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Encyclopedia > Utah War
Utah War

Date May 1857-July 1858
Location Utah Territory
Result Brigham Young replaced as governor of the territory. A full pardon for seditions and treason issued to the citizens of Utah by President Buchanan on the condition that they accept federal authority.
Belligerents
United States Utah Territory
Commanders
Pres. James Buchanan
Gen. Albert S. Johnston
Gov. Brigham Young
Gen. Daniel H. Wells
Strength
2,500 Unknown
Casualties and losses
38 Unknown

The Utah War, also known as the Utah Expedition or Buchanan's Blunder, was an armed dispute between Latter-day Saint ("Mormon") settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. The confrontation lasted from May 1857 until July 1858. While not fully bloodless, the war consisted of no pitched battles and was ultimately resolved through negotiation. Nevertheless, according to historian William P. MacKinnon, the Utah War was America's "most extensive and expensive military undertaking during the period between the Mexican and Civil wars, one that ultimately pitted nearly one-third of the US Army against what was arguably the nation's largest, most experienced militia."[1] The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... For the economist of this name, see James M. Buchanan. ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... D. H. Wells Daniel Hanmer Wells (October 27, 1814 – March 24, 1891) was an apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the third mayor of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, as well as a polygamist. ... A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

Contents

Overview

From 1857 to 1858, the Buchanan administration sought to quell what it perceived to be a rebellion in Utah Territory while the Mormons, fearful that the large federal army dispatched to the region had been sent to annihilate them, blocked the army's entrance into the Salt Lake Valley. While the confrontation between the Mormon militia, called the Nauvoo Legion, and the U.S. Army involved some destruction of property and a few brief skirmishes in what is today southwest Wyoming, no actual battles occurred between the contending military forces. The Nauvoo Legion was a private militia employed by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


Despite this, the confrontation was not bloodless. At the height of the conflict, on September 11, 1857, more than 120 California-bound settlers from Arkansas, including unarmed men, women and children over eight,[2] were killed in remote southwestern Utah by a group of local Mormon militiamen, possibly with the help of Native American allies. This tragedy was later called the Mountain Meadows massacre. While this incident was undoubtedly connected to the hysteria surrounding the approaching federal army which pervaded Utah in 1857, many historians conclude that the killings were an anomaly instigated by geographically isolated and deeply paranoid local leadership, while others maintain the existence of a larger conspiracy.[3] Other incidents of violence can also be linked to the Expedition, such as an Indian attack on the Latter-day Saint mission of Fort Limhi in eastern Oregon Territory which killed two Mormons and wounded several others. Historian Brigham Madsen relates that “the responsibility for the [Fort Limhi raid] lay mainly with the Bannock. Above and beyond any influence exerted by trader, soldier, or missionary, a situation existed in February of 1858 which gave the Bannock an almost unrivaled opportunity to indulge in their age-old customs of horse stealing and war.”[4] Nevertheless, David Bigler concludes that the raid was probably instigated by members of the Utah Expedition.[5] Taking all incidents into account, MacKinnon estimates that approximately 150 people died as a direct result of the year long Utah War, including the 120 killed at Mountain Meadows. He points out that this is roughly equivalent to those killed during the seven year contemporaneous struggle in "Bleeding Kansas."[6] An Illustration of the Mountain Meadows massacre, from a seminal 1873 history of the Mormons by T.B.H. Stenhouse. ... Seal of the Oregon Territory. ... Bannock has more than one meaning: Bannock is a kind of bread, usually prepared by pan-frying. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro...


In the end, negotiations between the United States and the Latter-day Saint hierarchy resulted in a full pardon for the Mormons, the transfer of Utah's governorship from church President Brigham Young to non-Mormon Alfred Cumming, and the peaceful entrance of the army into Utah. Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... Alfred Cumming (1802–1873) was appointed governor of the Utah territory in 1858 replacing Brigham Young following the Utah War. ...


Background

Image File history File links Wpdms_deseret_utah_territory_legend. ... Image File history File links Wpdms_deseret_utah_territory_legend. ... The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ... The boundaries of the provisional State of Deseret (orange) as proposed in 1849. ...

Utah Territory

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often called Mormon pioneers, settled in what is now Utah in the summer of 1847. Utah was then a part of Mexico, and the Mormons had purposely left the United States as a result of severe persecution and mob violence that they had endured in several eastern states. They believed that in the empty deserts of the Great Basin they could create a utopian society called Zion without outside interference. Even still, the the Latter-day Saint leadership well understood that they were not "leaving the political orbit of the United States."[7] Utah and most of the American Southwest were soon transferred to the American government as a result of the U.S. victory in the Mexican-American War. As well, in 1848 gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in California, sparking the famous California Gold Rush. As a result, thousands of emigrants moved west to the gold fields on trails which passed directly through the Saints' new home. These emigrants brought opportunities for trade, but also ended the Mormons' short-lived isolation. Thus, in 1849, the Mormons proposed that a huge swath of territory which they inhabited be incorporated into the United States as the State of Deseret. The primary concern of the Latter-day Saints was to be governed by men of their own choosing rather than "unsympathetic carpetbag appointees" that they believed would be sent from Washington, D.C. if their region was relegated to territorial status.[8] Based on nearly two decades of hardship, they believed that only through the self-governance entailed in statehood could they maintain the religious freedom which had been denied to them in the United States. However, Congress instead formed the Utah Territory as part of the Compromise of 1850. While this designation kept the Saints under direct federal control, President Millard Fillmore selected Brigham Young, President of the LDS Church, as the first governor of the Territory. Although this appointment came as a relief to the Latter-day Saints, in subsequent years the relationship between the Mormons and the federal government gradually broke down. For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... A statue commemorating the Mormon pioneers The Mormon pioneers were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as Latter-day Saints, who migrated across the United States from the midwest to the Salt Lake Valley in what is today the U.S. state of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. ... The original plat of the City of Zion (Independence, Missouri). ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Sutters Mill in 1850. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... The boundaries of the provisional State of Deseret (orange) as proposed in 1849. ... The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ... Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ...

Governor Brigham Young was appointed to office by President Millard Fillmore in 1850.
Governor Brigham Young was appointed to office by President Millard Fillmore in 1850.
President James Buchanan was inagurated in March 1857. The Presidential campaign of 1856 had featured extensive denunciation of polygamy and Mormon governance in Utah.
President James Buchanan was inagurated in March 1857. The Presidential campaign of 1856 had featured extensive denunciation of polygamy and Mormon governance in Utah.
Senator Stephen A. Douglas was a leading proponent of Popular Sovereignty
Senator Stephen A. Douglas was a leading proponent of Popular Sovereignty

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Download high resolution version (627x682, 51 KB) c File links The following pages link to this file: James Buchanan User talk:Simplicius Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (627x682, 51 KB) c File links The following pages link to this file: James Buchanan User talk:Simplicius Categories: U.S. history images ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (1379x2000, 856 KB)TITLE: Stephen A. Douglas CALL NUMBER: LC-BH82- 2460 C [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-cwpbh-00882 (b&w copy scan) No known restrictions on publication. ... Download high resolution version (1379x2000, 856 KB)TITLE: Stephen A. Douglas CALL NUMBER: LC-BH82- 2460 C [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-cwpbh-00882 (b&w copy scan) No known restrictions on publication. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ...

Plural Marraige, Popular Sovereignty, and Slavery

Part of this friction was purely cultural. Members of the LDS Church believed that polygamy or "plural marriage," such as that practiced in the Old Testament, had been reinstituted by God and a relatively small percentage of Mormons engaged in the practice in Utah. In fact, "..studies suggest that a maximum of 20% to 25% of LDS were members of polygamous households."[9] However, this principle was roundly condemned by all sections of the American public. During the Presidential Election of 1856 a key plank of the newly-formed Republican Party's platform was a pledge "to prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism, polygamy and slavery".[10] Indeed, the Republicans plausibly linked the Democratic principle of Popular Sovereignty with the acceptance of polygamy in Utah, and turned this accusation into a formidable political weapon. Popular Sovereignty was the theoretical basis of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Basically, it held that the Territories should be free to regulate their own "domestic institutions" without the interference of Congress. Originally, this concept was meant to remove the devisive issue of slavery in the Territories from national debate and transform it into a local choice. But, slavery and polygamy were intimately connected in Republican polemics which denounced the theory. Many Americans who were morally or politically prepared to accept slavery viewed polygamy as deeply immoral, and were strenously oppossed to its practice in Utah. Thus, leading Democrats such as Stephen A. Douglas, formerly an ally of the Latter-day Saints, were forced to denounce Mormonism and polygamy just as harshly as the Republicans in order to save Popular Sovereignty from public disrepute. In a public address on June 12, 1857, Douglas urged that the "loathsome, disgusting ulcer" of Mormonism had to be removed from the body politic.[11] In essence, the Democrats believed that American attitudes towards the LDS practice of polygamy had the potential of derailing the carefully balanced compromise on slavery they had produced to keep the nation from civil war. This compromise had already been strained to the limit thanks to the border war still raging in "Bleeding Kansas." For the Democrats, attacks on Mormonism therefore had the dual purpose of disentangling polygamy from Popular Sovereignty, and distracting the nation from the ongoing battles over slavery. Amazingly, in April 1857, a confidant of the newly elected President, Democrat James Buchanan, wrote to him and urged that an "Anti-Mormon Crusade" would distract the nation from the divisive issue of slavery so that "the pipings of Abolitionism will hardly be heard amidst the thunders of the storm we shall raise."[12] Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Plural marriage is a type of polygyny taught by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... GOP redirects here. ... A party platform, also known as an manifesto is a list of the principles which a political party supports in order to appeal to the general public for the purpose of having said partys candidates voted into office. ... Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... This 1856 map shows slave states (grey), free states (red), and US territories (green) with Kansas in center (white). ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ...


