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Encyclopedia > Uses of torture in recent times

Torture, the infliction of severe physical or psychological pain upon an individual to extract information, a confession or as a punishment, is prohibited by international law and illegal in most countries. However, it is still used unofficially by modern governments. This article describes uses of torture in recent times, that is to say, the use of torture since the adoption of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which prohibited it. The word torture is commonly used to mean the infliction of pain to break the will of the victim(s). ... Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish translation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...

Contents

Torture in modern society

Torture is still common in many countries, particularly those with despotic or totalitarian regimes. In fact, many countries find it expedient from time to time to use torture; at the same time, few wish to be described as doing so, either to their own citizens or international bodies. So a variety of strategies are used to circumvent their legal and humanitarian duties, including state plausible deniability, secret police, "need to know", denial that given treatments are torturous in nature, appeal to various laws (national or international), use of jurisdictional argument, claim of "overriding need", the use of torture by proxy and so on. Plausible deniability also Deniability is the term given to the creation of loose and informal chains of command in government, which allow controversial instructions given by high-ranking officials to be denied if they become public. ... // Secret police (sometimes political police) are a police organization which operates in secrecy for the national purpose of maintaining national security against internal threats to the state. ... The term jurisdiction has more than one sense. ... Extraordinary rendition or torture by proxy is a procedure used by the government of the United States and other Western countries whereby foreign suspects are sent to another country for interrogation under less humane conditions. ...


State torture has been extensively documented and studied, often as part of efforts at documentation and reconciliation in societies that have experienced a change in government. Surveys of torture survivors reveal that torture "is not aimed primarily at the extraction of information... Its real aim is to break down the victim's personality and identity."[1] When applied indiscriminately, torture is used as a tool of repression and deterrence against dissent and community empowerment.


While states, particularly their prisons, law enforcement and intelligence apparatus, are major sources of torture, many non-state actors engage in torture. These include paramiltaries, and guerrilla armies, criminal actors such as organized crime syndicates and kidnappers, and those enacting individual forms of power in extreme forms of domestic violence and child abuse. A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away of a person against the persons will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment (confinement without legal authority) for ransom or in furtherance of another crime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult, often synonymous with the term child maltreatment or the term child abuse and neglect. ...


Technology

While methods of torture are often quite crude, a number of new technologies of control have been used by torturers in recent years. The Brazilian government devised a number of new electrical and mechanical means of torture during the military dictatorship from 1964 to 1985, and proceeded to train military officials from other Latin American countries in their techniques.[2] One is the use of Tasers and electro-shock devices now widely sold to prison authorities around the world.


Inter-state collaboration

Substantial cooperation between states in the methods and coordination of torture has been documented. Through Operation Phoenix, the United States helped South Vietnam coordinate a system of detention, torture and assassination of suspected members of the National Liberation Movement or Viet Cong. During the 1980s wars in Central America, the U.S. government provided manuals and trainings on interrogation that extended to the use of torture(see Torture manuals). The manuals were also distributed by Special Forces Mobile Training teams to military personnel and intelligence schools in Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Peru. The manuals have an entire chapter devoted to "coercive techniques." The Phoenix Program, known as Kế Hoạch Phụng Hoàng (a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) in Vietnamese, was a covert intelligence operation undertaken by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in close collaboration with South Vietnamese intelligence during the Vietnam War. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809 km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Torture manuals was a nickname for seven training manuals which had excerpts declassified to the public on September 20, 1996 by the Pentagon. ...


The southern cone governments of South America--Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Paraguay and Brazil--involved in Operation Condor coordinated the disappearance, torture and execution of dissidents in the 1970s. Hundreds were killed in coordinated operations, and the bodies of those recovered were often mutilated and showed signs of torture. This system operated with the knowledge and support of the United States government through the State Department, Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Department.[3] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The United States government has, at least since the Clinton Administration, used the tactic of extraordinary rendition in which suspected terrorists were extradicted to countries where they were to be prosecuted. In the war on terror this has evolved into the delivery of prisoners or others recently captured, including terrorism suspects, to foreign governments known to practice torture including Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Afghanistan. Human rights activists have alleged the practice amounts to kidnapping for the purpose of torture, torture by proxy. A related practice is the operation of facilities for imprisonment, and it is widely believed torture, in foreign countries. In November 2005, the Washington Post reported--citing administration sources--that such facilities are operated by the CIA in Thailand (until 2004), Afghanistan, and several unnamed Eastern European countries.[4] Human Rights Watch reports that planes associated with rendition have landed repeatedly in Poland and Romania.[5] President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 Headed by President of the United States Bill Clinton, the Clinton Administation was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001. ... Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. ... ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Recent instances of torture in selected countries

The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

The use of torture is geographically widespread. A review by Amnesty International, which did not use the United Nations Convention Against Torture as its definition of torture, of its case files found "reports of torture or ill-treatment by state officials in more than 150 countries from 1997 to 2000." These reports described widespread or persistent patterns of abuse in more than 70 countries and torture-related deaths in more than 80.[6] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ...


