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The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. They pursued nazi/fascist policies and were subsequently expelled by the communist Yugoslav partisans and the Red Army in 1945. The term far-right refers to the relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) was a Nazi/Fascist puppet state in World War II. It was set up in April 1941 on parts of the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after its occupation. ... The Axis Powers is a term for those participants in World War II opposed to the Allies. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi Party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... The Yugoslav partisans were the main anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of Yugoslavia by Axis forces during World War II. The uniting force of the anti-fascist partisans on the territory was Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan detachments of Yugoslavia (NOV i POJ; Narodnooslobodilačka vojska... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

The Ustashe flag of Croatia, 1941-1945

At the time of their founding in 1929, the Ustaše were nationalist political organisations that committed terrorist acts. When they came to power in WWII, they also had military formations (Ustasha Army/Ustaška Vojnica) that later numbered some 76,000 strong at their peak in 1944. Flag of Ustaše controlled Croatia during World War II, from FOTW File links The following pages link to this file: Ustase User:DONeil/Images Uploaded/Heraldry Categories: Flag images ... Flag of Ustaše controlled Croatia during World War II, from FOTW File links The following pages link to this file: Ustase User:DONeil/Images Uploaded/Heraldry Categories: Flag images ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... Terrorism is a controversial and subjective term with multiple definitions. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents

History

In October 1928, after the assassination of Stjepan Radić, a radical youth group named Hrvatski Domobran started publishing an eponymous newspaper dedicated to the Croatian national matters. Various members of the Croatian Party of Rights contributed to the writing, until around Christmas 1928 when the newspaper was banned by the authorities of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In January 1929, the King banned all national parties, and radical wing of the Party of Rights was exiled, among them Ante Pavelić, Gustav Perčec, Branimir Jelić. This group was later joined by several other Croatian exiles. 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Stjepan Radić (May 11, 1871 – August 8, 1928) was a Croatian politician and the founder of the Croatian Peasant Party (CPP, Hrvatska Seljačka Stranka) in 1905. ... The Croatian Party of Rights (Croatian Hrvatska Stranka Prava, HSP) is a right-wing political party in Croatia, the oldest in the country. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 - December 28, 1959) was the leader and founding member of the Croatian Ustasha fascist movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia. ...


On April 20, 1929, Pavelić and others co-signed a declaration in Sofia together with the members of the Macedonian National Committee, asserting that they would pursue "their legal activities for the establishment of human and national rights, political freedom and complete independence of both Croatia and Macedonia". Because of this, the Court for the Preservation of the State in Belgrade sentence Pavelić and Perčec to death on July 17, 1929. The city of Sofia (Bulgarian: София), at the foot of the Vitosha mountain, has a population of 1,208,930 (2003), and is the biggest city and capital of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... Belgrade (Serbian, Београд, Beograd  listen), is the capital (2003–) of Serbia and Montenegro and Yugoslavia (1918–2003). ...


The exiles never returned to Yugoslavia, and instead started organizing support for their cause among the Croatian diaspora in Europe, South America and North America. They attained support mostly in Belgium, Argentina, and Pennsylvania. In January 1932, they named their revolutionary organization "Ustaša". In 1932 some Ustaša members led by Andrija Artuković also attempted to stage an uprising in the Lika/Velebit area, but failed, and retreated for northern Italy where they formed a training camp near Brescia. State nickname: The QUENESE PERSON STATE Other U.S. States Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell Official languages None Area 119,283 km² (33rd)  - Land 116,074 km²  - Water 3,208 km² (2. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Andrija Artuković (November 29, 1899 - January 16, 1988), was a Croatian right-wing politician and a person convicted of war crimes and genocide committed against minorities in the WWII Independent State of Croatia (NDH). ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast. ... Velebit is the largest though not the highest mountain in Croatia. ... For the Italian administrative area, see Province of Brescia Brescia is a city in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy with a population of around 200,000. ...


The origin of their name is in the noun "ustaš" which means "insurgent". Their name didn't have fascist connotations during their early years in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia as it was used throughout Hercegovina to denote (Serb Orthodox) insurgents from the 1875 Hercegovinian rebellion. Later, the name would acquire its pejorative connotation, particularly among the Hercegovinian Serbs who would be hardest hit by the atrocities. An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Herzegovinian Rebellion is a name used for the most infamous of the rebellions against the Ottoman Empire in Herzegovina that took place in 1875. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Perčec was later assassinated by Pavelić in 1933. Due to their previous links with the Macedonian nationalists, the Ustaše were accused in conspiring to murder the Yugoslav king Alexander in 1934, and Eugen Kvaternik was charged with planning the successful assassination committed by members of the IMRO. 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Aleksandar I Karađorđević King Alexander I of Yugoslavia - Serbian Kralj Aleksandar I Karađorđević, in Cyrillic Краљ Александар I Карађорђевић (Cetinje, Montenegro, 16 December 1888 - France, 9 October 1934) of the Royal House of Karadjordjevic was the first king of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929-1934) and before that king of... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, in Bulgarian: Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyucionna Organizaciya, Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация, VMRO), commonly known in English as IMRO, was the name of a revolutionary political organization in the Macedonia region of the Ottoman Empire, and later...


