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Encyclopedia > Uterus
Uterus
Female internal reproductive anatomy
1. Round ligament
2. Uterus
3. Uterine cavity
4. Intestinal surface of Uterus
5. Versical surface(toward bladder)
6. Fundus of uterus
7. Body of uterus
8. Palmate folds of cervical canal
9. Cervical canal
10. Posterior lip
11. Cervical os (external)
12. Isthmus of uterus
13. Supravaginal portion of cervix
14. Vaginal portion of cervix
15. Anterior lip
16. Cervix
Gray's subject #268 1258
Artery ovarian artery, uterine artery, helicine branches of uterine artery
Lymph body and cervix to internal iliac lymph nodes, fundus to superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Precursor Müllerian duct
MeSH Uterus

The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes. The term uterus is commonly used within the medical and related professions, whilst womb is in more common usage. The plural of uterus is uteri. Shibuya ) is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Fem_isa_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Illu_female_pelvis. ... 1. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The fundus of the uterus is the top portion opposite from the cervix. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The external orifice of the uterus (or ostium of uterus, or external os) is a small, depressed, somewhat circular aperture on the rounded extremity of the vaginal portion of the cervix. ... The supravaginal portion of the cervix is separated in front from the bladder by fibrous tissue (parametrium), which extends also on to its sides and lateralward between the layers of the broad ligaments. ... The vaginal portion of the cervix projects free into the anterior wall of the vagina between the anterior and posterior fornices. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, the ovarian artery is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the ovary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The helicine branches of uterine artery (or helicine arterioles, or spiral arteries) are small arteries which temporarily supply the myometrium of the uterus during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... The internal iliac lymph nodes (or hypogastric) surround the hypogastric vessels, and receive the lymphatics corresponding to the distribution of the branches of the hypogastric artery, i. ... The superficial inguinal lymph nodes form a chain immediately below the inguinal ligament. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Müllerian ducts are paired ducts of the embryo which empty into the cloaca, and which in the female develop into the upper vagina, cervix, uterus and oviducts; in the male they disappear except for the vestigial vagina masculina and the appendix testis. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... This article is about modern humans. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ...

Contents

Function

The main function of the uterus is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, develops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth. Due to anatomical barriers such as the pelvis, the uterus is pushed partially into the abdomen due to its expansion during pregnancy. Even in pregnancy the mass of a human uterus amounts to only about a kilogram (2.2 pounds). A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... “Unborn child” redirects here. ... Parturition redirects here. ... The pelvis (pl. ...


Forms in mammals

In mammals, the four main forms in which it is found are:

  • bipartite, as in cows
  • bicornuate, as in pigs
  • simplex, as with the pear-shaped one found in humans and horses
  • duplex, found in rabbits

Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Rainbow arching over a paddock of cattle Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae, found in many parts of the world. ...

Anatomy

The uterus is located inside the pelvis immediately dorsal (and usually somewhat rostral) to the urinary bladder and ventral to the rectum. Outside of pregnancy, its size in humans is several centimeters in diameter. The pelvis (pl. ... In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper or back side of an animal, as opposed to the ventrum. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more offspring in an embryonal or fetal stage of development by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies, between the stages of conception and birth. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Regions

From outside to inside, the path to the uterus is as follows:

The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (plural vulvae, vulvas)[1] or genitalia feminina externa[2]. In common speech, the term vagina is often used improperly to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally, even though, strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... The external orifice of the uterus (or ostium of uterus, or external os) is a small, depressed, somewhat circular aperture on the rounded extremity of the vaginal portion of the cervix. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The internal orifice of the uterus (or internal orifice of the cervix uteri or internal os) is a interior narrowing of the uterine cavity. ... The Cavity of the Body in the uterus is a mere slit, flattened antero-posteriorly. ... The fundus of the uterus is the top portion opposite from the cervix. ...

Layers

The layers, from innermost to outermost, are as follows:

Layer Description
endometrium The lining of the uterine cavity is called the "endometrium". In most mammals, including humans, the endometrium builds a lining periodically which, if no pregnancy occurs, is shed or reabsorbed. Shedding of the endometrial lining in humans is responsible for menstrual bleeding (known colloquially as a woman's "period") throughout the fertile years of a female and for some time beyond. In other mammals there may be cycles set as widely apart as six months or as frequently as a few days.
myometrium The uterus mostly consists of smooth muscle, known as "myometrium". The innermost layer of myometrium is known as the junctional zone, which becomes thickened in adenomyosis.
perimetrium The loose surrounding tissue is called the "perimetrium".
peritoneum The uterus is surrounded by "peritoneum".