The following list greatly over-represents countries where information on and evidence of such instances is more readily publicized. In fact, the phenomenon of torture is a characteristic feature of those societies that have no free press or independent courts or in areas prone to anarchy or civil war. In the modern age, the free press has taken on multiple meanings. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... In the realist theory of International Relations, the anarchical system that all states find themselves in is the lack of clear organisation of states into a hieracical order that is found within states. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


Afghanistan

Torture has been an issue in Afghanistan under each of its recent governments. Under Najibullah's Soviet-backed regime, beating and electrical shocks were widely reported.[7] After the mujahidin's victory, Afghanistan fell into a state of chaos, and, according to Amnesty International, "Torture of civilians in their homes has become endemic... In almost every jail run by the armed political groups, torture is reported to be a part of the daily routine."[8] The Taliban are likewise reported to have engaged in torture.[9] Since the US's overthrow of the Taliban, torture has been reported on several occasions, both by Afghan groups and by US troops. In the Herat region, dominated by the warlord Ismail Khan, Human Rights Watch reported extensive torture in 2002.[10] Torture by US troops has been reported in the New York Times.[11] Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Court of the Friday Mosque in Herāt. ... Ismail Khan (b. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Albania

Under Enver Hoxha's Communist dictatorship, torture was widely used. Since its fall, Amnesty International has reported police abuses amounting to torture[2]; the government says it has "made efforts to punish all acts of torture under the Albanian criminal justice system"[3].  , (IPA , October 16, 1908–April 11, 1985) was the leader of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Communist Albanian Party of Labour. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not...


Angola

In Angola's 27-year civil war, according to Amnesty International, "many were tortured" by both sides.[12] [13] Since that time, AI has also reported that "unarmed civilians are being extrajudicially executed and tortured"[14] in Angola's war against Cabindan separatists. Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... Cabinda is a territory, ocupied by Angola. ...


Argentina

During the National Reorganization Process period (1976-83), tens of thousands of Argentines were "disappeared" by the military government, many never to be seen again. The National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons concluded. Jorge Rafael Videla, first president of the Proceso Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (Spanish, National Reorganization Process, often simply Proceso) was the name given by its leaders to the dictatorial regime that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. ... ...

In nearly all the cases brought to the attention of the Commission, the victims speak of acts of torture. Torture was an important element in the methodology of repression. Secret torture centres were set up, among other reasons, to enable the carrying out of torture to be carried out undisturbed.[15]

Chile

The regime of Augusto Pinochet in Chile in the 1970s used torture extensively against political opponents. Chile's National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture (Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura) concluded in 2004 that torture had been a systematically implemented policy of the government and recommended reparations. The commission heard the testimony of more than 35,000 witnesses, whose testimonies are to be kept secret for fify years.[16] Among those tortured were future president Michelle Bachelet, who has held along with her mother at the notorious Villa Grimaldi detention center in Santiago. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was a general and President of Chile. ... Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is the current President of Chile, the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... Villa Grimaldi was a torture and detention center used by the DINA (Direccion de Inteligencia Nacional), Chilean secret police, under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship. ... The snowcapped Andes above downtown Santiago Santiago (Spanish:  ) is Chiles capital and largest city. ...


France

During the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962), the French military used torture against the National Liberation Front, which struggled for the independence of Algeria using force (bombings etc.). The French interrogators were notorious for the use of man-powered electrical generators on suspects: this form of torture was called (la) gégène. Paul Aussaresses, a French general in charge of intelligence services during the Algerian war, defended the use of torture in a 2000 interview in the Paris newspaper Le Monde. In an interview on the CBS newsmagazine 60 Minutes, in response to the question of whether he would torture Al-Qaeda suspects, his answer was, "It seems to me it's obvious." Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Pierre Mendès-France General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Charles de... The military of France has a long history of serving its country. ... The National Liberation Front , (Arabic: Jabhat al-TaḩrÄ«r al-WaÅ£anÄ«, French: Front de Libération Nationale aka FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ... This article is about explosive devices. ... An electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. ... Paul Aussaresses (b. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... CBS is derived from an abbreviation of Columbia Broadcasting System, the former legal name of a company Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired in 1995. ... 60 Minutes is an investigative television newsmagazine on United States television, which has run on CBS News since 1968. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


Germany

In 2002, in Cologne, Germany, a history of physical torture at Eigelstein police station only came to light because the victim died, and a post-mortem examination unearthed the facts. Further investigation revealed that the police officers obviously had resorted to physical mistreatment of suspects for quite some time, and none of them reported the mistreatment. For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ...


Iraq

The government headed by Baathist Saddam Hussein made extensive use of torture, including at the notorious Abu Ghraib prison. Baath Party symbol Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Bath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Ḥizb al-Ba`ṯ al-`Arabī al-Ištirāki) was founded in 1947 as a radical, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003. ... Map of Iraq highlighting Abu Ghraib Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse images The Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب; also Abu Ghurayb) is in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km (20 mi) west of Baghdad. ...