Soon after the assassination, all organizations related to the Ustaše as well as the Hrvatski Domobran, which continued as a civil organization, were banned throughout Europe. Pavelić and Kvaternik were detained in Italy between October 1934 until the end of March 1936. After March 1937, when Italy and Yugoslavia signed a pact of friendship, most of the Ustaše members were extradited to Yugoslavia. 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


However, this did not destroy their organization, it only made them gain more sympathy among the Croatian youth, esp. among the university students. In February 1939, two of these returnees, Mile Budak and Ivan Oršanić, became editors of the newly published magazine Hrvatski narod ("The Croatian people"), which supported the Ustaša ideas of Croatian independence. 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

The Axis invaded Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941. Vladko Maček, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) which was the most influential party in Croatia at the time, rejected offers by the Nazi Germany to lead the new government. Ustaše took the opportunity and with the help of the foreign armies installed their regime on April 14th 1941. A group of several hundred of them infiltrated from Italy, their commander Slavko Kvaternik took control of the police in Zagreb and proclaimed the formation of the "Independent State of Croatia" (Croatian Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, acronym "NDH"). The name of the rogue state was an obvious and successful attempt at capitalizing on the Croat people's desire for independence, which had been unfulfilled since 1102. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 - December 28, 1959) was the leader and founding member of the Croatian Ustasha fascist movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia. ... The Axis Powers is a term for those participants in World War II opposed to the Allies. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Croatian Peasant Party (Croatian: Hrvatska seljačka stranka, HSS) was formed in 1905 by Stjepan Radić, a leading Croatian politician. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) was a Nazi/Fascist puppet state in World War II. It was set up in April 1941 on parts of the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after its occupation. ... Events Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. ...


Vladko Maček called on people to obey and cooperate with the new government the same day. Ante Pavelić arrived on April 20th to become the head of government, poglavnik (führer), of the state that would soon encompass most of today's Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and parts of Serbia (Srem and Sandžak regions). Because the Ustaše did not have a capable army or administration necessary to control the territory, the Germans and the Italians split up the NDH into two zones of influence, one in the southwest controlled by the Italians and the other in the northeast controlled by the Germans. April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... Führer (often written Fuehrer or Fuhrer in English when umlauts are not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (officially Bosna i Hercegovina/Босна и Херцеговина, shortened to BiH, also in English variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  – Total  – % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  – Density  7. ... Srem in Serbian or Srijem in Croatian (from Latin: Sirmium) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... This page is about a region in Serbia and Montenegro; for districts of the Ottoman Empire, see Sanjak. ...


The atrocities against non-Croats started on April 27, 1941 when a newly formed unit of Ustaša army massacred the largely Serbian thorp of Gudovac (near Bjelovar). April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Bjelovar is a city in Croatia, the center of the Bjelovar-Bilogora county, population 41,869 (2001). ...


Eventually all who opposed and/or threatened the Ustaše were outlawed. The HSS was banned on June 11, 1941 in an attempt of the Ustaše to take their place as the primary representative of the Croatian peasantry. Vladko Maček was sent to Jasenovac concentration camp, but later released to serve a house arrest sentence due to his popularity among the people. Maček was later again called upon by the foreigners to take a stand and counteract the Pavelić government, but refused. June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... Jasenovac gate Jasenovac was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during the World War II, and possibly the third largest in the world at the time. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her house, possibly with travel allowed but restricted. ...