Theodemocracy

In addition, the public was incensed by the semi-theocratic dominance of the Utah Territory under Brigham Young. The Mormons believed passionately in the principles of the American Constitution which they taught had been inspired by God.[13] Young declared that under the Constitution's "broad folds, in its obvious meanings and intents, [the Latter-day Saints] are safe, and can always rejoice in peace."[14] However, Mormon political thought was heavily influenced by a theoretical governmental form dubbed "Theodemocracy." This system was intimately connected with Mormon beliefs in the imminence of Christ's Second Coming. Mormons believed that before Christ returned to earth, the governments of the world would collapse into universal anarchy. A theodemocracy in its pure form was believd to be the mechanism through which Christ would reinstitute order and rule a global political kingdom that He would initiate upon His return to earth. It proposed the fusion of traditional American republicanism with Biblical theocracy by calling for the use of republican processes to elect ecclesiatical leaders into positions of secular power while maintaining an institutional separation between church and civil governments. It was further meant to sustain full freedom of religion and other basic liberties for all members of society. Thus, in the time before the Millennium, the collapse of secular governments, and the institution of a pure theodemocracy, the Saints were comfortable with a system in Utah which was strictly republican in organization and which formed a constituent part of the United States, but in which their religious leaders served in important secular positions; a proto-theodemocracy. LDS church leaders were elevated to these positions either through popular election to the Territorial Legislature, selection as probate judges, or by federal appointment as in the case of Brigham Young. Young taught in 1855 that the Latter-day Saints, "like all good citizens, should seek to place those men in power who will feel the obligations and responsibilities they are under to a mighty people..."[15] In the minds of the Saints, their ecclesiastical leadership was uniquely suited to do just that. Indeed, the Mormons believed that the they were constitutionally guaranteed the ability to select their own government leaders, despite their ecclesiastical position. As Sarah Gordon points out, during the 19th century the "wall of separation" between church and state entailed in the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment applied only to the federal government.[16] Even today, the election of clergymen to political office has been judged constitutionally valid by the Supreme Court. But, many Americans in the mid-19th century regarded Mormon governance as a violation of American principles, and the press portrayed Young and other Mormon leaders as petty tyrants who were determined to create a separate kingdom in Utah. Many erroneously believed that Young maintained his power through an organization called the Danites which were blamed for any act of violence in the Territory. The very existence of such an group in Utah is doubted by many authorities.[17] Nevertheless, because non-Mormons in the east would not have consented to theodemocratic rule, they assumed that the Mormons "were oppressed by a religious tyranny and kept in submission only by some terroristic arm of the Church...[However] no Danite band could have restrained the flight of freedom-loving men from a Territory possessed of many exits; yet a flood of emigrants poured into Utah each year, with only a trickle...ebbing back."[18] In fact, the recently formed Know-Nothing Party brought into the political discussion a widely felt distrust of foreign immigration which bristled at the thousands of Mormon converts streaming into Utah from Europe and other locations. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... A millennium (pl. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... The Danites were a Latter Day Saint vigilante group organized in the late 1830s. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ...


Federal Appointees

The White House in 1846. The federal government maintained significant control over territories such as Utah, and the President chose federal officers for the territories with the advice and consent of the Senate. The appointments did not require the approval of the territories inhabitants.
The White House in 1846. The federal government maintained significant control over territories such as Utah, and the President chose federal officers for the territories with the advice and consent of the Senate. The appointments did not require the approval of the territories inhabitants.

These circumstances were not helped by the relationship between "Gentile" federal appointees and the Utah territorial leadership. While some federal officials maintained essentially harmonious relationships with the Latter-day Saints,[19] others had severe difficulties adjusting to the Mormon-dominated territorial government and the unique Utah culture. Historian Norman Furniss relates that although some of these appointees were basically honest and well meaning, many were highly prejudiced against the Mormons even before they arrived in the territory, were woefully unqualified for their positions, and some were down-right reprobate. The Mormons therefore had legitimate grievances against their federal representatives. On the other hand, the Latter-day Saints had little patience for the federal domination entailed in territorial status, and often showed defiance towards the representatives of the federal government.[20] In addition, while the Saints sincerely declared their loyalty to the United States and celebrated the Fourth of July every year with unabashed patriotism, they were undisguisedly critical of the federal government which they felt had driven them out from their homes in the east. Like the contemporary abolitionists, Latter-day Saint leaders declared that the judgments of God would be meted out upon the nation for its unrighteousness. The Mormons also maintained a governmental and legal regime in "Zion" which they believed was perfectly permissible under the Constitution, but which was fundamentally different from that espoused in the rest of the country. Thus, relations with the Native Americans who often differentiated between "Americans" and "Mormons," acceptance of the common law, the criminal jurisdiction of probate courts, the Mormon use of ecclesiastical courts rather than the federal court system for civil matters, the legitimacy of land titles, water rights, and various other issues were a source of continual dispute between the Latter-day Saints and federal appointees in the Territory. Many of these officers were also appalled by the practice of polygamy and the Mormon belief system in general, and would harangue the Mormons for their "lack of morality" in public addresses. This already tense situation was further exacerbated by a period of intense religious revival starting in late 1856 dubbed the "Mormon Reformation." For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Native Americans is a term which has several different common meanings and scope, according to regional use and context: Indigenous peoples of the Americas, natives of the American continents Native Americans in the United States, natives of the United States only; equivalent to American Indians in some contexts Native American... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Probate Court is a court found in some juridictions which is primarily concerned with the proper distribution of the assets of a decedent. ... In 1856-1858, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints underwent what is commonly called the Mormon Reformation. ...


Beginning in 1851, a number of federal officers, some claiming that they feared for their physical safety, left their Utah appointments for the east. The stories of these "Runaway Officials" convinced the new President that the Mormons were nearing a state of rebellion against the authority of the United States. According to LDS historians James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, the most influential information came from William W. Drummond, an associate justice of the Utah territorial supreme court who began serving in 1854. Drummond's letter of resignation of March 1857 contained charges that Young's power set aside the rule of law in the territory, that the Mormons had ignored the laws of Congress and the Constitution, and that male Mormons acknowledged no law but the priesthood.

He further charged the Church with murder, destruction of federal court records, harassment of federal officers, and slandering the federal government. He concluded by urging the president to appoint a governor who was not a member of the Church and to send with him sufficient military aid to enforce his rule.[21]
The U.S. Capitol in 1846. American lawmakers were deeply suspicious about Mormon patriotism, their government, and the practice of polygamy.
The U.S. Capitol in 1846. American lawmakers were deeply suspicious about Mormon patriotism, their government, and the practice of polygamy.

Buchanan was unfamiliar with Drummond's character, which federally appointed territorial chief justice John F. Kinney found to be immoral and ..entirely unworthy of a place upon the bench.[22] Yet, while Chief Justice Kinney may have disapproved of Justice Drummond, he was also no Mormon sympathizer. In reports to Washington, Kinney recited examples of what he believed to be Brigham Young’s perversion of Utah’s judicial system and further urged his removal from office and the establishment of a one-regiment U.S. Army garrison in the territory.[23] Furniss states that most federal reports from Utah to Washington “left unclear whether the [Mormons] habitually kicked their dogs; otherwise their calendar of infamy in Utah was complete.”[24] As these charges matched the general Eastern perception of Mormons at the time, Buchanan failed to investigate these reports or to even contact Young regarding the accusations. As early as 1852, Dr. John M. Bernhisel, Utah's delegate to Congress, had suggested that an impartial committee be sent to investigate the actual conditions in the territory. This call for an investigation was renewed during the crisis of 1857 by Bernhisel and even by Senator Stephen A. Douglas. However, the President would not wait. Under massive popular and political pressure, President Buchanan decided to take decisive action against the Mormons soon after his inauguration in March 1857. The U.S. Capitol building in Washington, DC. From http://teachpol. ... The U.S. Capitol building in Washington, DC. From http://teachpol. ... John Fitch Kinney (1816 - 1902) served twice as chief justice of the supreme court of the Territory of Utah. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ...


The Drummond/Kinney reports and charges of treason, battery, theft, and fraud made by other officials including Federal Surveyors,[25] and Federal Indian Agents,[26] combined with popular prejudice against the Mormons led President Buchanan to appoint Alfred Cumming as the new governor in place of Brigham Young. While Young became aware of the change in territorial administration through press reports and other sources, he received no official notification of his replacement until late November 1857, and received no communications from President Buchanan until late February 1858. Buchanan also decided to send a force of 2500 army troops to build a post in Utah and to act as a posse comitatus once the new governor had been installed. They were ordered not to take offensive action against the Mormons, but to enter the territory, enforce the laws under the direction of the new governor, and defend themselves if attacked. But once again, President Buchanan made no effort to inform Young of the movement of this army or of its intentions. Alfred Cumming (1802–1873) was appointed governor of the Utah territory in 1858 replacing Brigham Young following the Utah War. ... In common law, posse comitatus (Latin, county force, meaning a sort of local militia) referred to the authority wielded by the county sheriff to conscript any able-bodied male over the age of fifteen to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon; compare hue...