The post-invasion Iraqi government holds thousands of people in prison. After investigating from July to October 2004, Human Rights Watch found that torture was "routine and commonplace." According to their report, Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland others. ... The Iraqi Interim matt chokes on cock Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30th, 2005. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

Methods of torture or ill-treatment cited included routine beatings to the body using a variety of implements such as cables, hosepipes and metal rods. Detainees reported kicking, slapping and punching; prolonged suspension from the wrists with the hands tied behind the back; electric shocks to sensitive parts of the body, including the earlobes and genitals; and being kept blindfolded and/or handcuffed continuously for several days. In several cases, the detainees suffered what may be permanent physical disability.

Human Rights Watch, [17] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

Israel

Israel has used "moderate physical pressure" on terrorist suspects defined as "ticking bombs" for their knowledge of imminent terrorist attacks against civilians which the information they possessed had the power to prevent, at least since the 1970s. In 1987 the Israeli Supreme Court formed a special commission headed by retired Justice Moshe Landau, to review the whole question of physical pressure during investigations of this kind. In their report they reinforced the criteria for the use of "moderate physical pressure".


After investigation of continued allegations of torture, there was a 1999 Supreme Court ruling[18] that all torture - even moderate physical pressure - was illegal. This decision was praised by human-rights organizations. Despite this reform of the law, certain actions tantamount to torture were still not completely prohibited in Israel. Amnesty International continues to express concerns to Israel about treatment which amounts to torture, and remains unhappy about the steps taken by Israel to eliminate torture. Amnesty International stated in 2002: Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not...

...the Israeli HCJ in September 1999 banned a number of interrogation methods ...However the judgment left ... loopholes by which methods amounting to torture or other ill-treatment in detention may continue.

Amnesty International, [19] Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not...

The human rights group B'Tselem estimated that 85% of all Palestinian detainees suspected of terrorism, are subject to prolonged sleep deprivation; prolonged sight deprivation; forced, prolonged maintenance of body positions that grow increasingly painful; confinement in tiny, closet-like spaces; exposure to temperature extremes, such as in deliberately overcooled rooms; prolonged toilet and hygiene deprivation; and degrading treatment, such as forcing detainees to eat and use the toilet at the same time. Allegations have been made of frequent beatings. Such acts violate Article 16 of the United Nations Convention Against Torture. In a January 2000 report titled Legislation allowing for the use of physical force p.p.32,48 B'Tselem stated that the GSS's [Israel's General Security Service] methods of interrogation amounted to the five techniques: "[The] GSS used methods comparable to those used by the British in 1971, i.e., sleep deprivation, infliction of physical suffering, and sensory isolation. But the GSS used them for much longer periods, so the resulting pain and suffering were substantially greater. In addition, the GSS used direct violence... Thus,... in practice, the GSS methods were substantially more severe than those used by the British in 1971..."[20] // BTselem (Hebrew בצלם, in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... The term five techniques refers to certain interrogation practices adopted by the Northern Ireland and British governments in the early 1970s. ...


Suspected Hezbollah guerrillas, their families and Lebanese civilian internees were previously detained in the South Lebanon Army (SLA) prison at Khiam in the then Israeli-occupied Southern Lebanon. Torture, including electric shock torture, by the SLA was routine. This was detailed after the end of the occupation in 2000, when Lebanese who freed the prisoners found instruments of torture.[21] [22] Such methods of torture have not been documented in Israel-proper or in the occupied Palestinian territories. This article is becoming very long. ... The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: جيش لبنان الجنوبي; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-Janūbiyy. ... Khiam is a village located in South Lebanon governorate, near Nabatieh city It was a former French barrack complex originally built in the 1930s. ...


An unofficial facility called Unit 1391 is often claimed to be the place where suspected terrorists with "ticking bomb" knowledge are tortured, physically and psychologically.[23] Camp 1391 is a controversial Israel Defense Force prison. ...


Nigeria

In 2005, Human Rights Watch documented that Nigerian police in the cities of Enugu, Lagos and Kano routinely practice torture. Dozens of witnesses and survivors stepped forward to testify to repeated, severe beatings, abuse of sexual organs, rape, death threats, injury by shooting and the denial of food and water. These abuses were used in campaigns against common crime.[24] Location of Enugu in Nigeria Enugu is the capital city of Enugu State, Nigeria. ... Lagos (pron. ... For other uses of the word Kano see Kano (disambiguation). ...


Systematic torture was used in conjunction with military occupation in an attempt to quell anti-oil protests by the Ogoni people in the Niger Delta, according to a World Council of Churches report.[25] Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... The Ogoni people are one of the many indigenous peoples in the Niger Delta region of southeast Nigeria. ... The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a major producer of palm oil. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is the principal international Christian ecumenical organization. ...


Russia

Russian police is regularly observed practicing torture - including beatings, electric shocks, rape, asphyxiation - in interrogating arrested suspects.[26]


Russian army is believed to use torture extensively in Chechnya and the surrounding districts, as investigative tool, and as a deterrant/punishment for captured fighters. Capital Grozny Area - total - % water Ranked 78th - 15,300 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 49th - est. ...


Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia officially considers torture illegal under Islamic Law; however, it is widely practiced, as in the case of William Sampson. According to a 2003 report by Amnesty International "Torture and ill-treatment remained rife."[27] Hanny Megally, Executive director of the Middle East and North Africa division of Human Rights Watch stated in 2002 "The practice of torture in Saudi Arabia is well-documented", [28] According to the Human Rights Watch World Report 2003 "Torture under interrogation of political prisoners and criminal suspects continued", [29] and the 2006 report notes that "Arbitrary detention, mistreatment and torture of detainees, restrictions on freedom of movement, and lack of official accountability remain serious concerns."[30] Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... William Sampson is a dual British and Canadian national who was arrested on December 17, 2000 in Saudi Arabia. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Singapore

Singapore prescribes punishments such as rattan caning for certain crimes, especially lesser offences, and offences such as drug possession, violence, or vandalism. Genera Calamus Calospatha Ceratolobus Daemonorops Eremospatha Eugeissonia Korthalsia Laccosperma Metroxylon Myrialepis Oncocalamus Pigafetta Plectocomia Plectomiopsis Raphia Zalacca Zalacella Rattan (from the Malay rotan), is the name for the roughly six hundred species of palms in the tribe Calameae, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australasia. ... A cane is a long, straight wooden stick, generally of bamboo, Malacca (rattan), or some similar plant, mainly used as a support, such as a walking stick or as an instrument of punishment. ...


Proponents point to its effectiveness in terms of quick punishment and high deterrent value (Singapore is a relatively low crime country), as opposed to prolonged incarceration (which in other countries has lead to extreme prison population problems, concern over extreme sentencing, disproportionate harm to peoples lives and innocent family members, and reduction in prospects for future combined with encouragement to a criminal future). But others consider it to be a form of torture because of the permanent scarring and severe pain it causes for its victims.


Caning in this context is highly supervised - it is administered only by trained officials, and administered to the buttocks, with full protective padding of the victim elsewhere to protect other vulnerable parts of the body such as the back from mis-strikes. A typical punishment might be between 3 and 12 strokes, delivered in one session. A medical officer is present to ensure that the recipient is able to withstand the effects, which can be severe.


A high profile case in the West was the sentencing of the American visitor Michael P. Fay following a guilty verdict for multiple counts of vandalism. Opinions of this sentence were divided in the United States. The U.S. State Department called the punishment too severe. But a call-in survey of 23,000 people by National Polling Network Tuesday found 53% favor whipping and other harsh sentences as an acceptable deterrent to crime in the USA. "Some said if we treated vandals in this country as they do in Singapore, maybe we wouldn't have so many problems."[31] Michael Peter Fay (born May 30, 1975) is an American who was caned in Singapore on May 5, 1994 for theft and vandalism despite pleas from the United States government and press for clemency. ... A caricature of Gustave Courbet taking down a Morris column, published by Le Père Duchêne illustré magazine Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement destruction of a structure or symbol against the will of the owner/governing body. ...


Soviet Union

Torture was widely practiced in the Soviet Union prior to its transformation to a federation in the 1980s, to extract confessions from suspects, especially in case of alleged plots against the security of the state or alleged collaboration with "imperialist powers". Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ...


Spain

Although officially illegal, torture in Spain continues to be used by police forces at various levels as a means to extract confessions or as punishment. Reported occurrences of torture usually involve people detained under anti-terrorist legislation, victims of the GAL, and immigrants, both asylum seekers and resident immigrants accused of common crimes or immigration offences. Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (Antiterrorist Liberation Groups) were death squads illegally set up by officials within the Spanish government to fight ETA. They were active from 1983 until 1987, under PSOEs cabinets. ...


Spanish authorities consistently fail to implement recommendations by the Council of Europe's Committee for the Prevention of Torture and the UN Committee Against Torture to combat the use of torture in detention. The UN committee expressed its concern "about the length of judicial procedures and made reference to reports that indicated that five years had sometimes passed between crime and sentence. The Committee warned that this problem reduces the effect of penal action and discourages people to file complaints." It further indicated that "All members of the Committee were also deeply concerned about the legal practice of five days incommunicado detention." (since October 2003, a reform of the Criminal Procedure Code has extended that period to a maximum of 13 days).


References:[4]


United Kingdom

In 1978 in the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) trial "Ireland v. the United Kingdom" (Case No. 5310/71) the facts were not in dispute and the judges court published the following in their judgement: European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...

These methods, sometimes termed "disorientation" or "sensory deprivation" techniques, were not used in any cases other than the fourteen so indicated above. It emerges from the Commission's establishment of the facts that the techniques consisted of ...wall-standing; hooding; subjection to noise; deprivation of sleep; deprivation of food and drink. A prisoner at the United States Camp X-ray facility at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba being subjected to sensory deprivation, through the use of ear muffs, visor, breathing mask and heavy mittens. ...

European Court of Human Rights European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...

These were referred to by the court as the five techniques. The court ruled: The term five techniques refers to certain interrogation practices adopted by the Northern Ireland and British governments in the early 1970s. ...

167. ... Although the five techniques, as applied in combination, undoubtedly amounted to inhuman and degrading treatment, although their object was the extraction of confessions, the naming of others and/or information and although they were used systematically, they did not occasion suffering of the particular intensity and cruelty implied by the word torture as so understood. ...

