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Encyclopedia > Urination

Urination, also known as micturition, voiding, and, more rarely, emiction, is the process of disposing urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. In healthy adults, the process of urination is under voluntary control; in infants and individuals with neurological injury, urination may occur as an involuntary reflex. Manneken Pis of Brussels in the nude Manneken Pis (little man piss in English), is a Brussels landmark. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek ουρήθρα - ourethra) is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ...

Contents

Terms

Urination is often referred to as "peeing", a euphemism for "piss" which is considered more vulgar. It is also referred to as "weeing" or "doing/having a wee-wee", though not in North America. "To whiz" or "whizzing" is common in the U.S. "To piddle" is common in the U.K., as well as "to have a slash", which originates from the Scottish word "slash" meaning a large splash of liquid.[1] Others of note are "tinkle" and "potty" - both of which are often used with children.


Anatomy of the bladder and outlet

The interior of bladder
The interior of bladder
Main articles: Urinary bladder and urethra

The main organs involved in urination are the bladder and the urethra. The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar spinal cord and parasympathetic fibers from the sacral spinal cord. [2] Fibers in the pelvic nerves constitute the main afferent limb of the voiding reflex; the parasympathetic fibers to the bladder that constitute the excitatory efferent limb also travel in these nerves. Part of the urethra is surrounded by the external urinary sphincter, which is innervated by somatic fibers originating in the sacral cord, in an area termed Onuf's nucleus[3]. Image File history File links Gray1140. ... Image File history File links Gray1140. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek ουρήθρα - ourethra) is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made up of smooth muscle fibers arranged in inner and outer longitudinal layers and a middle circular layer. ... The word sympathetic means different things in different contexts. ... In anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum (pelvis). ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... Sacrum, pelvic surface The sacrum (os sacrum) is a large, triangular bone at the base of the vertebral column and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity, where it is inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones. ...


Muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter, although they do not encircle the urethra. Farther along the urethra is a sphincter of skeletal muscle, the sphincter of the membranous urethra (external urethral sphincter). The bladder epithelium is made up of a superficial layer of flat cells and a deep layer of cuboidal cells.


Physiology of urination

The physiology of micturition and the physiologic basis of its disorders are subjects about which there is much confusion, especially at the supraspinal level. Micturition is fundamentally a spinobulbospinal reflex facilitated and inhibited by higher brain centers and, like defecation, subject to voluntary facilitation and inhibition.[4] Anatomy of the anus and rectum For the death metal band Defecation, see Defecation (band). ...


In healthy individuals, the lower urinary tract has two discrete phases of activity: the storage phase, when urine is stored in the bladder; and the voiding phase, when urine is released through the urethra. The state of the reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory fibers from the bladder and urethra.[4] At low bladder volumes, afferent firing is low, resulting in excitation of the outlet (the sphincter and urethra), and relaxation of the bladder.[5] At high bladder volumes, afferent firing increases, causing a conscious sensation of urinary urge. When the individual is ready to urinate, he or she consciously initiates voiding, causing the bladder to contract and the outlet to relax. Voiding continues until the bladder empties completely, at which point the bladder relaxes and the outlet contracts to re-initiate storage.[4]


In infants, voiding occurs involuntarily (as a reflex). The ability to voluntarily inhibit micturition develops at the age of 2-3 years, as control at higher levels of the central nervous system develops. In the adult, the volume of urine in the bladder that normally initiates a reflex contraction is about 300-400 mL.


Storage phase

During storage, bladder pressure stays low, because of the bladder's highly compliant nature. A plot of bladder (intravesical) pressure against the volume of fluid in the bladder (called a cystometrogram) will show a very slight rise as the bladder is filled. This phenomenon is a manifestation of the law of Laplace, which states that the pressure in a spherical viscus is equal to twice the wall tension divided by the radius. In the case of the bladder, the tension increases as the organ fills, but so does the radius. Therefore, the pressure increase is slight until the organ is relatively full. The bladder smooth muscle has some inherent contractile activity; however, when its nerve supply is intact, stretch receptors in the bladder wall initiate a reflex contraction that has a lower threshold than the inherent contractile response of the muscle. Laplaces law or The law of Laplace may refer to several concepts, Biot-Savart law, in electromagnetics, it describes the magnetic field set up by a steady current density. ...


Action potentials carried by sensory neurons from stretch receptors in the urinary bladder wall travel to the sacral segments of the spinal cord through the pelvic nerves.[4] Since bladder wall stretch is low during the storage phase, these afferent neurons fire at low frequencies. Low-frequency afferent signals cause relaxation of the bladder by inhibiting sacral preganglionic neurons and exciting lumbar sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Conversely, afferent input causes contraction of the sphincter through excitation of Onuf's nucleus, and contraction of the bladder neck and urethra through excitation of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons.