Pavelić first met with Adolf Hitler on June 6, 1941. Mile Budak, then minister in Pavelić's government, publicly proclaimed the violent racial policy of the state on July 22, 1941. Vjekoslav "Maks" Luburić, one of the chiefs of secret police organizations, started building concentration camps in the summer of the same year. Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Vjekoslav Maks Luburić (1914-1969) was a member of the Croatian World War II regime the Ustaše, best known as the commander of the Jasenovac concentration camp. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


As early as June, 1941, rebels started to organize in response to Ustaša atrocities. There were two factions among them: the Partisans, who were guerillas composed of all nations with a common cause to fight the fascists and were mostly led by communists, and Chetniks who were Serb royalist rebels that opposed the Ustašas. 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Yugoslav partisans were the main anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of Yugoslavia by Axis forces during World War II. The uniting force of the anti-fascist partisans on the territory was Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan detachments of Yugoslavia (NOV i POJ; Narodnooslobodilačka vojska... Chetniks (Serbian Četnici, Четници) were an organization of Serbian Fascists who supported the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed a very limited resistance force during World War II. They are responsible for numerous massacres of primarily Muslims, Croats, Jews, and Gypsies during WW2 in the part of the Balkan Peninsula one...


The first Partisan armed unit was formed on June 22nd in Brezovica near Sisak, and the Partisans first engaged in combat on June 27th in Srb in Lika. The first Chetnik armed unit in Croatia was formed on June 28 (also St. Vitus' Day, an Eastern Orthodox holiday). June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Sisak is a city in central Croatia at the confluence of the Kupa and Sava rivers, 57 km southeast of Croatian capital Zagreb with an elevation of 99 m. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast. ... (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... Vitus is a Latin given name meaning lively. ...

The Ustaša gangs ravaged villages across the Dinaric Alps to the extent that the Italians and the Germans started expressing their horror. By 1942, general Edmund Glaise von Horstenau had written several reports to his Wehrmacht commanders in which he expressed his dismay at the extent of the Ustaša atrocities, which actually preceded the Final Solution. These were corroborated by those of field marshal Wilhelm List. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dinaric Alps or Dinarides are a mountain chain in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Wehrmacht was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... The Final Solution of the Jewish Question (German Endlösung der Judenfrage) refers to the German Nazis plan to address the Jewish problem through systematic relocation and later extermination through genocide during World War II. The term was coined by Adolf Eichmann, a top Nazi official who supervised the genocidal campaign. ... Wilhelm List (Siegmund Wilhelm von List) (May 14, 1880 - August 17, 1971), was a German Field Marshal during World War II. During 1939 he was General Officer Commanding the German 14th Army in Poland. ...


The Italians also became disinclined to cooperate with the Ustaše and would soon come to cooperate with the Chetniks in the southern areas that they controlled. Although Hitler insisted that Mussolini should have his forces work with the Ustaše, the Italian general Mario Roatta, among others in the field, ignored those orders.


The regular army of the NDH, the Home Guard (Domobrani), was composed of enlisted men who were barely combat-ready and did not participate in the atrocities. The members of the Ustaša party were part of the paramilitary units that committed the crimes. Pavelić had claimed that over 30,000 people had joined the party during this time, although the more neutral reports concluded that their number was less than half of that. A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ...


The Home Guard served more as a supply depot for the resistance movement: many units would surrender or defect so that the Partisans and the Chetniks would obtain weaponry and other supplies. The Chetniks under the command of pop Momčilo Đujić grew in power and regularly retaliated against the Ustaše detachments in Bosnia. The Partizans under Josip Broz Tito also made many inroads and had started to control sizeable patches of superficially NDH territory by 1943. Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... Josip Broz Tito  listen (May 7, 1892 – May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


In 1943, the Germans suffered major losses on the Eastern Front and the Italians started massively defecting, leaving behind even more armament the rebels used against the Ustaše. The Partizans soon became the main rebel force in all of Yugoslavia, having started accepting both Domobran and Četnik defects, and getting help from the western Allies in the form of airdrops. The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ...


The power of the Chetniks eventually faded due to two things: their retaliations against the Ustaša had transformed into massacres of their own (such as that in Foča against Bosnian Muslims), and the fact that they lost support from the Allies. One large group of Chetniks was led by Đujić to Italy, and another group led by Draža Mihailović moved to Serbia, only to be caught and executed by the partizans. Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci) are South Slavs descended from those who converted to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century). ... Dragoljub Drazha Mihailovich (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, also Čiča, Draža Mihailović), (April 26, 1893–July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general who became a war hero in World War I and who later led the Chetniks during World War II. U.S. president Harry S. Truman posthumously awarded him the Legion...


Eventually the Red Army and partisans liberated Yugoslavia and the Ustaše were utterly defeated as well. They continued fighting even a bit after the German surrender on May 9th, 1945, but were soon overpowered. A large column of Ustaša and some Domobran soldiers, as well as many civilians, tried to flee for Austria and Italy later in the same month, but was handed over back to the partizans on the Austrian border and subsequently either executed or sent at a "death march" back into the country, the so-called Bleiburg massacre. Pavelić managed to escape, hid in Austria and Rome for a while with the help of his associates among the Franciscans, and then fled to Argentina. Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Bleiburg massacre was a massacre that happened near the end of World War II, during May 1945, near the village of Bleiburg on the Austrian- Slovenian border. ...