168. The Court concludes that recourse to the five techniques amounted to a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment, which practice was in breach of [the European Convention on Human Rights] Article 3 (art. 3). The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ...

European Court of Human Rights European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...

The ECHR case was a ruling on British policy before the "Parker report" which was published on March 2, 1972 and had found the five techniques to be illegal under domestic law: March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

10. Domestic Law ...(c) We have received both written and oral representations from many legal bodies and individual lawyers from both England and Northern Ireland. There has been no dissent from the view that the procedures are illegal alike by the law of England and the law of Northern Ireland. ... (d) This being so, no Army Directive and no Minister could lawfully or validly have authorized the use of the procedures. Only Parliament can alter the law. The procedures were and are illegal.

—Parker report

On the same day (March 2, 1972), the United Kingdom Prime Minister Edward Heath stated in the House of Commons that the techniques would not be used in future as an aid to interrogation. As foreshadowed in the Prime Minister's statement, directives expressly prohibiting the use of the techniques, whether singly or in combination, were then issued to the security forces by the Government These are still in force and the use of such methods by UK security forces would not be condoned by the Government. March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), soldier and politician, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


The Guildford Four and Birmingham Six claimed they were tortured by anti-terrorism police into confessing to IRA bombings. If they were, it appears not to have been authorised by the British government and the resulting convictions would be a good demonstration of the problems related to information extracted by torture. The Guildford Four were a group of people (Paul Hill, Gerry Conlon, Patrick Paddy Armstrong and Carole Richardson), who were wrongly convicted in the United Kingdom in October 1975 for the Provisional IRAs Guildford pub bombing - which killed five people and injured sixty-five more - and imprisoned for over... The Birmingham Six were six men—Hugh Callaghan, Patrick Hill, Gerard Hunter, Richard McIlkenny, William Power and John Walker—sentenced to life imprisonment in 1975 in an infamous miscarriage of justice for two pub bombings in Birmingham, England on November 21, 1974 that killed 21 people. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... This article is about the historical army of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919-21, and the Irish Civil War 1922-23. ...


On February 23 2005, British soldiers were found guilty of abuse of Iraqi prisoners arrested for looting at a British Army camp called Bread Basket, in Basra, during May 2003. The judge at the military court, Judge Advocate Michael Hunter, said of photographs and the soldier's behaviour: February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎ ; BGN: Al Başrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of 2,600,000 (2003). ...

Anyone with a shred of human decency would be revolted by what is contained in those pictures. The actions of you and those responsible for these acts have undoubtedly tarnished the international reputation of the British Army and, to some extent, the British nation too, and it will no doubt hamper the efforts of those who are now risking their lives striving to achieve stability in the Gulf region, and it will probably be used by those who are working against such ends.

—Judge Advocate Michael Hunter

At the court martial, the prosecution alleged that in giving the order to "work [the prisoners] hard" Captain Dan Taylor had broken the Geneva Conventions. Neither Taylor, or his commanding officer Lt-Col Paterson, (who was briefed on the operation "Ali Baba", by Taylor), were sanctioned, and indeed, during the period of time between the offence and the trial, both were given promotions. All the leaders of the major British political parties condemned the abuse. Tony Blair British Prime Minister and leader of the Labour Party declared that the pictures were "shocking and appalling". After sentencing, the Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Mike Jackson, made a statement on television and said that: he was "appalled and disappointed" when he first saw photographs of the Iraqi detainees and that Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ... In the military systems of many countries, the Chief of the General Staff is the professional head of that countrys General Staff. ... General Sir Michael Mike Jackson, GCB, CBE, DSO, ADC Gen (born 21 March 1944) is a British army officer, currently Chief of the General Staff. ...

The incidents depicted are in direct contradiction to the core values and standards of the British Army ... Nevertheless, in the light of the evidence from this trial I do apologize on behalf of the army to those Iraqis who were abused and to the people of Iraq as a whole.

—General Sir Mike Jackson General Sir Michael Mike Jackson, GCB, CBE, DSO, ADC Gen (born 21 March 1944) is a British army officer, currently Chief of the General Staff. ...

References:[5]


United States

While the United States is a party to international conventions against torture, torture has been practiced within prisons, immigration detention facilities and military compounds. American government officials have participated in torture abroad, maintained interrogation facilities where torture is practiced and trained foreign officials in interrogation methods that include torture. While the United States is a party to international conventions against torture, torture has been practiced within its borders and on its governments behalf outside of its borders. ...


Domestic police and prisons

Police brutality in the United States has at times escalated to torture, as in the cases of Abner Louima who was sodomized with a broom by New York police.[32] The Chicago Police Department's Area 2 unit under Commander Jon Burge repeatedly used electroshock, near-suffocation by plastic bags and excessive beating on suspects in the 1970s and 1980s. The City of Chicago's Office of Professional Standards (OPS) concluded that the physical abuse was systematic and, "The type of abuse described was not limited to the usual beating, but went into such esoteric areas as psychological techniques and planned torture."[33] The Supermax facility at the Maine State Prison has been the scene of video-taped forcible extractions that Lance Tapley in the Portland Phoenix wrote "look[ed] like torture."[34] David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... Abner Louima (b. ... Sodomy is a term of religious origin to characterise certain sexual acts. ... The New York City Police Department (NYPD) , the largest police department in the United States, has primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the five boroughs of New York City. ... The Chicago Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of Chicago, Illinois, under the jurisdiction of the mayor of Chicago. ... The Phoenix is an alternative weekly newspaper company based in Boston, Massachusetts that emphasizes arts and entertainment coverage, as well as alternative political viewpoints. ...