Troop movements

July-November 1857: Tactical Standoff

Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston led the Utah Expedition to put down a Mormon "rebellion." In the Civil War he became a high ranking general in the Confederate Army and was killed at the Battle of Shiloh in 1862.
Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston led the Utah Expedition to put down a Mormon "rebellion." In the Civil War he became a high ranking general in the Confederate Army and was killed at the Battle of Shiloh in 1862.
Daniel H. Wells was a member of the Latter-day Saint First Presidency, commander of the Nauvoo Legion, and later mayor of Salt Lake City.
Daniel H. Wells was a member of the Latter-day Saint First Presidency, commander of the Nauvoo Legion, and later mayor of Salt Lake City.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (784x992, 63 KB)Daniel H. Wells, Salt Lake City mayor 1866–1876. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (784x992, 63 KB)Daniel H. Wells, Salt Lake City mayor 1866–1876. ... D. H. Wells Daniel Hanmer Wells (October 27, 1814 – March 24, 1891) was an apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the third mayor of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, as well as a polygamist. ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the First Presidency (or the Quorum of the Presidency of the Church) was the highest governing body in the Latter Day Saint church established by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Nauvoo Legion was a private militia employed by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Robert Taylor Burton (October 25, 1821—November 11, 1907) was a General Authority and a member of the Presiding Bishopric of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1874 until his death. ... The Nauvoo Legion was a private militia employed by Joseph Smith, Jr. ...

Preparations

Although the Utah Expedition had begun to gather as early as May under orders from General Winfield Scott, the first soldiers did not leave Fort Leavenworth, Kansas until July 18, 1857. The troops were originally to be led by Gen. William S. Harney. However, affairs in "Bleeding Kansas" forced Harney to remain behind to deal with skirmishes between pro-slavery and free-soiler militants. The Expedition's cavalry, the 2nd Dragoons, was kept in Kansas for the same reason. Because of Harney's unavailability, Col. Edmund Alexander was charged with the first detachment of troops headed for Utah. However, overall command was assigned to Col. Albert Sidney Johnston who did not leave Kansas until much later. As it was, July was already far into the campaigning season and the army and their supply train were unprepared for winter in the Rocky Mountains. The army was also dispatched under the mistaken impression that the Mormons would not dare to oppose federal troops, and without clear instructions on how to react in case of resistance. For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... William Selby Harney (22 August 1800 - 9 May 1889) was a cavalry officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... 2nd Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the Australian Army and is the second most senior in the Royal Australian Armoured Corps. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...


Just as a misunderstanding of Mormon culture and their governmental system contributed to the Buchanan Administration's decision to send the expedition, the Mormons' lack of information on the army's mission also created apprehension and led to elaborate preparations. While rumors spread throughout the spring that an army was coming to Utah and that Brigham Young had been replaced as governor, this was not confirmed until late July. Mormon mail contractors, including Porter Rockwell and Abraham O. Smoot received word in Missouri that their contract was canceled and that the Army was on the move. The men quickly returned to Salt Lake City and notified Brigham Young that U.S. Army units were marching on the Mormons. Young announced the approach of the army to a large group of Latter-day Saints gathered in Big Cottonwood Canyon for Pioneer Day celebrations on July 24, 1857. He declared that, Porter Rockwell was that most terrible instrument that can be handled by fanaticism; a powerful physical nature welded to a mind of very narrow perceptions, intense convictions, and changeless tenacity. ... Painting of Abraham O. Smoot at the Salt Lake City and County Building. ... Big Cottonwood Canyon is a canyon in the Wasatch Range roughly 25 miles southeast of Salt Lake City in the U.S. state of Utah. ... Pioneer Day (also called the Day of Deliverance[1]) is a holiday celebrated on July 24 in the U.S. state of Utah, with some celebrations in regions of surrounding states originally settled by Mormon pioneers. ...

"if General Harney crossed the South Pass he [Young] should send him word they [the army] must not come into the valley. If the Govornor and officers wished to come and would behave themselves well they would be well treated."[27]

Young's diary entry for the day records, South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. ...

"it was carried unanimously that if Harney crossed the South Pass the buz[z]ards Would pick his bones. The feeling of Mobocracy is rife in the "States" the constant cry is kill the Mormons. Let them try it."[28]

Early in his administration of Utah, Young famously stated, "We have got a territorial government, and I am and will be the governor, and no power can hinder it until the Lord Almighty says, 'Brigham, you need not be governor any longer,' and then I am willing to yield to another."[29] In 1855 he explained these words saying, "[God] makes Kings, Presidents, and Governors at His pleasure; hence I conclude that I shall be Governor of Utah Territory, just as long as He wants me to be; and for that time, neither the President of the United States, nor any other power, can prevent it."[30] Young firmly believed that God controlled the acts of men, including who the President chose to be governor of Utah. Although Young's secular position made his administration of the Territory simpler, he felt that his religious authority was far more important among a nearly homogeneous population of Mormons who were determined to create a utopian society in anticipation of the Second Coming of Christ. Thus, in 1855 he stated "though I may not be Governor here, my power will not be diminished. No man they can send here will have much influence with this community, unless he be the man of their choice."[31] As his statement of July 24, 1857 makes clear, Young was at first prepared to relinquish his position of governor of Utah Territory. The original plat of the City of Zion (Independence, Missouri). ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ...


However, Young and the Mormon community at large feared renewed persecution and possibly annihilation by a large body of federal troops. Many of the Mormon settlers in Utah vividly remembered what they believed to be a pattern of aggression against them whenever they had lived in close proximity to a large number of armed non-Mormons or "Gentiles." This included attacks by both extra-legal mobs and state militias when they were settled at Nauvoo, Illinois in the 1840s, during the Mormon War in northern Missouri in 1838, and incident to the Mormon expulsion from Jackson County, Missouri in 1833. This violence had killed the Church's founder, Joseph Smith, in 1844 and robbed the Mormons of both life and property over a period of nearly two decades. Indeed, in 1838 Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs had gone so far as to issue an Extermination Order against all Latter-day Saints within the state's boundaries and drove thousands across the border into Illinois. This spirit of violence seemed to continue in the pronouncemnts of major contemporary newspapers, and the Saints saw its fulfillment on June 23, 1857 when they learned that LDS Apostle Parley P. Pratt had recently been murdered while serving a mission in Arkansas.[32] Young also recalled the problems caused by a group of 300 unruly federal troops that wintered in Utah under Colonel Steptoe from 1854-55. He warned his followers that A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Nauvoo (נאוו to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city located in Hancock County, Illinois. ... The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the U.S. state of Missouri. ... Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. ... Lilburn W. Boggs (1796-1860) was the Governor of Missouri from 1836 to 1840. ... Missouri Executive Order 44[1] also known as The extermination order (alt. ... Parley P. Pratt Statue of Parley P. Pratt facing Parleys Canyon at sunrise. ...

"... mobs repeatedly gathered against this people, but they never had any power to prevail until Governors issued their orders and gathered a force under the letter of the law, but breaking the spirit, to hold the 'Mormons' still while infernal scamps cut their throats."[33]

Fearing the worst, Young quickly responded to the perceived threat. He asked residents throughout Utah territory to prepare for evacuation, making plans to burn their homes and property and to stockpile food and stock feed. Guns were manufactured and ammunition was cast. Mormon colonists in small outlying communities in the Carson Valley and San Bernadino, California were ordered to abandon their homes and fields and to consolidate with the main body of Latter-day Saints in Northern and Central Utah. All LDS missionaries serving in the United States and Europe were recalled. Fearing possible attack from the west as well as from the east, Young also sent George A. Smith to the settlements of southern Utah to prepare them for action. Young's strategies to defend the Saints vascillated between all out war, a more limited confrontation, and retreat. He stated on August 2, Kit Carson Pass, named after the famed explorer Kit Carson, is a mountain pass through the Sierra Nevada range in Alpine County, California. ... San Bernardino is the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... George A. Smith George Albert Smith (June 26, 1817–September 1, 1875) (commonly known as George A. Smith to distinguish him from his grandson of the same name) was an early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and served in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and as a...

"If the United States sends out troops to fight us this season we shall whip them out. Then they will send out reinforcements. Then we shall have the Lamanites [American Indians] with us & the more the United states send out the worse off they will be for they will perish with Famine [sic]."[34]

But he also mused that if "[the soldiers] are defeated this year the people will be down upon Bucannon [sic]," and the President would be forced to withdraw his forces and negotiate.[35]

Ute Chief Walkara fought against the Mormons in the Walker War but was baptised into the LDS Church
Ute Chief Walkara fought against the Mormons in the Walker War but was baptised into the LDS Church
Members of the Bannock tribe. The Bannock led a raid on the Latter-day Saint mission of Fort Limhi in February 1858. The raid was probably instigated by members of the Utah Expedition who were trying to replenish their supply of horses and cattle.
Members of the Bannock tribe. The Bannock led a raid on the Latter-day Saint mission of Fort Limhi in February 1858. The raid was probably instigated by members of the Utah Expedition who were trying to replenish their supply of horses and cattle.
The Nauvoo Legion on parade in Nauvoo, Illinois during the 1840s. After the Saints were driven from the state and removed to the Great Basin in 1847, they reconstituted the Legion as the Utah militia.

