the Rashidah Khalifat was lack of political maturity and lack of pre-arranged and pre-scripted transition of power. There was no vice Khalifa who would ascend to power after the death of the current Khalifa. There was also no time limits of the Khalifa where the Khalifa would retire and the vice Khalifa would take over. Ultimately this has been the main weakness of Muslims, the inability to have a peacable change of power in a pre-arranged scripted manner. This weakness has caused repeated problems thruout Muslim history where the great work of one leader was lost because of internecine conflict after his death.


Shia view of Uthman

According to the Shia view, Uthman is looked at negatively. The Shia do not believe that he was one of the Sahaba's destined to Paradise. The Shia's dispute that Uthman's "Possessor of Two Lights" title was to annoy Ali. They also believe that he did not outrank Ali because Ali was married to Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, who is considered to be the greatest woman that ever lived. Fatimah was from Muhammad's first marriage to Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra (555 AD – 623 AD) was the first wife of Muhammad. ...


Uthman was chosen to succeed the previous Caliph Umar, by a council of six men appointed by Umar. All of them, with the exception of Zubair and Ali, were related to Uthman. Shias believe Ali protested the committee's approval for Uthman. He was part of the Bani Ummayah family of which Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, a vilified figure amongst Shia Muslims, was head of. His appointment of family relatives, such as Muawiya and Marwan,Marwan who once was banished by Muhammad (s.a.w) was allowed back by Uthman, to high posts around the Muslim empire and their abuse of wealth and power irked the Ummah. Ali was from Banu Hashim the same family as Muhammad. Sakhr ibn Harb, (Arabic: صخر بن حرب ) more commonly known as Abu Sufyan, was a leading man of the Quraish of Mecca and a staunch opponent of Muhammad but later adopted Islam. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ...


To Shia Muslims, Uthman's succession marked the beginning of the Ummayad dynasty, if not the first Ummayad ruler, which they believed to be unjust. Also they believe his succession was the continuation of a leadership usurpation that had started from Abu Bakr to Umar to finally Uthman.


Non-Muslims

Bernard Lewis 20th century non-Muslim scholar says of Uthman: (Redirected from 20th) 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic scholars. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ...

Uthman, like Mu'awiya, was a member of the leading Meccan family of Ummaya and was indeed the sole representative of the Meccan patricians among the early companions of the Prophet with sufficient prestige to rank as a candidate. His election was at once their victory and their opportunity. That opportunity was not neglected. Uthman soon fell under the influence of the dominant Meccan families and one after another of the high posts of the Empire went to members of those families.

The weakness and nepotism of Uthman brought to a head the resentment which had for some time been stirring obscurely among the Arab warriors. The Muslim tradition attribute the breakdown which occurred during his reign to the personal defects of Uthman. But the causes lie far deeper and the guilt of Uthman lay in his failure to recognize, control or remedy them
.[37]


David Samuel Margoliouth 20th century non-Muslim scholar says of Uthman: {{cquote|He was no fighting man, as his subsequent history proved, for he shirked one battlefield, ran away from another, and was killed, priest-like, ostentatiously reading the Koran. Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680) was founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of Islamic caliphs. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... (Redirected from 20th) 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic scholars. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ...



E. A. Belyaev the 20th century non-Muslim scholar says of Uthman: {{cquote|Uthman's acquisitiveness and business talents gained full scope when he became caliph. He built himself a stone house in Medina with doors of precious wood and acquired much real estate in that city, including gardens and water sources. He had a large income from his fruit plantations in Wadi-ul-Qura, Hunain and other places, valued at 100,000 dinars, besides large herds of horses and camels on these estates.

Multiplying his riches at the expense of the Moslem treasury, Uthman also gave free use of the latter to some of the closest companions of Muhammad, attempting to justify his illegal actions by associating these most authoritative veteran Moslems with his own depredations. The "companions" applauded the caliph Uthman for his generosity and magnanimity, no doubt for solid reasons of self-interest.

Zubair ibn al-Awwam, for example, one of the better known amongst them, built tenement houses in Kufa, Basra, Fustat and Alexandria. His property was estimated at 50,000 dinars, in addition to which he possessed 1000 horses and 1000 slaves.

Another "companion," Talha ibn Ubaidullah, built a large tenement house in Kufa and acquired estates in Irak which brought in a daily 1000 dinars; he also built a luxurious house of brick and precious wood in Medina.

Abd-ar-Rahman ibn Auf, also an outstanding "companion," also built himself a rich and spacious dwelling; his stables contained 100 horses and his pastures 1000 camels and 10,000 sheep, and one quarter of the inheritance he left after his death was valued at 84,000 dinars.

Such acquisitiveness was widespread among the companions of the Prophet and Uthman's entourage
. (Redirected from 20th) 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic scholars. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... A five-dinar note featuring Saddam Hussein The word Dinar (in Arabic and Persian: دينار) traces its origin back to the Roman currency, the denarius (pl. ... Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was a Sahabi, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Fostat (also spelled Fustat; Arabic: ) was the first capital city of Egypt under Arab rule. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah (d. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Abdur Rahman bin Awf, (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (d. ...