Interrogation and prisons in the War on Terror

In 2003 and 2004 there was substantial controversy over the "stress and duress" methods that were used in the U.S.'s War on Terrorism, that had been sanctioned by the U.S. Executive branch of government at Cabinet level.[35] Similar methods in 1978 were ruled by ECHR to be inhuman and degrading treatment, but not torture, when used by the U.K. in the early 1970s in Northern Ireland. Satar Jabar standing on a box with wires connected to his body Prisoners Ordered to Form Human Pyramid Beginning in 2004, numerous accounts of abuse and torture of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) occurred. ... In 2005, a 2,000-page U.S. Army report was obtained by the New York Times concerning the homicides of two unarmed civilian Afghan prisoners by U.S. armed forces in 2002 at the Bagram Collection Point. ... Criticisms of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. Arguments are also made against the phrase itself, calling it a misnomer. ... Stress and duress is a term which has been use by the United States Administration as a label to describe interrogation techniques authorised at Cabinet level, for use by United States security forces on detainees who are thought to be a threat the United States of America, its citizens, or... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Combatants Participants in Operations: United States United Kingdom Turkey South Korea Australia Canada Israel Spain Pakistan Portugal Afghanistan Romania Italy Poland Greece Philippines Ethiopia Jordan Saudi Arabia NATO Government of Iraq Kurdish forces Armenia Transitional Federal Parliament and others Targets of Operations: al-Qaeda Taliban Baathist Iraq Baath... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... Motto:   (the Royal motto3) (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the Queen 4 Capital London Most populous conurbation Greater London Urban Area Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair Formation    - Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603   - Acts... Motto:  (Latin for Who will separate us?)[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Ulster Scots, Irish3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of...


CIA agents have anonymously confirmed to the Washington Post in a December 26, 2002 report that the CIA routinely uses so-called "stress and duress" interrogation techniques (e.g. water boarding), which are claimed by human rights organisations to be acts of torture, in the US-led War on Terrorism. These sources state that CIA and military personnel beat up uncooperative suspects, confine them in cramped quarters, duct tape them to stretchers, and use other restraints which maintain the subject in an awkward and painful position for long periods of time. The Post article continues that sensory deprivation, through the use of hoods and spraypainted goggles, sleep deprivation, and selective use of painkillers for at least one captive who was shot in the groin during his apprehension are also used. The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Stress and duress is a term which has been use by the United States Administration as a label to describe interrogation techniques authorised at Cabinet level, for use by United States security forces on detainees who are thought to be a threat the United States of America, its citizens, or... There appear to be two different varieties of torture referred to as waterboarding. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Combatants Participants in Operations: United States United Kingdom Turkey South Korea Australia Canada Israel Spain Pakistan Portugal Afghanistan Romania Italy Poland Greece Philippines Ethiopia Jordan Saudi Arabia NATO Government of Iraq Kurdish forces Armenia Transitional Federal Parliament and others Targets of Operations: al-Qaeda Taliban Baathist Iraq Baath... A prisoner at the United States Camp X-ray facility at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba being subjected to sensory deprivation, through the use of ear muffs, visor, breathing mask and heavy mittens. ...


Allegations emerged that in the Coalition occupation of Iraq after the second Gulf war, there was extensive use of torture techniques, allegedly supported by American military intelligence agents, in Iraqi jails such as Abu Ghraib and others. Map of Iraq highlighting Abu Ghraib The city of Abu Ghraib (BGN/PCGN romanization: Abū Ghurayb; أبو غريب in Arabic) in Iraq is located 32 kilometres (20 mi) west of Baghdads city center, or some 15 km northwest of Baghdad International Airport. ...

... there is also the grotesque and deeply shameful issue that will always be a part of Mr. Rumsfeld's legacy -- the manner in which American troops have treated prisoners under their control in Iraq, Afghanistan and Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. There is no longer any doubt that large numbers of troops responsible for guarding and interrogating detainees somehow loosed their moorings to humanity, and began behaving as sadists, perverts and criminals.

Bob Herbert, [36] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Government legal memoranda from as early as 2002, justify the use of interrogation techniques deemed by many observers as torture, a matter covered in the press and Congressional oversight hearings. In October 2006, the United States enacted the Military Commissions Act of 2006, authorizing the executive to conduct military tribunals of so-called enemy combatants and to hold them indefinitely without judicial review under the terms of habeas corpus. Testimony coerced through humiliating or degrading treatment would be admissible in the tribunals. Amnesty International and numerous commentators have criticized the Act for approving a system that uses torture, destroying the mechanisms for judicial review created by the Supreme Court ruling in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, and creating a parallel legal system below international standards.[37][38][39] President George W. Bush signs into law S. 3930, the Military Commissions Act of 2006, during a ceremony on October 17, 2006 in the East Room of the White House. ... An enemy combatant has historically referred to members of the armed forces of the state with which another state is at war. ... In common law countries, habeas corpus (/heɪbiəs kɔɹpəs/), Latin for you [should] have the body, is the name of a legal action or writ by means of which detainees can seek relief from unlawful imprisonment. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... Holding Military commission to try Plaintiff is illegal and lacking the protections required under the Geneva Conventions and United States Uniform Code of Military Justice. ...