If total war became inevitable, an alliance with the Native Americans was central to Young's strategy. The relationship between the Mormons and Utah's native inhabitants had been mixed since their arrival in 1847. Although they had fought on several occasions, including the Walker War of 1853-4, Brigham Young had generally adopted a policy of missionary work, education, and conciliation towards native tribes.[36] Indeed, some Mormon leaders encouraged intermarriage with the Native Americans in order that the two peoples might "unite together" and their "interests become one."[37] At least some Mormons and Natives Americans did enter into such relationships, although in the case of the settlers at Fort Limhi in Oregon Territory, the Indian women often rejected the proposals of the Mormon men.[38] In early August 1857, Young wrote to Jacob Hamblin, a missionary to the southern Paiutes, and stated that Hamblin should "continue the conciliatory policy towards the Indians which I have ever commended, and seek by works of righteousness to obtain their love and confidence."[39] However, Young continued that the Indians "must learn to help us or the United States will kill us both."[40] On August 30 and September 1, Young met with Native American delegations and "gave" them all of the livestock then on the northern and southern trails into California.[41] This was perhaps a means of bribing them for support against the United States and avoiding raids against Mormon settlements, as well as a chance to close the overland trails through Utah Territory. Indeed, Young believed that "Gentile" emigrants had already whipped the Indians into a frenzy through ill-treatment, and this may have been an attempt to mollify them in the face of an approaching army. He stated that "the Gentile emigrants shoot the indians wharever they meet with them & the Indians now retaliate & will kill innocent People."[42] Young publicly urged the emigrant wagon trains to keep away from the Territory in sermons on August 16, and again one month later. However, the Indians seemed hesitant to fight American troops, preferring to "raise grain" while the Mormons fought.[43] Whether or not Young's attempts to ally with the Native Americans led to the infamous Mountain Meadows massacre in southern Utah on September 11 is a question of fierce disagreement among commentators. Yet despite Young's efforts, some Native groups did in fact attack Mormon settlements during the course of the Utah War, including a raid on Fort Limhi on the Salmon River in Oregon Territory in February 1858 and attacks in Tooele County just west of Great Salt Lake City. Look up ute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ute Chief Walkara Chief Colorow Ignacio Ouray Walkara (aka Wakara or Walker) (ca. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1647 × 1102 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Indios Bannock, Idaho. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1647 × 1102 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Indios Bannock, Idaho. ... Bannock has more than one meaning: Bannock is a kind of bread, usually prepared by pan-frying. ... Painting of artists perception of the Nauvoo Legion. ... Painting of artists perception of the Nauvoo Legion. ... The Nauvoo Legion was a private militia employed by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Nauvoo (נאוו to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city located in Hancock County, Illinois. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. ... Chief Wakara (also Walkara or Walker) (ca. ... Seal of the Oregon Territory. ... Jacob Hamblin (April 6, 1819 – August 31, 1886) was a Western pioneer, Mormon missionary, and diplomat to various Native American Tribes of the Southwest and Great Basin. ... Paiute (sometimes written as Piute) refers to two related groups -- Northern Paiute and Southern Paiute--of Native North Americans speaking languages belonging to the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan family of Native American languages. ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... An Illustration of the Mountain Meadows massacre, from a seminal 1873 history of the Mormons by T.B.H. Stenhouse. ... The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the northwestern United States. ... Seal of the Oregon Territory. ... Tooele County is a county located in the state of Utah. ...


However, despite his tough rhetoric, it seems clear that Young hoped that he could keep "Johnston's Army" out of the Utah Territory without resorting to bloodshed. He counseled church members,

"I would like this people to have faith enough to turn away their enemies...If God will turn them withersoever he will so that they do not come here, I shall be perfectly satisfied. But another man steps up and says to the one that prays for our enemies to be turned away, 'brother, you are a coward, damn them let them come, for I want to fight them...' Do all such persons know they are not right?"[44]

In early August, Young activated the Nauvoo Legion. This was the Utah militia under the command of Daniel H. Wells, and consisted of essentially all able-bodied men between 15 and 60. Young ordered the Legion to The Nauvoo Legion was a private militia employed by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... D. H. Wells Daniel Hanmer Wells (October 27, 1814 – March 24, 1891) was an apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the third mayor of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, as well as a polygamist. ...

"... [ascertain] the locality or route of the troops [and] proceed at once to annoy them in every possible way. Use every exertion to stampede their animals, and set fire to their trains. Burn the whole country before them and on their flanks...Take no life, but destroy their trains, and stampede or drive away their animals, at every opportunity."[45]

Young hoped that these delaying actions would buy time for the Mormon settlements to prepare for either battle or evacuation, and hopefully create a window for negotiations with the Buchanan Administration. Thus, in mid-August, militia Colonel Robert T. Burton and a reconnaissance unit were sent east from Salt Lake City with orders to observe the American regiments traveling to the territory and protect Mormon emigrants traveling on the Mormon trail. Robert Taylor Burton (October 25, 1821—November 11, 1907) was a General Authority and a member of the Presiding Bishopric of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1874 until his death. ... The Mormon Trail or Mormon Pioneer Trail is the 1,300 mile route that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traveled from 1846-1857. ...


Captain Van Vliet

It was not until early September that Brigham Young received any communication from the federal government. On July 28, 1857, U.S. Army Captain Stewart Van Vliet, an assistant quartermaster, and a small escort were ordered to proceed directly from Kansas to Salt Lake City, ahead of the main body of troops. Van Vliet carried a letter to Young from General Harney and he was ordered to make arrangements for the citizens of Utah to accommodate and supply the troops once they arrived. However, Harney's letter stated only that the Military Department of Utah had been formed, that troops were on the way, and that they needed supplies. It did not mention that Young had been replaced as governor, nor did it detail what the mission of the troops would be once they arrived and these omissions sparked even greater distrust among the Saints.[46] On his journey, reports reached Van Vliet that his company might be in danger from Mormon raiders on the trail. The Captain therefore left his escort and proceeded alone.[47] Stewart Leonard Van Vliet (July 21, 1815 – March 28, 1901), was a U.S. Army officer who fought on the side of the Union during the American Civil War. ...

Army train and cattle crossing the plains to Utah Territory

Van Vliet arrived in Salt Lake City on September 8. Historian Harold Schindler states that his mission was to contact Governor Young and inform him of the expedition's mission: to escort the new appointees, to act as a posse comitatus and to establish at least two and perhaps three new U.S. Army camps in Utah.[48] However, Van Vliet's official instructions told him only to deliver General Harvey's letter, secure supplies, and find an acceptable spot for the army to encamp near Salt Lake City.[49] The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ...


Van Vliet's arrival in Salt Lake City was welcomed kindly by the Mormon leadership. In fact, Van Vliet had been previously known by the Latter-day Saints in Iowa, and they trusted and respected him. However, he found the residents of Utah determined to defend themselves. He interviewed leaders and townspeople and "...attended Sunday services, heard emotional speeches, and saw the Saints raise their hands in a unanimous resolution to guard against any 'invader.'" [50] Van Vliet found it impossible to persuade Mormon leaders that the Army had peaceful intentions, especially after the receipt of Harney's ambiguous letter. He quickly recognized that supplies or accommodations for the Army would not be forthcoming. But, Young told Van Vliet that the Mormons did not desire war, and "if we can keep the peace for this winter I do think there will be something turned up that may save the shedding of blood."[51] However, marking a change from earlier pronouncements, Young declared that under threat from an approaching army he would not allow the new governor and federal officers to enter Utah.[52] Nevertheless, Van Vliet told Young that he believed that the Mormons "have been lied about the worst of any people I ever saw."[53] He promised to stop the Utah Expedition on his own authority, and on September 14 he returned east through the Mormon fortifications then being built in Echo Canyon (see below).


Upon returning to the main body of the army, Van Vliet reported that the Latter-day Saints would not resort to actual hostilities, but would seek to delay the troops in every way possible. He also reported that they were ready to burn their homes and destroy their crops, and that the route through Echo Canyon would be a death trap for a large body of troops. Van Vliet continued on to Washington, D.C. in company with Dr. John M. Bernhisel, Utah Territory's delegate to Congress. There, Van Vliet reported on the situation in the west and became an advocate for the Latter-day Saints and the end of the Utah War.