References

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  2. ^ a b c Uthman bin Affan, the Third Caliph of Islam by Ahmad, Abdul Basit. (Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2000).
  3. ^ Hazrat Usman – by Rafi Ahmad Fidai, Publisher: Islamic Book Service Pages: 32
  4. ^ Talhah bin 'Ubaydullah R
  5. ^ a b c The Early Islamic Conquests, Fred Donner, Princeton 1981
  6. ^ a b A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims on Al-Islam.org referencing Al-Fitna Al-Kubra (The Great Upheaval), published by Dar-ul-Ma'arif, Cairo, 1959, p. 47:)
  7. ^ a b c The Cambridge History of Islam, ed. P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, Cambridge, 1970
  8. ^ The Shi'i Qur'an: an Examination of Western Scholarship by Jonah Winters
  9. ^ Tahríf refers to tampering with the letters or words of the verses of the Holy Qur'án, changing them from the original revealed form
  10. ^ Tahrif al-Qur'an
  11. ^ See: History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Tabari)
  12. ^ See: Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (Tarikh ibn Kathir)
  13. ^ a b History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Tabari) Vol. 04 The Ancient Kingdoms: pg:183
  14. ^ History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Tabari) Vol. 03 The Children of Israel. pg: 360
  15. ^ Ibn Asir vol: 3 page no: 38
  16. ^ Ibn Aseer vol: 3 page no: 17
  17. ^ Fatu al Buldan page no:384
  18. ^ Tabqat ibn Saad vol: 8 pg: 471
  19. ^ Fatuh al buldan pg:386
  20. ^ Tabri vol: 4 page no: 180-181
  21. ^ Tarikh al Khulfa vol: 1 pg:197
  22. ^ a b c Sirat-i-Hazrat Usman-i-Ghani, by Mohammad Alias Aadil. Publishers: Mushtaq Ahmed Lahore
  23. ^ a b Muhammad and the Conquests of Islam, Francesco Gabrieli, London 1968
  24. ^ A Chronology of Islamic History, 570-1000 CE By Habibur U. Rahman. ISBN 0816190674
  25. ^ Abu Nu`aym, Hilya al-Awliya’ 1:92-100 #3; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 1/2: 566-614 #4.
  26. ^ `Uthman ibn `Affan
  27. ^ a b c The Murder of the Caliph `Uthman, M. Hinds, in International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 1972
  28. ^ The Many Faces of Faith: A Guide to World Religions and Christian Traditions By Richard R. Losch
  29. ^ The Martyrdom of Uthman ibn Affan, by Shaykh Zahir. ISBN : 58
  30. ^ Uthman ibn Affan
  31. ^ Hazrat Usman
  32. ^ `Uthman ibn `Affan: The Man With Two Lights (Part Two)
  33. ^ Makers of Arab History By Philip Khuri Hitti. Publishers St. Martin's Press 1968. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized 21 Nov 2006
  34. ^ Textual Sources for the Study of Islam By Knappert, Jan, Andrew Rippin
  35. ^ The Encyclopaedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged By Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer
  36. ^ ibn Hasham, vol:1 page 150
  37. ^ The Arabs in History, p 59, Oxford University Press, 2002

Also: Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Qari Abdul Basit (ca. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims CE 570 to 661 is a 1996 book written by Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy, in which most of the history of Islam is retold in the Shia persepective. ... El Fitna Al Kubra (The Great Upheaval) is a book by Islamic scholar Taha Husain [1] regarding early Muslim history . ... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (The Beginning and the End) or Tarikh ibn Kathir (The history [book of] Ibn Kathir) is a classic work by the Sunni scholar Ibn Kathir. ... The Arabs in History is a book written by Middle-east Historian Bernard Lewis. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

  • Levi Della Vida, G. and R.G. Khoury. "‘Uthmān b. ‘Affān." Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Eds. P.J. Bearman et al. 12 Vols. Brill, 2004. 30 October 2005
  • Radhia Allahu Anaha (The third Caliph 644-656 C.E.)

is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Views of various Islamic historians on Uthman:

  • Uthman in History

Views of the Arab Media on Uthman:

  • Ever Since the Murder of Uthman

Shi'a view of Uthman:

  • Uthman's election
  • The assassination of `Uthman Ibn `Affan
  • Uthman and Abdullah bin Massood
Uthman Ibn Affan
Cadet branch of the Banu Quraish
Died: July 17 656
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Umar
Rashidun Caliph
644656
Succeeded by
Ali
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Yazdgerd III
Ruler of Persia
651656
Merged into
Caliphate
The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Yazdgerd III (Persian: یزدگرد سوم, made by God), last king of Sassanid dynasty, a grandson of Khosrau II (590–628), who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II of Persia in 628, and was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
644-56. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (968 words)
The third caliph, Uthman, was murdered in his home in Medina by rebellious Muslim forces from Egypt, whose grievances as early converts concerned the erosion of their pay and prestige.
Uthman's appointment of members of his own clan of Umayya to top administrative positions had weakened his support among them as well as among troops in Iraq and the Quraysh in Medina.
In the second phase of the civil war, Ali was challenged by Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, the governor of Syria, who sought to avenge the murder of his relative, the third caliph Uthman (both were of the Umayya clan).
Uthman ibn Affan Biography (521 words)
Uthman was born into the wealthy Umayyad clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca a few years after Muhammad.
According to Islamic tradition Uthman was one of the ten people for whom it was witnessed that they were destined for Paradise; one of the six with whom Muhammad was pleased when he died.
Uthman was also one of the first men to memorize the Qur'an and he would be instrumental to its compilation after the death of Muhammad.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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