Torture in extraordinary rendition

Media reports, human rights group statements and governmental investigations have all asserted that the U.S. government has handed suspects over to foreign intelligence services with far fewer qualms about torture for more intensive interrogation (see torture by proxy). The Post reported that one US official said, "If you don't violate someone's human rights some of the time, you probably aren't doing your job." The US Government denies that torture is being conducted in the detention camps at Guantanamo Bay.[40] There has been a lack of denial in official circles that America uses third party states to carry out Torture by proxy to obtain intelligence: it is alleged that terror suspects are arbitrarily and illegally arrested, then transferred to other countries to be interrogated and often tortured. Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Extraordinary rendition or torture by proxy is a procedure used by the government of the United States and other Western countries whereby foreign suspects are sent to another country for interrogation under less humane conditions. ... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation camp under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO) and has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since... Extraordinary rendition or torture by proxy is a procedure used by the government of the United States and other Western countries whereby foreign suspects are sent to another country for interrogation under less humane conditions. ...


In 2002, Canadian citizen Maher Arar was arrested and deported to Syria, where he was tortured. As of October 2004, Congress is considering "the 9/11 Recommendations Implementation Act" which would empower the Secretary for Homeland Security to deport non-US citizens without review. Maher Arar (Arabic: ‎; born 1970 in Syria) is a Canadian software engineer. ... For the NBC TV Movie starring Tom Skeritt, see Homeland Security (TV Movie). ...


References:[6]


Uzbekistan

After an investigating visit to Uzbekistan, United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture Theo van Boven concluded in a formal report:

Even though only a small number of torture cases can be proved with absolute certainty, the copious testimonies gathered ... are so consistent in their description of torture techniques and the places and circumstances in which torture is perpetrated that the pervasive and persistent nature of torture throughout the investigative process cannot be denied.

—Theo van Boven

Forms of torture frequently cited include immersion in boiling water, exposure to extreme heat and cold, "the use of electric shock, temporary suffocation, hanging by the ankles or wrists, removal of fingernails, punctures with sharp objects, rape, the threat of rape, and the threat of murder of family members.[41]


In 2003, Britain's Ambassador for Uzbekistan, Mr. Craig Murray made accusations that information was being extracted under extreme torture from dissidents in that country, and that the information was subsequently being used by Britain and other western, democratic countries which disapproved of torture.[42]


See also

Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ...

External links

  • No More Torture - a 5 minute slideshow set to music with information on extraordinary rendition and torture used at Guantanamo Bay