As the bladder becomes full, afferent firing increases, yet the micturition reflex can be voluntarily inhibited until it is appropriate to begin voiding (e.g. a bathroom is reached).


Voiding phase

Voiding begins when a voluntary signal is sent from the brain to begin urination, and continues until the bladder is empty.


Bladder afferent signals ascend the spinal cord to the periaqueductal gray, where they project both to the pontine micturition center and to the cerebrum [6]. At a certain level of afferent activity, the conscious urge to void becomes difficult to ignore. Once the voluntary signal to begin voiding has been issued, neurons in pontine micturition center fire maximally, causing excitation of sacral preganglionic neurons. The firing of these neurons causes the wall of the bladder to contract; as a result, a sudden, sharp rise in pressure in intravesical pressure occurs. The pontine micturition center also causes inhibition of Onuf's nucleus, resulting in relaxation of the external urinary sphincter.[7] When the external urinary sphincter is relaxed urine flows from the urinary bladder when the pressure there is great enough to force urine to flow through the urethra. The micturition reflex normally produces a series of contractions of the urinary bladder.


The flow of urine through the urethra has an overall excitatory role in micturition, which helps sustain voiding until the bladder is empty.[8]


After urination, the female urethra empties by gravity. Urine remaining in the urethra of the male is expelled by several contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle. Bulbospongiosus is one of the superficial muscles of the perineum. ...


Voluntary control

The mechanism by which voluntary urination is initiated remains unsettled.[9] One possibility is that the voluntary relaxation of the muscles of the pelvic floor causes a sufficient downward tug on the detrusor muscle to initiate its contraction.[10] Another possibility is the excitation or disinhibition of neurons in the pontine micturition center, which causes concurrent contraction of the bladder and relaxation of the sphincter.[4] The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made up of smooth muscle fibers arranged in inner and outer longitudinal layers and a middle circular layer. ...


There is an inhibitory area for micturition in the midbrain. After transection of the brain stem just above the pons, the threshold is lowered and less bladder filling is required to trigger it, whereas after transection at the top of the midbrain, the threshold for the reflex is essentially normal. There is another facilitatory area in the posterior hypothalamus. In humans with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus, the desire to urinate is reduced and there is also difficulty in stopping micturition once it has commenced. However, stimulation experiments in animals indicate that other cortical areas also affect the process.


The bladder can be made to contract by voluntary facilitation of the spinal voiding reflex when it contains only a few milliliters of urine. Voluntary contraction of the abdominal muscles aids the expulsion of urine by increasing the pressure applied to the urinary bladder wall, but voiding can be initiated without straining even when the bladder is nearly empty. The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ...


Voiding can also be consciously interrupted once it has begun, through a contraction of the perineal muscles and the external sphincter can be contracted voluntarily, which will prevent urine from passing down the urethra.


Experience of urination

Need to urinate is experienced as an uncomfortable, full, feeling. It is highly correlated with the fullness of the bladder.[11] In males the feeling of the need to urinate can be sensed at the base of the penis, even though the neural activity associated with a full bladder comes from the bladder itself. In females the need to urinate is felt in the lower abdomen in the region of the bladder.


Release of urine is experienced as a lessening of the uncomfortable, full, feeling.


Post-micturition convulsion syndrome, the feeling of a shiver running down the spine following urination, occurs in more than 80% of men, but also occurs in more than 55% of women[12]. Its explanation is unknown. Post-micturition convulsion syndrome, also known as piss shivers or pee shivers, is a phenomenon where one feels a shiver running down the spine following urination. ...


Disorders of urination

People showing the physician Constantine the African urine samples for diagnosis
People showing the physician Constantine the African urine samples for diagnosis

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 893 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 893 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... Constantine the African was a translator of Greek medical texts. ...

Experimentally induced disorders

There are three major types of bladder dysfunction due to neural lesions: (1) the type due to interruption of the afferent nerves from the bladder; (2) the type due to interruption of both afferent and efferent nerves; and (3) the type due to interruption of facilitatory and inhibitory pathways descending from the brain. In all three types the bladder contracts, but the contractions are generally not sufficient to empty the viscus completely, and residual urine is left in the bladder. Paruresis, also known as shy bladder syndrome, is an example of a bladder interruption from the brain that often causes total interruption until the person has left a public area. Paruresis (IPA ), also known as pee shyness, shy kidney, bashful bladder, stage fright, or shy bladder syndrome is a type of social anxiety disorder, that can affect both men and women, in which the sufferer is unable to urinate in the (real or imaginary) presence of others, such as in...


Effects of deafferentation

When the sacral dorsal roots are cut in experimental animals or interrupted by diseases of the dorsal roots such as tabes dorsalis in humans, all reflex contractions of the bladder are abolished. The bladder becomes distended, thin-walled, and hypotonic, but there are some contractions because of the intrinsic response of the smooth muscle to stretch.