Martial Law

As early as August 5, 1857 Young had decided to declare martial law throughout the Territory and a document was printed to that effect.[54] However, historians question the intent of this proclamation as it was never widely circulated, if at all, and while copies of the document exist, there is no mention of it in any contemporary sources.[55] One commentary opines that "during most of August the Mormon leaders had not precisely focused on a strategy for dealing with the approaching army; and after the first proclamation was struck off, they likely had second thoughts about a direct confrontation with the federal government. On August 29, Brigham Young instructed Daniel H. Wells to draft a second proclamation of martial law."[56] On September 15, the day after Van Vliet left Salt Lake City, Young publicly declared martial law in Utah with a document almost identical to that printed in early August. This second proclomation received wide circulation throughout the Territory and was delivered by messenger to Col. Alexander with the approaching army. The most important provision forbade "all armed forces of every description from coming into this Territory, under any pretense whatsoever."[57] It also commanded that "all the forces in said Territory hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice to repel any and all such invasion."[58] But more important to California and Oregon bound travelers was the third section which stated "Martial law is hereby declared to exist in this Territory...and no person shall be allowed to pass or repass into, through or from this territory without a permit from the proper officer."[59] For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


Contact

Echo Canyon
Echo Canyon

The Nauvoo Legion finally made contact with federal troops in late September just west of South Pass. The militia immediately began to burn grass along the trail and stampede the army's cattle. In early October, Legion members burned down Fort Bridger lest it fall into the hands of the army. A few days later, three large Army supply trains that were trailing the main army detachments were burned by Mormon cavalry led by Lot Smith. Associated horses and cattle were "liberated" from the supply trains and taken west by the militia.[60] Few shots were fired in these exchanges, and the Army's lack of cavalry left them more or less open to Mormon raids. However, prisoners were captured by both sides, and the army began to grow weary of the constant Mormon harassment throughout the autumn. At one point, Colonel Alexander mounted roughly 100 men on army mules to combat the Mormon militia. In the early morning of October 15, this "jackass cavalry" had a run-in with Lot Smith's command and fired over 30 bullets at the Mormons from 150 yards. No one was killed, but one Mormon took a bullet through his hatband, and one horse was grazed.[61] In addition, through October and November, between 1,200 and 2,000 militiamen were stationed in Echo Canyon and Weber Canyon. These two narrow passes lead into the Salt Lake Valley, and provided the easiest access to the populated areas of northern Utah. Dealing with a heavy snowfall and intense cold, the Mormon men built fortifications, dug rifle pits and dammed streams and rivers in preparation for a possible battle either that fall or the following spring. Several thousand more militiamen prepared their families for evacuation and underwent military training. Image File history File linksMetadata DSCN6109_pacificspringsandsouthpass_e_600. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DSCN6109_pacificspringsandsouthpass_e_600. ... South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. ... Image File history File links Echo_Canyon. ... Image File history File links Echo_Canyon. ... South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. ... Fort Bridger Fort Bridger was a 19th century fur trading outpost established in 1842 near present-day Evanston, Wyoming in the western United States. ... Lot Smith (May 15, 1830–June 21, 1892) is a character both of LDS/Mormon history and folklore. ...

U.S. troops move through mountain blizzards in October or November 1857.

Colonel Alexander, whom his troops called "old granny," was deterred from entering Utah through Echo Canyon by Van Vliet's report, news of the Mormon fortifications and a propaganda campaign by Brigham Young. But determined to fulfill his orders to enter the Territory, he decided to outflank the Mormon defenses and enter Utah from the north along the Bear River. However, Alexander's force was stopped by a heavy blizzard in late October. By the time Colonel Johnston took command of the combined U.S. forces in early November, he was hampered by a lack of supplies, animals, and the early onset of winter. Although Johnston was a more aggressive commander than Alexander, this predicament rendered him unable to immediately attack through Echo Canyon into Utah. Instead, he settled his troops into ill-equipped winter camps designated Camp Scott and Eckelsville, near the burned-out remains of Fort Bridger, now in the state of Wyoming. Johnston was soon joined by the 2nd Dragoons commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke which had accompanied Alfred Cumming, Utah's new governor, and a roster of other federal officials from Fort Leavenworth. However, they too were critically short of horses and supplies. On November 21, Cumming sent a proclamation to the citizens of Utah declaring them to be in rebellion, and soon after, a grand jury was formed at Camp Scott which indicted two Mormon prisoners, Brigham Young, and and over sixty other members of the Mormon hierarchy for treason. Johnston awaited resupply and reinforcement and prepared to attack the Mormon positions after the spring thaw. The Bear River is a river, approximately 350 mi (563 km) long in southwestern Wyoming, southeastern Idaho, and northern United States. ... Fort Bridger Fort Bridger was a 19th century fur trading outpost established in 1842 near present-day Evanston, Wyoming in the western United States. ... The 2d Cavalry Regiment (2d ACR) is a military unit within the United States Army. ... Lieutenant Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces which is currently used by the United States Army, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, and United States National Guard. ... Philip St. ... Alfred Cumming (1802 1873) was appointed governor of the Utah territory in 1858 replacing Brigham Young following the Utah War. ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


December 1857-March 1858: Winter Intermission

Thomas L. Kane in Civil War uniform.
Thomas L. Kane in Civil War uniform.

Thomas Leiper Kane (1822-1883) was an American attorney, abolitionist and military officer who was influential in the western migration of the Latter-day Saint movement and served as a Union colonel and general of volunteers in the American Civil War. ...

Thomas L. Kane

Fortunately, the lull in hostilities during the winter provided an opportunity for negotiations, and direct confrontation was avoided. As early as August 1857, Brigham Young had written to Thomas L. Kane of Pennsylvania asking for help. Kane was a man of some political prominence who had been helpful to the Mormons in their westward migration and later political controversies. In December, Kane contacted President Buchanan and offered to mediate between the Mormons and the federal government. In Buchanan's State of the Union address earlier in the month, he had taken a hard stand against the Mormon "rebellion," and had actually asked Congress to enlarge the size of the regular army to deal with the crisis. However, in his conversation with Kane, Buchanan worried that the Mormons might destroy Johnston's Army at severe political cost to himself, and stated that he would pardon the Latter-day Saints for their actions if they would submit to government authority. He therefore granted Kane unofficial permission to attempt mediation, although he held little hope for the success of negotiations.[62] Upon approval of his mission by the President, Kane immediately started for Utah. During the heavy winter of 1857-1858, he traveled under the alias "Dr. Osborne" over 3,000+ miles from the East coast to Utah, first by ship to Panama, crossing the isthmus via the newly constructed (1855) Panama Railway, and then taking a second ship to southern California. He then went overland through San Bernardino to Salt Lake City on the strenuous southern branch of the California Trail, arriving in February 1858. Thomas Leiper Kane (1822-1883) was an American attorney, abolitionist and military officer who was influential in the western migration of the Latter-day Saint movement and served as a Union colonel and general of volunteers in the American Civil War. ... Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ... The Panama Railway or Panama Railroad was the worlds first transcontinental railroad. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... San Bernardino is the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Main route of California Trail (thick red line), including Applegate-Lassen and Beckwourth variations (thinner red lines) The California Trail was a major overland emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th century. ...


Details of the negotiations between Kane and Young are unfortunately unclear. It seems that Kane successfully convinced Young to accept Buchanan's appointment of Cumming as Territorial governor, although Young had expressed his unwillingness to accept such terms at the beginning of the crisis. It is uncertain if Kane was able to convince Young at this time to allow the army into Utah. However, in early March Kane traveled to the Johnson's winter base at Fort Bridger. Although his relationship with Colonel Johnston was poor, he eventually persuaded Governor Cumming to travel to Salt Lake City without his military escort under guarantee of safe conduct. Cumming was courteously received by Young and the Utah citizenry in mid-April, and was shortly installed in his new office. Cumming thereafter became a moderate voice, and opposed the hard-line against the Mormons proposed by Colonel Johnston and other federal officials still at Camp Scott. Kane left Utah Territory for Washington, D.C. in May to report to President Buchanan on the results of his mission.


April-July 1858: Resolution

The Move South

Despite Thomas Kane's successful mission, tension continued throughout the spring and summer of 1858. Young was willing to support Cumming as governor, but he still feared persecution and violence if the army entered Utah. Indeed, as the snows melted, approximately 3,000 additional U.S. Army reinforcements set out on the westward trails to resupply and strengthen the Army's presence. In Utah, the Nauvoo Legion was bolstered as Mormon communities were asked to supply and equip an additional thousand volunteers to be placed in the over one hundred miles of mountains that separated Camp Scott and Great Salt Lake City. Nevertheless, by the end of the winter Young had decided to enforce his "Sevastopol Policy", a plan to evacuate the Territory and burn it to the ground rather than fight the army openly. Members of the Hudson's Bay Company and the British government feared that the Mormons planned to seek refuge on Vancouver Island off the coast of British Columbia.[63] David Bigler has shown that Young originally intended this evacuation to go northwards towards the Bitterroot Valley now in Montana. However, the Bannock and Shoshone raid against Fort Limhi in February 1858 blocked this northern retreat.[64] Consequently, at the end of March 1858, settlers in the northern counties of Utah including Salt Lake City boarded up their homes and farms and began to move south, leaving small groups of men and boys behind to burn the settlements if necessary. As early as February 1858, Young had sent parties to explore the White Mountains on what is now the Utah/Nevada border where, he erroneously believed, there were valleys that could comfortably harbor up to 100,000 individuals. Residents of Utah County just south of Salt Lake were asked to build and maintain roads and to help the incoming inhabitants of the northern communities. Mormon Elias Blackburn recorded in his journal, The roads are crowded with the Saints moving south. ...Very busy dealing out provisions to the public hands. I am feeding 100 men, all hard at work.[65] Even after Alfred Cumming was installed as governor in mid-April, the "Move South" continued unabated. The movement may have included the relocation of nearly 30,000 people between March and July. Historians Allen and Leonard write: Combatants Second French Empire, United Kingdom Russian Empire Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... State nickname: Treasure State Other U.S. States Capital Helena Largest city Billings Governor Brian Schweitzer Official languages English Area 381,156 km² (4th)  - Land 377,295 km²  - Water 3,862 km² (1%) Population (2000)  - Population 902,194 (44th)  - Density 2. ... The Bannock or Banate are a Native American people who traditionally lived in the northern Great Basin in what is now southeastern Oregon and Southern Idaho. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ...