Footnotes

  1. ^ Orlando Tizon, Torture: State terrorism vs. Democracy, CovertAction Quarterly, Summer 2002. Tizon is assistant director of the Torture Abolition and Survivors Support Coalition (TASSC) in Washington, D.C.
  2. ^ Lawrence Weschler, A Miracle, A Universe: Settling Accounts with Torturers, 1990: 62-63.
  3. ^ J. Patrice McSherry, "Operation Condor: Clandestine Inter-American System" Social Justice, Winter 1999 v26 i4.
  4. ^ Dana Priest, CIA Holds Terror Suspects in Secret Prisons, Washington Post, November 2, 2005.
  5. ^ Human Rights Watch, Statement on U.S. Secret Detention Facilities in Europe, November 7, 2005.
  6. ^ Denounce Torture Amnesty International USA
  7. ^ Psychiatric center treats victims of Afghanistan torture By Richard S. Ehrlich Washington Times April 11, 1988 This site is not the official Washington Times site so the information can not be verified.
  8. ^ International responsibility for a human rights disaster on Amnesty International Web site "Extracted from International responsibility for a human rights disaster, Amnesty International, November 1995. ISBN 0-86210-250-2; AI Index: ASA/11/09/95"
  9. ^ I was one of the Taliban's torturers: I crucified people by Christina Lamb, Daily Telegraph, 30 September 2005
  10. ^ Afghanistan: Torture and Political Repression in Herat by Human Rights Watch 5 November 2002
  11. ^ In U.S. Report, Brutal Details of 2 Afghan Inmates' Deaths interview by Tim Golden, New York Times, 20 May 2005. Syndicated in The Scotsman 21 May 2005
  12. ^ Angola: A new cease-fire - a new opportunity for human rights Amnesty International USA AI Index AFR 12/002/2002 - News Service Nr.60 5 April 2002
  13. ^ U.N. Commission on Human Rights, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment On the web site of the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library.
  14. ^ (ANGOLA Extrajudicial executions and torture in Cabinda Amnesty International Index: AFR 12/002/1998 1 April 1998
  15. ^ National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons, The Nunca Más (Never Again) CONADEP Report, 1984.
  16. ^ Human Rights Watch, "Chile", Human Rights Watch World Report 2005. Human Rights Watch, "Chile", Human Rights Watch World Report 2006.
  17. ^ Human Rights Watch, The New Iraq? Torture and ill-treatment of detainees in Iraqi custody, January 2005.
  18. ^ Supreme Court ruling The host 62.90.71.124 does not seem to be available. This needs verifying.
  19. ^ ISRAEL AND THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES Mass detention in cruel, inhuman and degrading conditions Amnesty International Index: MDE 15/074/2002 23 May 2002
  20. ^ B'Tselem, Legislation allowing for the use of physical force, January 2000, pp.32,48.
  21. ^ TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT Israel's Interrogation of Palestinians from the Occupied Territories by Human Rights Watch, June 1994.
  22. ^ Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture : Israel. 18/05/98 by UNHCR COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE Twentieth session 4 - 22 May 1998 A/53/44,paras.232-242. (Concluding Observations/Comments)
  23. ^ Secrets Of Unit 1391 Uncovering an Israeli jail that specializes in nightmares by Dan Ephron News Week 28 June 2004 Archive Site
  24. ^ Human Rights Watch, “Rest in Pieces”: Police Torture and Deaths in Custody in Nigeria, July 2005.
  25. ^ World Council of Churches [Deborah Robinson], Ogoni: The Struggle Continues. [1]
  26. ^ Amnesty International report
  27. ^ AI Report 2003: Saudi Arabia, Amnesty International, 2003.
  28. ^ Saudi Arabia: New Evidence Of Torture, Human Rights News, Human Rights Watch, February 5, 2002.
  29. ^ Human Rights Watch World Report 2003: Saudi Arabia, Human Rights Watch, 2003.
  30. ^ Human Rights Watch World Report 2006: Saudi Arabia, Human Rights Watch, 2006.
  31. ^ Singapore sentences American to caning by David Watts in The Times 4 March 1994 also "A Flogging Sentence Brings a Cry of Pain", by Philip Shenon in the New York Times 16 March 1994; 2 articles by Charles P. Wallace in The Los Angeles Times and an editorial in the same newspaper; and a couple of other news paper articles. This link is to a website called "World Corporal Punishment Research". A second better known (and therefore trusted) source is needed for conformation of these articles.
  32. ^ Volpe plead guilty and was sentenced to 30 years in prison. "Policeman in torture case changes plea to guilty", CNN, May 25, 1999. "Volpe receives 30-year sentence for sodomy in Louima brutality case", Court TV, December 13, 1999.
  33. ^ Paige Bierma, Torture behind bars: right here in the United States of America, The Progressive, July 1994.
  34. ^ Lance Tapley, Torture in Maine’s prison, Portland Phoenix, November 11 - 17, 2005.
  35. ^ Torture Policy (cont'd) Editorial in the Washington Post 21 June 2004
  36. ^ Much of what has happened to the military on Donald Rumsfeld's watch has been catastrophic by Bob Herbert New York Times 23 May 2005 article syndicated
  37. ^ Amnesty International, Rubber stamping violations in the "war on terror": Congress fails human rights, 27 September 2006.
  38. ^ Martin Scheinin, UN EXPERT ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND COUNTERTERRORISM CONCERNED THAT MILITARY COMMISSIONS ACT IS NOW LAW IN UNITED STATES, 27 October 2006
  39. ^ Jeremy Waldron, The Rule against Torture as a Legal Archetype, Charney Lecture, 2006
  40. ^ Dana Priest and Barton Gellman, "U.S. Decries Abuse but Defends Interrogations" Washington Post, December 26, 2002; Page A01
  41. ^ Human Rights Watch, "Uzbekistan", Human Rights Watch World Report 2001
  42. ^ The envoy silenced after telling undiplomatic truths, The Daily Telegraph October 23, 2004.

  1.   Spanish References
  2.   UK References
  3.   USA References

  Results from FactBites:
 
Torture - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia (1706 words)
One of the gayer forms of torture is the tickling of the feet, often using feathers or the back-ends of small furry animals.
One might think this form of torture is preferable to, for instance, beating, or fire, but this is not the case; the emasculation and humiliation endured during this form of torture is enough to make even the manliest of manly men weep like a little girl, and nobody likes a crybaby.
This is a particularly cruel form of torture in which the victim is locked inside a crazy, spike-filled, body-shaped chamber and forced to listen to the music of Hilary Duff, or Enya for hours and hours on end.
Torture - LoveToKnow 1911 (9923 words)
The principal forms of torture in use were the equuleus, or rack (mentioned as far back as Cicero), 4 the plumbatae, or leaden balls, the ungulae, or barbed hooks, the lamina, or hot plate, the mala mansio, 5 and the fidiculae, or cord compressing the arm.
Torture could not be inflicted during the forty days of Lent.' Robbers and pirates might be tortured even on Easter day, the divine pardon being hoped for where the safety of society was thus assured.
By the edict of the inquisitor-general Valdes, in 1561, torture was to be left to the prudence and equity of the judges.
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