The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ... Menstrual cycle. ... The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall consisting of smooth muscle cells and supporting stromal and vascular tissue. ... Cultured Smooth muscle of the aorta. ... Adenomyosis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue (the inner lining of the uterus) within the myometrium (the thick, muscular layer of the uterus). ... Uterus and uterine tubes The perimetrium is the outer serosa layer of the uterus, covered in peritoneum. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ...

Major ligaments

It is held in place by several peritoneal ligaments, of which the following are the most important (there are two of each): A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ...

Name From To
broad ligament of the uterus (mesometrium) the sides of the uterus the walls and floor of the pelvis
round ligament of uterus lateral angle of the uterus (uterine horns) labium majus
ovarian ligament (or "proper ovarian ligament") lateral surface of uterus ovaries

The broad ligament of the uterus refers to the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis. ... The mesometrium is the mesentery of the uterus. ... The pelvis (pl. ... 1. ... The uterine horns are the points where the the uterus and the uterine tubes meet. ... The Labia Majora are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds which extend downward and backward from the mons pubis and form the lateral boundaries of a fissure or cleft, the pudendal cleft or rima, into which the vagina and urethra open. ... The ovarian ligament (also called the utero-ovarian ligament or proper ovarian ligament) is a fibrous ligament that connects the ovary to the lateral surface of the uterus. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are a part of a female organism that produces eggs. ...

Position

Under normal circumstances the uterus is both "anteflexed" and "anteverted". The meaning of these terms are described below:

Distinction More common Less common
Position tipped "anteverted": tipped forward "retroverted": tipped backwards
Position of fundus "anteflexed": the fundus is pointing forward relative to the cervix "retroflexed": the fundus is pointing backwards

A retroverted uterus is a uterus that is tilted backwards instead of forwards. ...

Development

The bilateral Müllerian ducts form during early fetal life. In males, MIF secreted from the testes leads to their regression. In females these ducts give rise to the Fallopian tubes and the uterus. In humans the lower segments of the two ducts fuse to form a single uterus, however, in cases of uterine malformations this development may be disturbed. The different uterine forms in various mammals are due to various degrees of fusion of the two Müllerian ducts. The Müllerian ducts are paired ducts of the embryo which empty into the cloaca, and which in the female develop into the upper vagina, cervix, uterus and oviducts; in the male they disappear except for the vestigial vagina masculina and the appendix testis. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... A uterine malformation is the result of an abnormal development of the Mullerian duct(s) during embryogenesis. ...


Pathology

Some pathological states include: Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ...

Prolapse literally means To fall out of place. ... Cervical cancer is malignancy of the cervix; it is one of the more common cancers affecting women of reproductive age. ... Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). ... Uterine fibroids (leiomyomata, singular leiomyoma) are the most common neoplasm in females, and may affect about 25 % of white and 50% of black women during the reproductive years. ... Adenomyosis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue (the inner lining of the uterus) within the myometrium (the thick, muscular layer of the uterus). ... Pyometra is a disease of the uterus in bitches (female dogs). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... A uterine malformation is the result of an abnormal development of the Mullerian duct(s) during embryogenesis. ... Uterine Didelphys is a rare type of deformity (1 in 1000 women) in the female reproductive organs in which some organs may be either split or duplicated. ... A retroverted uterus is a uterus that is tilted backwards instead of forwards. ... Mullerian agenesis refers to a condition in a female where the mullerian ducts fail to develop and a uterus will not be present. ... A myoma is a benigne tumor and non-cancerous that grows in the uterous muscular tissue or myometrium. ...

Additional images

References

See also

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall consisting of smooth muscle cells and supporting stromal and vascular tissue. ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in women. ... The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (plural vulvae, vulvas)[1] or genitalia feminina externa[2]. In common speech, the term vagina is often used improperly to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally, even though, strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... In the uterus are the tube-like uterine glands, lined by ciliated columnar epithelium. ...

External links

Look up Uterus in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tipped Uterus or Tilted Uterus (72 words)
A tipped uterus is the term used to describe a uterus that is tilted backwards away from the belly.
The uterus is normally suspended in a straight up and down position or slightly forward toward the belly.
A tipped uterus is usually something you are born with, but can be caused by labor while giving birth or by disease.
Uterus definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms (290 words)
Uterus: The uterus (womb) is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen between the bladder and the rectum.
The narrow, lower portion of the uterus is the cervix; the broader, upper part is the corpus.
Uterine Fibroids (Benign Tumors of the Uterus) - Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that originate in the uterus and are usually round or semi-round in shape.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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