"It was an extraordinary operation. As the Saints moved south they cached all the stone cut for the Salt Lake Temple and covered the foundations to make it resemble a plowed field. They boxed and carried with them twenty thousand bushels of tithing grain, as well as machinery, equipment, and all the Church records and books. The sight of thirty thousand people moving south was awesome, and the amazed Governor Cumming did all he could to persuade them to return to their homes. Brigham Young replied that if the troops were withdrawn from the territory, the people would stop moving...."[66]

The Salt Lake Temple is the largest (of more than 120) and best-known temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... A tithe (from Old English teogotha tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a religious organization. ...

Peace Commission

Senator Sam Houston of Texas strenuously oppossed the Utah Expedition.

In the meantime, President Buchanan had come under considerable pressure from Congress to end the crisis. In February 1858, Senator Sam Houston of Texas declared that a war against the Mormons would be Image File history File links Size of this preview: 461 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (568 × 739 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 461 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (568 × 739 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793–July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman, politician and soldier. ... Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793–July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman, politician and soldier. ...

" ... one of the most fearful calamities that has befallen this country, from its inception to the present moment. I deprecate it as an intolerable evil. I am satisfied that the Executive has not had the information he ought to have had on this subject before making such a movement as he has directed to be made."[67]

Therefore in April, the President sent an official peace commission to Utah consisting of Ben McCullock and Issac Powell which arrived in June. The commission offered a free pardon to the Mormons for any acts incident to the conflict if they would submit to government authority. This included permitting Johnston's Army into the Territory. The commissioners further assured that the government would not interfere with their religion. They also hinted that once the new governor was installed and the laws yielded to, "a necessity will no longer exist to retain any portion of the army in the Territory, except what may be required to keep the Indians in check and to secure the passage of emigrants to California."[68] While all these private assurances were inducements for the Latter-day Saints to bend to federal will, Buchanan maintained a tougher stance in his public statements.

"PROCLAMATION ON THE REBELLION IN UTAH"
..."Now, therefore I, James Buchanan, President of the United States of America, have thought proper to issue this, my Proclamation, enjoining upon all public officers in the Territory of Utah to be diligent and faithful, to the full extent of the power, in the execution of the laws; commanding all citizens of the United States in the said Territory to aid and assist the officers in the performance of their duties; offering the inhabitants of Utah, who shall submit to the laws, a free pardon for seditions and treasons heretofore by them committed; warning those who shall persist, after notice of this proclamation, in the present rebellion against the United States, that they must expect no further leniency, but look to be rigorously dealt with according to their desserts; and declaring that the military forces now in Utah, and hereafter to be sent there, will not be withdrawn until the inhabitants of that Territory shall manifest a proper sense of the duty which they owe to this government".
James Buchanan April 6, 1858.[69]

Brigham Young accepted Buchanan's terms and pardon, although he denied Utah had ever rebelled against the United States. Buchanan's proclamation was also unpopular among the Mormon rank and file. Arthur P. Welchman, a member of a company of missionaries that was recalled due to the war, wrote of the document:

Colonel Philip St. George Cooke had led the Mormon Battalion and had an abiding respect for the Latter-day Saints.
Colonel Philip St. George Cooke had led the Mormon Battalion and had an abiding respect for the Latter-day Saints.
June -- On the head-waters of the Sweet-Water, met Grosebecks' camp going to Platt Bridge for a train of goods. By these Brethren we had a proclamation from President Buchannan (sic) to the Inhabitants of Utah read to us. It was so full of lies, and showed so much meanness, that it elicited three groans from the company.

On June 19, a newly arrived reporter for the New York Herald somewhat inaccurately wrote, "Thus was peace made - thus was ended the 'Mormon war,' which...may be thus historisized: - Killed, none; wounded, none; fooled, everybody."[70] At the end of June 1858 the Army troops under General Johnston entered the Salt Lake Valley unhindered. Riding through the still empty streets of Salt Lake City on June 26, an embittered Johnston was heard to say that he would have given "his plantation for a chance to bombard the city for fifteen minutes."[71] Philip St. George Cooke, who had led the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican War, merely bared his head in respect. Image File history File links Philip_St. ... Image File history File links Philip_St. ... Philip St. ... The Mormon Battalion was the only religious unit in American military history serving from July 1846 to July 1847 during the Mexican-American War. ... The New York Herald was a large distribution newspaper based in New York City that existed between May 6, 1835 and 1924. ... Philip St. ... The Mormon Battalion was the only religious unit in American military history serving from July 1846 to July 1847 during the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


In early July, the Mormons from the northern settlements began to return to their homes after it was clear that no more reinforcements were being sent into Utah from either the east or west. Johnston's Army settled in Camp Floyd, then vacant land to the west of Utah Lake, nearly equidistant between the two largest cities in the vicinity, Provo and Salt Lake City. The Army and the Mormons continued in a fragile co-existence until the troops left in 1861 when called back east for service in the American Civil War. Camp Floyd was a short-lived U.S. Army post near Fairfield, Utah. ... Utah Lake and Utah Valley Utah Lake is Utahs , and it is one of the largest naturally occurring fresh-water lakes in the western United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Consequences

Although Eastern editors continued to condemn the Mormons' religious beliefs and practices, they praised their heroism in the face of military threat. By the time Governor Cumming was securely placed in office, the Utah War had become an embarrassment for President Buchanan. Called Buchanan's Blunder by elements of the national press,[72] the President was criticized for:

  • failing to officially notify Governor Young about his replacement,
  • incurring the expense of sending troops without investigating the reports on Utah's disloyalty to the United States,
  • dispatching the expedition late in the season, and
  • failing to provide an adequate resupply train for the winter.

However, the people of Utah lost much during the brief period of conflict. Largely due to the Move South, the settlers' livelihoods and economic well-being were seriously impacted for at least that year and perhaps longer. Field crops had been ignored for most of the two-month long planting season and livestock herds had been culled for the journey. A year's worth of work improving their living conditions had essentially been lost. Some poverty would be widespread in the territory for several years. A number of Mormon settlements in Idaho, Nevada and California would not be resettled for decades and some were permanently abandoned.


In addition, Utah was under nominal military occupation. Historian Leonard J. Arrington noted that "the cream of the United States Army" jeered and reviled the Utah settlers. Relations between the troops, their commanders and the Mormons were often tense. Fortunately, the near isolation of Camp Floyd kept interaction to a minimum, as troops stayed on or near their base. Settlers living near the 7,000 troops quartered in Cedar Valley did sell the troops lumber for building construction, farm produce and manufactured goods. When the army finally abandoned Camp Floyd in 1861 at the outbreak of the American Civil War, surplus goods worth an estimated four million dollars were auctioned off for a fraction of their value. However, in 1862, new troops arrived and built Fort Douglas in the foothills east of Salt Lake City. Leonard J. Arrington (July 2, 1917 - February 11, 1999) was born in Twin Falls, Idaho. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Fort Douglas is a fort in Salt Lake City, Utah, established in 1862 for the purpose of protecting the overland mail route and telegraph lines from attacks from hostile Indians. ...


One consequence of the Utah War was the creation of the famous Pony Express. During the war, Lot Smith and the Nauvoo Legion burned roughly fifty-two wagons belonging to outfitters Russell, Majors and Waddell. The government never reimbursed the outfitters for these losses, and in 1860 they formed the Pony Express to earn a government mail contract to keep them from falling into bankruptcy. Frank E. Webner, pony express rider c. ... Lot Smith (May 15, 1830–June 21, 1892) is a character both of LDS/Mormon history and folklore. ... Russell, Majors and Waddell was a partnership that operated the Pony Express and other shipping businesses. ...


In the aftermath of the Utah War, Republicans won control of the House of Representatives in 1858. But every significant bill that they passed fell before the votes of southern Democratic Senators or suffered a Presidential veto. The Federal Government remained stalemated and little could be done. By 1860 sectional strife split the Democratic Party into northern and southern wings, indirectly leading to the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Popular Sovereignty, the defense of which had been a major cause of the Utah Expedition, was finally repudiated when the resolution of the slavery question sparked the American Civil War. Yet with the start of the Civil War, Republican majorities were able to pass legislation meant to curb the Mormon practice of polygamy such as the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act of 1862. However, President Abraham Lincoln refused to enforce these laws, preferring to let the Mormons be. For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was signed into law on July 8, 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln. ...


In the end, the Utah War started a slow decline for Mormon isolation and power in Utah. The Latter-day Saints lost control of the executive branch and the federal district courts, but maintained political authority in the Territorial Legislature and the powerful probate courts. Yet, while Brigham Young maintained a "shadow government" for years, theodemocracy in Utah gradually died out. In 1869 the Transcontinental Railroad was completed, and soon large numbers of "Gentiles" arrived in Utah to stay. Despite this, complete federal dominance was slow in coming. Conflict between the Mormons and the federal government, particularly over the issue of polygamy, would continue for nearly 40 years before Utah was finally made a state in 1896, and perhaps was not fully resolved until the Smoot Hearings of 1904-1907. The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... Probate Court is a court found in some juridictions which is primarily concerned with the proper distribution of the assets of a decedent. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... A Transcontinental Railroad is a railway that crosses a continent typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... The Smoot Hearings or Smoot Case involved controversy surrounding the election of Reed Smoot to the United States Senate and whether he should be able to serve in the United States Senate as a Mormon religious leader. ...