After World War II, the remaining Ustaše went underground or fled to foreign countries. Some of them persisted in their crusade against Yugoslavia: Ustaše were implicated in over two dozen terrorist acts following the post-war period. They were generally unsuccessful due to lack of domestic support and actions of the Yugoslav intelligence agencies (i.e. UDBA/KOS), whose agents, notably, shot Ante Pavelić in Buenos Aires, inflicting injuries that would later prove to be fatal. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... UDBA or Unutrašnja Državna Bezbednost (State Security Directorate) was the secret police organization of the former Yugoslavia, during the communist regime. ... Buenos Aires (Good Air in Spanish, originally meaning Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest cities in South America. ...


Victims

The Ustaše tried to exterminate Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, and basically all others that opposed them, including some Communist Croats. Once they came to power during World War II, they founded several concentration camps, the most notorious of which was the Jasenovac complex. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Jasenovac gate Jasenovac was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during the World War II, and possibly the third largest in the world at the time. ...


Exact numbers of victims are not known, only estimates exist, however it is certain that hundreds of thousands of innocent people were rounded up and killed in concentration camps and outside of them. The number of murdered Jews is fairly reliable: around 32,000 Jews were killed during WWII on NDH territory. Yugoslav Roma (Gypsies) numbered around 40,000 less after the war. The numbers of murdered Serbs are much larger, but also tend to vary a lot.


The history textbooks in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had included 700,000 as the number of victims of Ustaše at Jasenovac. This was promulgated from a 1946 calculation of the demographic loss of population (the difference between the actual number of people after the war and the number that would have been, had the pre-war growth trend continued). After that, it was used by Edvard Kardelj and Moše Pijade in the Yugoslav war reparations claim sent to Germany. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Edvard Kardelj - Sperans (January 27, 1910 - February 10, 1979) was a Slovene prewar communist, politician, statesman and publicist. ... Moše Pijade (1890-1957) was a prominent Yugoslav Communist of Serbian Jewish origin, and a close collaborator of Josip Broz Tito, former President of Yugoslavia. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ...


According to the Simon Wiesenthal Center (based on Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, by Israel Gutman): Simon Wiesenthal Center - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

"Ustasa terrorists killed 500,000 Serbs, expelled 250,000 and forced 250,000 to convert to Catholicism. They murdered thousands of Jews and Gypsies." [1] (http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/pages/t081/t08100.html)

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum says: The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington, DC, dedicated to documenting, studying, and interpreting the history of the Holocaust. ...

"Due to differing views and lack of documentation, estimates for the number of Serbian victims in Croatia range widely, from 25,000 to more than one million. The estimated number of Serbs killed in Jasenovac ranges from 25,000 to 700,000. The most reliable figures place the number of Serbs killed by the Ustaša between 330,000 and 390,000, with 45,000 to 52,000 Serbs murdered in Jasenovac." [2] (http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/Holocaust/Jasenovac.html)

The Jasenovac Memorial Area, currently headed by Slavko Goldstein, keeps a list of 59,188 names of Jasenovac victims that was gathered by government officials in Belgrade in 1964. Because the gathering process was imperfect, they estimated that the list contains between 60 and 75 percent of the total victims, putting the number of killed in that complex at about 80,000 - 100,000. The previous head of the Memorial Area Simo Brdar estimated at least 365,000 dead at Jasenovac. Jasenovac gate Jasenovac was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during the World War II, and possibly the third largest in the world at the time. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The analyses of the statisticians Vladimir Žerjavić and Bogoljub Kočović were similar to those of the Memorial Area. In all of Yugoslavia, the estimated number of Serb deaths was 487,000 according to Kočović, and 530,000 according to Žerjavić, out of a total of 1,014,000 or 1,027,000 deaths (resp.). Žerjavić further stated that there were 197,000 Serb civilians killed in NDH (78,000 as prisoners in Jasenovac and elsewhere) as well as 125,000 Serb combatants. Vladimir Žerjavić (August 2, 1912 - September 5, 2001) was a Croatian economist and a United Nations specialist who published a series of articles and books during the 1980s and 1990s in which he argued that the scope of the Holocaust in World War II-era Croatia was exaggerated. ...


