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Encyclopedia > Urmia
Nickname: Cradle of Water
Orumiyeh (Iran)
Coordinates: 37°32′58″N 45°4′11″E / 37.54944, 45.06972
Country Flag of Iran Iran
Province West Azarbaijan
Population (2005)
 - Total 602,403
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)

Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. It is also the capital of the West Azerbaijan province, situated on the western side of Lake Urmia near the Turkish border. Its population in 2005 is estimated at 602,403 [1]. EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x849, 47 KB) Summary Blank locator map (orthographic projection) of Iran By Kaveh General SVG version: Sources Map of Iran - CIA - 2005 Provinces of Iran Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... West Azarbaijan (in Persian, آذربایجان ØºØ±Ø¨ÛŒ Azarbāyejān-e-Qarbi; in Kurdish, Azerbaycanî Rojawa; in Azerbaijani, QÉ™rbi AzÉ™rbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Iran Standard Time (IRST) is the time zone used in Iran. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...



The name Urmia is thought by some to have come from Syriac, the language of the city's Assyrian founders: Ur, meaning "cradle," and mia, meaning "water." Hence, Urmia, situated by a lake and surrounded by rivers, would be the cradle of water. There is, however, no generally accepted etymology. Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ...

Administrative divisions

Urmia consists of five parts:

  • Markazi (Central): Baranduzchay, Baranduzchay Shomali, Baranduzchay jonubi, bashqale, bakshluchay , Torkman, Dol, Rozechay, Nazluchay Jonubi, and its Center is Urmia
  • Anzal: Anzal Jonoubi, Anzal Shomali, and its center is Qushchi
  • Silvan: Tergawar, Margawar, Dasht, and its center is Silvane
  • Somay Brados: Somay Jonubi, Somay Shomali, Bradost, and its center is Sero
  • Nazlu: Talatape, Nazluchay, Nazluchay shomali, and its center is Nushin

Urmia University has a large accredited college of agriculture. Urmia is situated in a fertile region where fruit (apples and grapes) and tobacco are grown. Many families have apple plantations of various sizes. Somay Brados, (in Persian (official language of Iran): صومای برادوست Somay Baradoost, in Kurdish: Somay Brados) is a city west of Lake Urmia, between the city of Urmia and the Turkey border. ... Urmia University is a major university in the city of Urmia in West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Urmia is an ethnically diverse city, with a population composed of Azeris, Kurds as well as scattered groups of Armenians and Assyrians. The main languages spoken in the city are Azerbaijani while all ethnic groups can speak/understand Azeri and Persian. But, the official language at schools and government institutions remains Persian. This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other peoples from the Fertile Crescent. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

The city has been home to various ethnic groups during its long history. For this reason, the demographics of the city have undergone numerous changes, with Azeris and Kurds currently constituting the majority of the population [citation needed]. Nonetheless, many historical documents attest to the fact that at the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of the city's population was composed of Assyrians who adhered to Christianity[citation needed]. However, the mass exodus of Assyrians and Armenians starting in 1914 by virtue of the Armenian and Assyrian genocides committed by the Ottoman Turks and the subsequent battles between the Russian and Ottoman armies led to a drastic shift in the city's demographics. During the era of Reza Shah Pahlavi, Iranian Assyrians were invited to return to the region and repopulate their villages, and a few thousand did return. Since that time, most Assyrians have been centered in Tehran and other major cities. [2] [3]. However, the rise of the Islamic Republic of Iran led many Assyrians to flee the country for the West (see Assyrian diaspora). Bodies of Christians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Since World War I, the Assyrian diaspora has steadily increased so that there are now more Assyrians living in western and eastern European countries (including Australia) and North America, than in the Middle East. ...

It appears that birth rates among Kurds have been higher than among Azeris over recent decades. This coupled with greater migration into the urban area has made the Kurds into a dominant group in Urmia [4]. Iran's Minister of Energy, Parviz Fattah, is from Urmia. Parviz Fattah is an Iranian-Azeri politician, former member of Revolutionary Guard and Irans Minister of Energy in Mahmoud Ahmadinejads cabinet. ...


Urmia, according to many historians, is believed to be the birthplace of the prophet Zarathustra, the founder of Zoroastrianism. [5]. Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...

The Columbia Encyclopedia mentions that Urmia was an important town in the region during the 9th century.[6] The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...

The city was reportedly sacked by the Seljuk Turks in 1184. The Ottoman Turks made several incursions into the city, but the Safavids were soon able to regain control over the area. The first monarch of Iran's Qajar dynasty, Agha Muhammad Khan, was crowned in Urmia in 1795. Due to Urmia's relatively large Christian population growth by the end of the 19th century, Urmia also became the seat of the first American Christian mission in Iran in 1835. Another mission soon became operational in nearby Tabriz as well. It is reported that by the turn of the century, Christians composed more than 50% of the city's population[citation needed]. Most of them, however, fled the city during or after World War I. Currently, Muslims constitute 95% of the population. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... // Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Agha Mohammad Khan by a European Engraver Agha Muhammad Khan (1742 - June 17, 1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Tabriz (Azari: TÉ™briz ;Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...

The Catholic Encyclopedia mentions Urmia as the seat of a Chaldean diocese.

Colleges and universities

Urmia University was built by an American Presbyterian missionary in 1878. A medical faculty was also established there headed by Joseph Cochran and a team of American medical associates. Joseph Cochran and his colleagues were buried in an old cemetery in the vicinity of Urmia. Urmia University website says this about them: Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Plumb Cochran (Jan 14, 1855 - August 18, 1905) was an American Presbyterian missionary. ...

There they lie in peace away from their homeland, and the testimonial epitaphs on their tombs signify their endeavor and devotion to humanity.

The city today has the following major institutes of higher education:

Urmia University is a major university in the city of Urmia in West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ...


  • Baghcheh-Juq Palace - A monument dating back to the Qajar era that is open to the public.
  • Khoy Museum - A public museum displaying archaeological & ethnological monuments.
  • Miandoab Museum - An archaeological Museum.
  • Natural History Museum - Displays the animals native to the vicinity of Urmia.
  • Urmia Museum - Archaeological museum affiliated with the faculty of Shahid Beheshti University.

Shahid Beheshti University is a university located in north of Tehran. ...

Major Hotels

  • Hotel Urmia
  • Hotel Sahel
  • Hotel Darya
  • Khorram Hotel
  • Hotel Reza
  • Bari Hotel

See also

Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... This article is about the Iranian province; for similar uses, see Azerbaijan (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Urmia Museum
  • The Governor of West Azarbaijan Province
  • Urmia Branch of Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance
  • Urmia Branch of Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • Urmia Petrochemical company
  • Urmia Road and Transportation Office
  • Urmiya, By V. Minorsky and C.E. Bosworth, in Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  • Columbia Free Dictionary: Urmia
  • WikiMapia: Urmia

Coordinates: 37°33′N, 45°06′E The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

  Results from FactBites:
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Chaldean Christians (2910 words)
The establishment (1837) of a Protestant mission near Urmia probably accounts for this regrettable attitude.
As a matter of fact the Chaldean patriarch resides habitually at Mosul and reserves for himself the direct administration of this diocese and that of Baghdad.
There are five archbishops (resident respectively at Bassora, Diarbekir, Kerkuk, Salamas, and Urmia) and seven bishops.
  More results at FactBites »



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