Timeline of events

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Buchanan. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... Alfred Cumming (1802–1873) was appointed governor of the Utah territory in 1858 replacing Brigham Young following the Utah War. ...

See also

The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the U.S. state of Missouri. ... Missouri Executive Order 44[1] also known as The extermination order (alt. ... Nauvoo (נָאווּ to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew NÃ¥vu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States. ... A commemorative statue of mormon pioneers. ... In 1856-1858, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints underwent what is commonly called the Mormon Reformation. ... An Illustration of the Mountain Meadows massacre, from a seminal 1873 history of the Mormons by T.B.H. Stenhouse. ... Combatants Utah Territory Morrisites Commanders Joseph Morris Robert T. Burton Strength 200 - 500 Morrisite followers 1,000 members of the territorial militia Casualties Eight Morrisites (including at least four women) One militia member The Morrisite War was a skirmish between a religious group known as the Morrisites and the Utah... The Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was signed into law on July 8, 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln. ... The Poland Act (18 Stat. ... This page is about the 1878 U.S. Supreme Court case about polygamy and religious duty as a defense to criminal prosecution. ... The Edmunds Act, signed into law on March 23, 1882, declared polygamy a felony. ... The Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1887 touched all the issues at dispute between Congress and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Mormon Church v. ... The 1890 Manifesto, sometimes simply called The Manifesto, was a historical statement which officially renounced the practice of polygamy in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church; see also Mormon). Signed on by LDS President Wilford Woodruff in September of 1890, the Manifesto was a... The Smoot Hearings or Smoot Case involved controversy surrounding the election of Reed Smoot to the United States Senate and whether he should be able to serve in the United States Senate as a Mormon religious leader. ... Joseph F. Smith, author of the Second Manifesto The Second Manifesto was a 1904 declaration made by Joseph F. Smith, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in which Smith confirmed that the church was opposed to plural marriage and set down the principle that... The Short Creek raid is the name given to Arizona state police and U.S. National Guard action against Mormon fundamentalists that took place on the morning of July 26, 1953 at Short Creek, Arizona. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... List of conflicts in the United States is a timeline of events that includes wars, battles, skirmishes, major terrorist attacks, and other related items that have occurred in the United Statess current geographical area, including overseas territories. ...

Notes

  1. ^ William P. MacKinnon, Causes of the Utah War, Fort Douglas Vedette (2007).
  2. ^ Major Carleton USA report: "I saw several bones of what must have been very small children. Dr. Brewer says from what he saw he thinks some infants were butchered. The mothers doubtless had these in their arms, and the same shot or blow may have deprived both of life." http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mountainmeadows/carletonreport.html
  3. ^ For instance, Will Bagely makes the case that Mormon Prophet Brigham Young had direct complicity in the incident, while other historians such as Richard Turley conclude that the blame for the massacre actually resides with geographically remote and overzealous local leadership, and Young would have stopped the massacre if he could.
  4. ^ http://www.mormonhistoricsitesfoundation.org/publications/studies_fall2001/Mhs2.2Hartley.pdf
  5. ^ David L. Bigler, Fort Limhi: The Mormon Adventure in Oregon Territory, 1855-1858.
  6. ^ William P. MacKinnon, Loose in the Stacks: A Half Century with the Utah War and Its Legacy, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Vol. 40, No. 1, 43, 60.
  7. ^ Sarah Gordon, The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflict in Ninteenth Century America, 109 (2002).
  8. ^ Peter Crawley, The Constitution of the State of Deseret, 29 (4) BYU Studies 7 (1989).
  9. ^ Encyclopedia of Mormonism, p.1095
  10. ^ GOP Convention of 1856 in Philadelphia from the Independence Hall Association website
  11. ^ The Fayetteville Observer, 7/2/1857.
  12. ^ Norman F. Furniss, The Mormon Conflict: 1850-1859, 74-75.
  13. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 98: 5-6
    5 And that law of the land which is constitutional, supporting that principle of freedom in maintaining rights and privileges, belongs to all mankind, and is justifiable before me.
    6 Therefore, I, the Lord, justify you, and your brethren of my church, in befriending that law which is the constitutional law of the land;
  14. ^ Journal of Discourses 2:172.
  15. ^ Journal of Discourses 2:175.
  16. ^ Sarah Gordon, The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflicts in Ninteenth Century America, 6 (2002).
  17. ^ The Danites were a paramilitary organization created by some Latter-day Saints in Missouri in 1838. Most scholars believe that following the end of the Mormon War in the winter of 1838, the unit was disbanded. However, "Danites" continued to be associated with any kind of Mormon militarism from that time forward in the popular imagination. Modern arguments among scholars center not so much on whether the Danite organization continued to exist in Utah, but rather question the actual levels of violence in Utah Territory and if or to what degree the LDS Church was involved in any violence which did exist. For this question there is a wide difference of opinion. Will Bagely believes that Mormon teachings and culture were inherently violent, while Thomas Alexander and others conclude that Utah Territory was in fact far less violent than other contemporaneous societies, and that the violent imagery in some Mormon sermons was rhetorical in nature and not necessarily out of line for the time and place.
  18. ^ Norman F. Furniss, The Mormon Conflict: 1850-1859, 70-71.
  19. ^ For instance, from 1853-1855, the territorial supreme court was composed of two "gentiles" and one Mormon. However, both of these non-Mormons were well respected in the Latter-day Saint community, and were genuinely mourned upon their deaths. Norman F. Furniss, The Utah Conflict: 1850-59.
  20. ^ See generally, Norman F. Furniss, The Mormon Conflict: 1850-1859.
  21. ^ Allen and Leonard, pp. 298-299
  22. ^ Allen and Leonard, p. 298
  23. ^ MacKinnon 2007
  24. ^ NORMAN F. FURNISS, THE MORMON CONFLICT: 1850-1859 at 29.
  25. ^ Buchanan 1858 Utah Expedition p.114-124
  26. ^ Buchanan 1858 Utah Expedition p.124-211
  27. ^ Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 5:68.
  28. ^ Brigham Young, Diary of Brigham Young 1857, 49.
  29. ^ Schindler 1995
  30. ^ Journal of Discourses 2:183
  31. ^ Leonard J. Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses, 268.
  32. ^ Wilford Woodruff, Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 61.
  33. ^ Deseret News, 9/23/1857
  34. ^ Journal of Wilford Woodruff, 5:72
  35. ^ WILFORD WOODRUFF, JOURNAL OF WILFORD WOODRUFF 5: 72.
  36. ^ Leonard Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses, 217
  37. ^ David Bigler, Fort Limhi: The Mormon Adventure in Oregon Territory, 1855-1858, 147.
  38. ^ http://www.mormonhistoricsitesfoundation.org/publications/studies_fall2001/Mhs2.2Hartley.pdf
  39. ^ Hamblin, Jacob. Jacob Hamblin: A Narrative of His Personal Experience, 41 (1881).
  40. ^ Norman F. Furniss. The Utah Conflict: 1850-1859, 163 (Yale 1960).
  41. ^ Dinnick Huntington Diary, Aug 30 and Sept 1, 1857 at http://www.mtn-meadows-assoc.com/DepoJournals/Dimick/Dimick-2.htm
  42. ^ WILFORD WOODRUFF, JOURNAL OF WILFORD WOODRUFF 5: 84
  43. ^ Dinnick Huntington Diary, Aug 30 and Sept 1, 1857 at http://www.mtn-meadows-assoc.com/DepoJournals/Dimick/Dimick-2.htm
  44. ^ Deseret News 9/23/1857.
  45. ^ Leonard J. Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses, 255.
  46. ^ Leroy R. Hafen & Ann W. Hafen (eds.), Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858, 39-40.
  47. ^ The Stewart Van Vliet Papers
  48. ^ Schindler 1995
  49. ^ Instructions to Captain Van Vliet, Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858, 37
  50. ^ Allen and Leonard, p. 301
  51. ^ Leroy R. Hafen & Ann W. Hafen (eds.), Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858, 47.
  52. ^ Wilford Woodruff, Journal of Wilford Woodruff, 5:96.
  53. ^ Wilford Woodruff, Journal of Wilford Woodruff, 5:93.
  54. ^ Religious Education Archive: 19th Century Mormon Publications : Compound Object Viewer
  55. ^ Everett Cooley (ed.), Diary of Brigham Young, 80 n. 80.
  56. ^ Mormon Publications: 19th Century - Proclamation by the governor
  57. ^ Proclomation of Governor Young, Leroy R. Hafen & Ann W. Hafen (eds.), Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858, 65.
  58. ^ Proclomation of Governor Young, Leroy R. Hafen & Ann W. Hafen (eds.), Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858, 65.
  59. ^ Proclomation of Governor Young, Leroy R. Hafen & Ann W. Hafen (eds.), Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858, 65.
  60. ^ Allen and Leonard, pp. 300-301
  61. ^ D.G. Littleford, Utah War: U.S. Government Versus Mormons Settlers, 8.
  62. ^ Richard D. Poll, Quixotic Mediator: Thomas L. Kane and the Utah War at 12, 13
  63. ^ Richard Bennett, The Lion and the Emperor: The Mormons, the Hudson's Bay Company, and Vancouvar Island, 1846-1858, BC Studies, no. 128 Winter 2000/01
  64. ^ David L. Bigler, Fort Limhi: The Mormon Adventure in Oregon Territory, 1855-1858.
  65. ^ Walker and Dant, p. 102.
  66. ^ Allen/Leonard p. 308
  67. ^ Mormon Resistance at 258
  68. ^ Mormon Resistance, 331.
  69. ^ Buchanan 1858 pp.202-206
  70. ^ William P. McKinnon, Causes of the Utah War, Fort Douglas Vedette (2007).
  71. ^ DONALD L. MOORMAN & GENE A. SESSIONS, CAMP FLOYD AND THE MORMONS: THE UTAH WAR at 49
  72. ^ Poll, Richard D., and Ralph W. Hansen. ""Buchanan's Blunder" The Utah War, 1857-1858." Military Affairs (Lexington, VA) 25, 3 (1961): 121-131.
  73. ^ Furniss, Norman F., The Mormon Conflict, 1850-1859, p. 63.