The Belgrade Museum of Holocaust compiled a list of over 77,000 names of Jasenovac victims. It was previously headed by Milan Bulajić, who supported the claim of a total of 700,000 victims. The current administration of the Museum has further expanded the list to include a bit over 80,000 names. Belgrade (Serbian, Београд, Beograd  listen), is the capital (2003–) of Serbia and Montenegro and Yugoslavia (1918–2003). ...


During WWII, various German military commanders gave different figures for the number of Serbs, Jews and others killed on the territory of the Independent State of Croatia. They circulated figures of 400,000 Serbs (Alexander Lehr); 350,000 Serbs (Lothar Rendulic); between 300,000 (Edmund Glaise von Horstenau); more than "3/4 of million of Serbs" (Hermann Neubacher) in 1943; 600-700,000 until March 1944 (Ernst Fick ); 700,000 (Massenbach). German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) was a Nazi/Fascist puppet state in World War II. It was set up in April 1941 on parts of the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after its occupation. ... Lothar Rendulic (1887–1971) was a Colonel General in the Wehrmacht during WWII. Born on 23 November 1887 in Wiener Neustadt, Austria, Rendulic entered the German army in 1910. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Out of around 39,000 Jews that lived on the territory that became the Independent State of Croatia, only around 20% survived the war. The total number of Serbs in Croatia decreased by around 93,000 after the war.

Ustaše with the head of a Serb Orthodox priest
Drakulići, Feb 7, 1942

Group of Ustashi with the head of a Serb Orthodox priest from a village Drakulići, near Banja Luka, Feb 7, 1942. ...

Concentration camps

  • Danica
  • Đakovo (around 3,000)
  • Gospić
  • Jadovno (around 35,000)
  • Jasenovac I-IV (up to 500,000)
  • Jastrebarsko (1018) - children's concentration camp
  • Kerestinec
  • Krušćica
  • Lepoglava (around 1,000)
  • Loborgrad
  • Pag (around 8,500)
  • Tenja

Đakovo (Djakovo, Diakovár) is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia, 37 km to the southwest of Osijek and 34 km southeast of Našice; elevation 111 m; population 27,769 in 2001. ... Gospić is a town in Croatia, Lika region. ... Jasenovac gate Jasenovac was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during the World War II, and possibly the third largest in the world at the time. ... Stara Gradiška was a Jasenovac subcamp established in 1941 near the main camp. ... Pag (Latin pagus, village) is an island in northern Adriatic Sea, off the coast of Croatia. ...

Ideology

The Ustaše embraced the Nazi ideology of the time. They aimed at an ethnically "pure" Croatia, and saw the Serbs that lived in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina as the their biggest obstacle. Thus, Ustaše ministers Mile Budak, Mirko Puk and Milovan Žanić declared in May 1941 that the goal of the Ustaše was: The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (officially Bosna i Hercegovina, shortened to BiH, also in English variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Herzegovina (natively Херцеговина/Hercegovina) is a historical region in the Dinaric Alps that composes the southern part of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

  1. One third of the Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia (ISC) to be catholicized
  2. One third of the Serbs to be expelled out of ISC
  3. One third of the Serbs in the ISC to be liquidated

A small problem with the Nazi ideology was that the Croats are Slavs and thus themselves "inferior" by Nazi standards. The Ustaša ideologues thus created a theory about a pseudo-Gothic origin of the Croats in order to raise their standing on the Aryan ladder. This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ...


Jews and Serbs who were family members of Ustaše leadership were granted titles of "honorary Aryans". It is known that Ustaše of lesser rank proved their loyalty by killing their Serb wives and children. Aryan is an English word derived from the Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan term arya, meaning noble or lord. In the 19th century, the term was often used to refer to what we now call the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


Ustaše held that Bosnian Muslims are Muslim Croats. Unlike Orthodox Serbs, Muslims were not persecuted by them and some joined in the Nazi and Ustaše forces as part of Waffen-SS divisions SS Handschar in Muslim Bosnia (led by Amin al-Husayni) and SS Kama adviced by Edmund Glaise von Horstenau (the representative of the German military in Croatia) and led by Colonel Ivan Markulj, who was later replaced by Colonel Viktor Pavicic. Lt-Col. Marko Mesic commanded the artillery section. The state even transferred a former museum in Zagreb to be used as a mosque. Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci) are South Slavs descended from those who converted to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (officially Bosna i Hercegovina, shortened to BiH, also in English variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


On other subjects, Ustaše were against industrialization and democracy.


The basic principles of the movement were laid out by Pavelić in his 1929 pamphlet "Principles of the Ustase Movement". 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Principles of the Ustaše Movement is a list of principles for the Ustaše to follow written by Ante Pavelić in 1929. ...


Symbols

The symbol of Ustaše is a wide capital letter U with pronounced serif. This symbol can easily be spraypainted. A slight variation of it includes a small plus inserted at the top, symbolizing a cross. Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... U is the twenty-first letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... In typography, serifs are the small features at the end of strokes within letters. ... Graffiti is a type of deliberately inscribed marking made by humans on surfaces, both private and public. ... A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars intersecting each other at a 90° angle, dividing one or two of the lines in half. ...

Their hat insignia was the shield of Croatian coat of arms surrounded or embossed with the U. Drawing of symbol of Ustase. ... The Croatian coat of arms consists of one main coat of arms and five smaller ones that crown the main one. ...


The flag of the Independent State of Croatia was a red-blue-white horizontal tricolor with the shield of the Croatian coat of arms in the middle and the U in the upper left. Its money was the kuna. The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) was a Nazi/Fascist puppet state in World War II. It was set up in April 1941 on parts of the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after its occupation. ... Tricolour - a flag or banner having three colours Tricolor (ship) - a ship that sunk in the English Channel This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Kuna is the name of the currency used in Croatia. ...


The Ustaše greeting was "Za dom - Spremni":

Salute: Za dom! For home(land)!
Reply: Spremni! (We are) ready!

This greeting is used instead of the Nazi greeting Sieg - Heil. In on-line communication, it is often abbreviated as ZDS. Sieg Heil! or Hail to Victory (lit. ...


While the greeting appears to be invented in the 19th century by Croatian ban Josip Jelačić, today it is generally associated only with the Ustashas. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ban was a title used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 9th century and the 20th century. ... Josip Jelačić of Bužim (born 1801 in Petrovaradin, died 1859 in Zagreb; also spelled Jellachich) was the Ban of Croatia between March 23rd, 1848 and May 19, 1859. ...


Connections with the Catholic Church

Main article: Involvement of Croatian Catholic clergy with the Ustasa regime During World War II a number of Croatian Catholic priests, and some of the then bishops in the territory, cooperated with the Ustaša regime, who ran a Nazi puppet state that pursued a genocidal policy against the Eastern Orthodox Christians, Jews and Roma. ...

Crucifix with weaponry

The Ustaša policies against the Eastern Orthodoxy were related to the policy of the Roman Catholic Church known as "Uniatism", which consisted of Catholicizing as many Orthodox believers as possible, by means of re-baptism or by entering into Union. In the 20th century, when most south Slavs became united in Yugoslavia, Pope Benedict XV supported the creation of separate states for the Croats and the Slovenes who were Catholic, as opposed to the Serbs who were Orthodox. ustashi symbols File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ustashi symbols File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Greek Catholic Church is an Eastern Rite church sui juris in the Catholic Communion. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XV, born Giacomo della Chiesa (November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from September 3, 1914 to 1922; he succeeded Pope Saint Pius X. Della Chiesa was born in Genoa, Italy, of a noble...


Ustaše held the Eastern Orthodoxy as their greatest foe. In fact, they never once recognized the existence of a Serb people on the territories of Croatia or Bosnia — they only recognized "Croats of the Eastern faith". Catholic priests among the Ustaše were carrying out forced conversions of Serbs to Catholicism throughout Croatia. ...


Some priests, mostly Franciscans, particularly in, but not limited to, Herzegovina and Bosnia, took part in the atrocities themselves. Miroslav Filipović, a Franciscan friar, was the most prominent of them. He used the Petrićevac monastery as a base for the Ustaše, and on February 6, 1942, led the Ustaše in a brutal massacre of 2730 Serbs of the nearby villages, including 500 children. The same Filipović later became Chief Guard of Jasenovac concentration camp where he was nicknamed "Fra Sotona". Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Herzegovina (natively Херцеговина/Hercegovina) is a historical region in the Dinaric Alps that composes the southern part of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (officially Bosna i Hercegovina, shortened to BiH, also in English variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Miroslav Filipović-Majstorović (1915-1946) was a former Franciscan friar from the monastery of Petrićevac, who commanded the Jasenovac concentration camp in Yugoslavia during World War II. A member of the Croatian ultra-nationalist Ustase, he continued in his role as a member of a religious order, even while commanding... Petricevac is part of Banjaluka (capitol of Republic of Srpska). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jasenovac gate Jasenovac was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during the World War II, and possibly the third largest in the world at the time. ... Gustave Dores depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan (שָׂטָן Standard Hebrew Satan, Latin Sátanas, Tiberian Hebrew Śāṭān; Aramaic שִׂטְנָא Śiṭnâ: both words mean Adversary; accuser) is an angel, demon, or minor god in many religions. ...