The Danites were a Latter Day Saint vigilante group organized in the late 1830s. ... The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the U.S. state of Missouri. ...

References

  • Allen, James B. and Leonard, Glen M. The Story of the Latter-day Saints. Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, UT, 1976. ISBN 0-87747-594-6.
  • Arrington, Leonard J. Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the Latter-day Saints, 1830-1900; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958, reprinted by University of Illinois Press, October 2004. ISBN 0-252-02972-0.
  • Buchanan, James (December 19, 1857), "Nomination of Alfred Cumming as Governor of the Territory of Utah", in McCook, Anson G., Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America, vol. 10, Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1887, pp. 275, <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llej&fileName=010/llej010.db&recNum=276&itemLink=D?hlaw:2:./temp/~ammem_dTvI::%230100277&linkText=1>.
  • Buchanan, James (April 6, 1858), Proclamation on the Rebellion in Utah, vol. X, <http://deila.dickinson.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=%2Fbuchan&CISOPTR=9149&REC=20&CISOBOX=utah>
  • Buchanan, James (1858), The Utah expedition. Message from the President of the United States, transmitting reports from the secretaries of state, of war, of the interior, and of the attorney general, relative to the military expedition ordered into the territory of Utah. February 26, 1858.--Referred to the Committee on territories, <http://www.archive.org/details/utahexpeditionme00unitrich>
  • Fleek, Sherman L. "The Church and the Utah War, 1857-1858," Robert Freeman, ed., Nineteenth Century Saints at War, Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2006.
  • Kimball, Heber C. (July 26, 1857), "Oneness of the Priesthood—Impossibility of Obliterating Mormonism—Gospel Ordinances—Depopulation of the Human Species—The Coming Famine, etc.", in Calkin, Asa, Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, vol. 4, Liverpool: Asa Calkin, 1858, pp. 86–95.
  • Poll, Richard D., and Ralph W. Hansen. ""Buchanan's Blunder" The Utah War, 1857-1858." Military Affairs (Lexington, VA) 25, 3 (1961): 121-131.
  • Poll & MacKinnon, William P. (1994), "Causes of the Utah War Reconsidered", Journal of Mormon History 20 (2): 16–44, <http://content.lib.utah.edu/u?/jmh,14076>.
  • MacKinnon, William P. (2007), "Loose in the Stacks: A Half-Century with the Utah War and Its Legacy", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 40 (1): 43–81, <http://www.dialoguejournal.com/excerpts/4001.pdf>.
  • Schindler (1995), Utah War Broke Hold Mormons Had on Utah, <http://historytogo.utah.gov/salt_lake_tribune/centennial_celebration/072395.html>.
  • Walker, Ronald W. and Doris R. Dant, editors, "Nearly Everything Imaginable: the Everyday Life of Utah's Mormon Pioneers." BYU Studies, Provo, Utah 1999.
  • Young, Brigham (July 5, 1857a), "True Happiness—Fruits of Not Following Counsel—Popular Prejudice Against the Mormons—The Coming Army—Punishment of Evildoers", in Calkin, Asa, Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, vol. 4, Liverpool: Asa Calkin, 1858, pp. 1–6.
  • Young, Brigham (August 2, 1857b), "Joseph Smith's Family—Bashfulness in Public Speaking—The Coming Crisis—Counsel", in Calkin, Asa, Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, vol. 4, Liverpool: Asa Calkin, 1858, pp. 96–101.
  • Young, Brigham (August 5, 1857c), Proclamation by the Governor, Salt Lake City: Utah Territory, <http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/NCMP1847-1877&CISOPTR=2905>.
  • Journal of Arthur Welchman, LDS Missionary

For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The logotype of the United States Government Printing Office In the United States, the Government Printing Office (GPO) prints and provides access to documents produced by and for all three branches of the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, and all executive branch agencies like the FCC and... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... Heber C. Kimball Heber Chase Kimball (June 14, 1801 – June 22, 1868) (commonly known as Heber C. Kimball) was a leader in the early Latter Day Saint movement. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

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The Deseret Morning News LDS Church Almanac gives the following information on historical membership records of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1065x800, 99 KB) Summary Christus statue on Temple Square, Salt Lake City, Utah Taken by Ricardo630 in August 2005 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... Mormonism, depending on era and denomination within the Latter Day Saint movement, has accommodated a diverse range of views of the concept of the Christian Godhead including forms of modalism, binitarianism, tritheism, henotheism, and trinitarianism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Great Apostasy is... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the Restoration was a period in its early history during which a number of events occurred that were understood to be necessary to restore the early Christian church as demonstrated in the New Testament, and to prepare the earth for the Second Coming of... Latter Day Saints teach that the Latter Day Saint movement began with a Revelation from God (see History of the Latter Day Saint movement). ... It has been suggested that Unrighteous dominion be merged into this article or section. ... 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Family Home Evening (FHE) or Family Night, in the context of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, refers to one evening per week, usually Monday, that families are encouraged to spend together in study, prayer and other wholesome activities. ... Latter Day Saints teach that Perfection is a continual process requiring the application of Faith, Works, and Grace in compliance with the admonition of Jesus Christ to: Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect. ... The King Follett Discourse is an address delivered by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... From the end of the nineteenth century until 1978, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints did not allow black men to be ordained to the priesthood or to enter its temples to perform ceremonies such as the Endowment or sealing that the church believes are necessary for... Main article: Sexuality and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, homosexuality is officially seen as a set of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and not an immutable condition or an indication of an innate identity (Oaks 1995). ... The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that members must obey what it calls the law of chastity, which is a code of morality and modesty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1672x2204, 566 KB) Summary photo by user Ricardo630 The Book of Mormon English Missionary Edition Soft Cover The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Book of Mormon Metadata This... The Standard Works of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) consists of several books that constitute its open, scriptural canon, and include the following: The Holy Bible (King James version)* The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ The Doctrine and Covenants The Pearl... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... The Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, also called the Inspired Version of the Bible or the JST, is a version of the Bible dictated by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... // The Book of Mormon [1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... An 1893 engraving of Joseph Smith receiving the Golden Plates and the Urim and Thummim from the angel Moroni. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... The Pearl of Great Price is part of the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church; see also Mormonism) and some other Latter Day Saint denominations. ... The Book of Moses is a text published by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other meanings of this name, see Book of Abraham (disambiguation). ... In Mormonism, the Articles of Faith are a creed composed by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Family: A Proclamation to the World is a statement issued by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in 1995, which defined the churchs official position on gender roles, human sexuality, and the family. ... In Mormonism, worship services include weekly services, held on Sundays (or Saturday when local custom or law prohibits Sunday worship), in neighborhood based religious units. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 793 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From English Wikipedia, en:Image:PSP 028. ... The Salt Lake Temple, operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is the best-known Mormon temple. ... The LDS Conference Center in Salt Lake City In Mormonism, a general conference is a meeting meant for instruction of all members of the Latter Day Saint faith. ... The Culture of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has sprung up around the basic beliefs and traditions of the Church. ... The Young Men (often referred to incorrectly as Young Mens) is a youth organization and an official auxiliary of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... The Young Women (often referred to incorrectly as Young Womens or Young Womans) is a youth organization and an official auxiliary of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Institutes of Religion are organizations, usually situated near colleges or universities, which offer classes on the doctrine and scriptures of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). ... A pair of sister missionaries at the Oakland Temple Visitors Center The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is one of the most active modern practitioners of missionary work, with over 50,000 full-time missionaries worldwide. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LDS_church_office_building. ... The Church of Christ was the original church organization founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. ... Thomas S. Monson Thomas Spencer Monson (born August 21, 1927) holds two of the most senior positions in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Thomas S. Monson, Gordon B. Hinckley, and James E. Faust, the recent members of the First Presidency of the LDS Church. ... The current Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the LDS Church. ... The Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a priesthood calling with church-wide authority. ... Seventy is a priesthood office in the Melchizedek Priesthood of several denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1940x1908, 2854 KB) Summary LDS Church Administration Building (LDS Church Office Building in background) Salt Lake City, Utah, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by Ricardo630 Ricardo630 06:21, 21 April 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Since the... This 15-barreled silo at Welfare Square contains enough wheat to feed a small city for 6 months. ... The Church Educational System (CES) of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints consists of several institutions that provide religious and secular education for Latter-day Saint elementary, secondary, and post-secondary students and adult learners. ... The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) is an informal collaboration of academics devoted to Mormon historical scholarship. ... Much of the worldwide statistics have not been imputed yet. ...

 
 

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