At the same time the Muslims were not looked upon at all negatively, even though they weren't Christians at all. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...

Forced conversion of Serbs in Slavonian village Mikleuš by Fra.Vlaho Margetić (Margeretić), 1942

For the whole duration of the war, the Vatican kept up full diplomatic relations with the Ustaša state, with its papal nuncio in the capital Zagreb. The nuncio was briefed on the efforts of religious conversions to Catholicism, without recognizing the fact these conversions were often forced and part of the pogrom. forced conversion in NDH File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... forced conversion in NDH File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... Zagreb (pronounced ZA-greb) is the capital city of Croatia. ... A pogrom (from Russian: погром (meaning wreaking of havoc) is a massive violent attack on a minority people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ...


After the Second World War was over, the Ustaše who had managed to escape from Yugoslav territory (including Pavelić) were smuggled to South America through rat lines operated by members of the organization who were Catholic priests and had previously secured positions at the Vatican. This operation was directed by friars Krunoslav Draganović, Petranović and Dominik Mandić of the Illyrian College of San Girolamo in Rome which to this very day marks April 10th, the birthday of the Ustaša state. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Pontifical Croatian College of St. ...


It is also claimed that the Ustaša regime had kept 350 million Swiss Francs in gold which it had plundered from Serbian and Jewish property owners during WW II. About 150 million was seized by British troops, however the remaining 200 million reached the Vatican and is allegedly still being kept in the Vatican Bank. The issue is the theme of a class action lawsuit in a California court of law, which first declined the case claiming a lack of jurisdiction, but as of 2005 the plaintiffs appeal was honored. (See external links.) The Swiss franc (ISO 4217: CHF or 756) is the currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... ... The Vatican Bank is a common name given to the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR) or Institute for Religious Works, the central bank for the Roman Catholic Church located in Vatican City. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Church and state: leaders of church and the state together, in the Croatian Nazi puppet state

Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac, Archbishop of Zagreb during the Second World War, was accused of supporting the Ustaše, and exonerating those in the clergy that collaborated with the Ustaše of complicity in forced conversions. On the other hand, he himself reportedly helped victims of the Ustaša terror at the same time. The cardinal was criminally prosecuted and convicted after the war by the new Communist authorities of Yugoslavia. In 1998, Stepinac was posthumously beatified by Pope John Paul II. pavelic and stepinac, NDH File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... pavelic and stepinac, NDH File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Aloysius/Alojzije Stepinac (born May 8, 1898 in Krašić, Croatia - died on February 10, 1960 in Krašić) was a notable Croatian Prelate. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... Zagreb (pronounced ZA-greb) is the capital city of Croatia. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... In Catholicism, beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed, via Greek μακαριος, makarios) is a recognition accorded by the church of a dead persons accession to Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name (intercession of saints). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... His Holiness Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death. ...


On June 22, 2003, John Paul II visited Banja Luka. During the visit he held a mass at the aforementioned Petrićevac monastery, which was in the meantime destroyed by the Bosnian Serbs in 1995. This caused public uproar due to the connection of the Petrićevac monastery with the crimes of friar Filipović-Majstorović. The pope also proclaimed the beatification of the Catholic priest Ivan Merz there, the founder of the "Association of Croatian Eagles", later associated with the Hitlerjugend. June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mayor Dragoljub Davidović Area  - Total 93. ... Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of matter they contain. ... Petricevac is part of Banjaluka (capitol of Republic of Srpska). ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In Catholicism, beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed, via Greek μακαριος, makarios) is a recognition accorded by the church of a dead persons accession to Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name (intercession of saints). ... The German Nazi party established the Hitler Youth (in German: Hitler-Jugend or HJ) in 1926. ...


Neo-Ustašism

In the 1990s, modern independent Croatia was formed and Croats and Serbs again waged war. There was no official connection between the Ustaše ideology and the new government that made the country independent of Yugoslavia. President Tuđman had controversial views on the topic, claiming that the Ustaša state was indeed an expression of the Croat state tradition, which may be considered true to a limited extent in view of Croatia's long historical struggle for independance. However, Croatia's puppet-state status in WW2 ironicaly negates that claim. Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ... . Franjo Tuđman (May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999) was the first president of Croatia in the 1990s. ...


Some Ustaša emigrants freely returned to Croatia. Some factions wished to restore the Ustaše ideology and iconography, and even though they weren't successful, they were never banned by the government. During the Yugoslav wars, these committed war crimes against the Serb population on several occasions. The Yugoslav wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Yugoslavia that took place between 1991-2001. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


The term neo-Ustaše itself is an external designation; those in question referred to themselves simply as Ustaše, as in the 1940s.


The right-wing parties often attracted votes by promoting extreme nationalism. A singer by the name of Mišo Kovač, who rose to prominence as an evergreen singer of the 1970s once sported an exact replica of an Ustaša uniform during a concert. Pop/folk singer Marko Perković-Thompson has made a career for himself by singing patriotic tunes, but this has sometimes resulted in singing borderline fascist lyrics praising WWII criminals, and he is not afraid to display his Ustaša sentiment. Supported by right-wing politicians, his concerts attracted support from tens of thousands of people based on this sentiment. Marko Perković. ... Thompson is a very popular Croatian rock band. ...


The exodus of Serbs from Croatia following the 1995 offensive Storm in the Krajina was greeted and in part perpetrated by the neo-Ustaše as if the plan from 1941 was finally being fully implemented. 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the summer 1995, Croatia carried out a large scale military operation called Oluja -- Storm -- the objective of which was to reclaim areas of Croatia held by rebel Serb forces. ... RSK Republic of Serbian Krajina Sanyo Broadcasting - Japanese TV&Radio Station. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The neo-Ustaše, however, didn't and don't have grass roots support among the Croatian people. The right-most parties, like the Croatian Party of Rights, are most commonly associated with Ustašism and they have the support of a few percent of the population. Grassroots democracy is the political processes which are driven by groups of ordinary citizens, as opposed to larger organisations or wealthy individuals with concentrated vested interests in particular policies. ... The Croatian Party of Rights (Croatian Hrvatska Stranka Prava, HSP) is a right-wing political party in Croatia, the oldest in the country. ...


Dinko Šakić, one of the commanders of the Jasenovac concentration camp, was tried in 1999 and sentenced to 20 years in prison. Croatia has been cooperating with the ICTY in the legal prosecution of all war criminals. The government is also making an effort to return all refugees to their homes. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) is a body of the United Nations (UN) established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ...


Bibliography

  • Aarons, Mark and Loftus, John: "Unholy Trinity: How the Vatican's Nazi Networks Betrayed Western Intelligence to the Soviets". New York: St.Martin's Press, 1992. 372 pages.
  • Paris, Edmond: "Genocide in Satellite Croatia 1941- 1945". (First print: 1961, Second: 1962), The American Institute for Balkan Affairs, 1990.
  • Manhattan, Avro: "The Vatican's Holocaust". Ozark Books, 1986.

Author of (2001) War Criminals Welcome: Australia, a Sanctuary for War Criminals Since 1945, Melbourne: Black Inc. ... Avro Manhattan (1914-1990) was one of the worlds foremost authorities on Roman Catholicism in politics and was the author of several works relating to the Vaticans role in world politics and world affairs. ...

External links

Ustase sites

  • Crna Legija (http://www.crnalegija.com/) (in Croatian)

Outside views

Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington, DC, dedicated to documenting, studying, and interpreting the history of the Holocaust. ... North Park University is a university located on the north side of Chicago, Illinois. ... The University of San Francisco (often abbreviated USF) is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic university in the United States. ... Avro Manhattan (1914-1990) was one of the worlds foremost authorities on Roman Catholicism in politics and was the author of several works relating to the Vaticans role in world politics and world affairs. ...

Croatian views

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels largest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... The University of Melbourne, located in Melbourne, in Victoria, is the second oldest university in Australia (the University of Sydney is the oldest). ...

Serbian views

  • Strahinja Kurdulija: Atlas Ustasha Genocide of the Serbs (http://www.balkan-archive.org.yu/kosta/knjige/atlas/)
  • Srpska Mreža: Encyclopedia quotes about Ustashas (http://www.srpska-mreza.com/library/facts/ustashi.html)
  • Kosta Brandić: Jasenovac: the third largest concentration camp of WWII occupied Europe (http://www.4cbiz.net/kosta/tar/jasenovac/)
  • Srpska Mreža: Photos of Ustasha crimes (http://www.srpska-mreza.com/library/facts/gallery.html)
  • Kosta Brandić: Ustashi terrorism after WW2 until today (http://www.balkan-archive.org.yu/kosta/new.ustase/ustasha.terorrism.html)
  • Vasilije Krestic: Trough genocide to a Greater Croatia (http://www.suc.org/culture/library/genocide/index.html)
  • Balkan Repository Project: Jasenovac - The system of Ustasha death camps (http://www.balkan-archive.org.yu/Jasenovac/)

On connections with the Catholic church

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...

Trial of Dinko Šakić


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