Effects of denervation

When the afferent and efferent nerves are both destroyed, as they may be by tumors of the cauda equina or filum terminale, the bladder is flaccid and distended for a while. Gradually, however, the muscle of the "decentralized bladder" becomes active, with many contraction waves that expel dribbles of urine out of the urethra. The bladder becomes shrunken and the bladder wall hypertrophied. The reason for the difference between the small, hypertrophic bladder seen in this condition and the distended, hypotonic bladder seen when only the afferent nerves are interrupted is not known. The hyperactive state in the former condition suggests the development of denervation hypersensitization even though the neurons interrupted are preganglionic rather than postganglionic.


Effects of spinal cord transection

During spinal shock, the bladder is flaccid and unresponsive. It becomes overfilled, and urine dribbles through the sphincters (overflow incontinence). After spinal shock has passed, the voiding reflex returns, although there is, of course, no voluntary control and no inhibition or facilitation from higher centers when the spinal cord is transected. Some paraplegic patients train themselves to initiate voiding by pinching or stroking their thighs, provoking a mild mass reflex. In some instances, the voiding reflex becomes hyperactive. Bladder capacity is reduced, and the wall becomes hypertrophied. This type of bladder is sometimes called the spastic neurogenic bladder. The reflex hyperactivity is made worse by, and may be caused by, infection in the bladder wall.


Clinical conditions

Many clinical conditions can cause disturbances to normal urination. Here is a partial list:

  • Urinary incontinence, or the inability to hold urine
    • Stress urinary incontinence, incontinence that occurs as a result of external mechanical disturbances
    • Urge urinary incontinence, incontinence that occurs as a result of the uncontrollable urge to urinate
    • Mixed urinary incontinence, a combination of the two types of incontinence
  • Urinary retention, the inability to initiate urination
  • Overactive bladder, a strong urge to urinate, usually accompanied by detrusor overactivity
  • Interstitial cystitis, a condition characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, and pain
  • Prostatitis, a supposed inflammation of the prostate gland that can cause urinary frequency, urgency, and pain
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia, an enlargement of the prostate that can cause urinary frequency, urgency, retention, and the dribbling of urine
  • Urinary tract infection, which can cause urinary frequency and dysuria
  • Oliguria refers to a low urine output, usually due to a problem with the upper urinary tract
  • Anuria refers to absent or almost absent urine output.

The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Urinary retention also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate. ... Overactive bladder (OAB) is a urological condition defined by a set of symptoms: urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia. ... Interstitial cystitis (commonly abbreviated to IC) is a urinary bladder disease of unknown cause characterised by urinary frequency (as often as every 10 minutes), urgency, pressure and/or pain in the bladder and/or pelvis. ... Prostatitis is any form of inflammation of the prostate gland. ... For other uses of the acronym BPH, see BPH (disambiguation). ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to any difficulty in urination. ... Oliguria and anuria are the decreased or absent production of urine, respectively. ... Oliguria and anuria are the decreased or absent production of urine, respectively. ...

Urination techniques

Due to the differences in where the urethra ends, men and women use different techniques for urination. In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek ουρήθρα - ourethra) is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ...


Male urination

Due to the flexible and protruding nature of the penis, it is easy to control the direction of the urine stream. This makes it easy to urinate standing up, and a lot of men urinate this way. Extant foreskin may block the direct path of the outgoing stream by causing turbulence, resulting in a slower, but thicker stream of urine that may also dribble. A retracted or absent foreskin may have a more focused stream of urine that travels at the same speed it exits the urethra. When a man is done urinating, he will usually shake and/or gently squeeze his penis to expel the excess urine trapped in the opening of the foreskin or on the glans. Trousers usually have a fly allowing men to urinate without lowering the whole trousers. The fly has buttons or a zipper. Either just the fly is opened or also the fastening at the waist. If underpants are worn, the fly of the underpants is used or their front-side is lowered. All combinations are possible. Trousers without a fly, like some jogging trousers, usually have an elastic waist band allowing lowering the front side like underpants. When out in public a man will sometimes pee into a urinal. When at home a man will usually urinate into a toilet bowl. In a toilet, urine is more audible because it hits water, but when in a urinal there is little to no noise. The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Standing is a human position in which the body constantly is in an orthostatic state. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek ουρήθρα - ourethra) is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... The glans penis (or simply glans) is the sensitive tip of the penis. ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... For other uses, see Button (disambiguation). ... Zipper slider brings together the two sides A zipper (British English: zip fastener or zip) is a popular device for temporarily joining two edges of fabric. ...


Female urination

In women, the urethra opens straight into the vulva. Because of this, the urine does not exit at a distance from her body and is, therefore, hard to control. Because of surface tension in the urine, the easiest method is to just rely on gravity to take over once the urine has exited her body. This can easily be achieved if the woman is sitting on a toilet. When sitting, it helps if the woman leans forward and keeps her legs together, as this helps direct her stream downwards. When not urinating into a toilet, squatting is the easiest way for a woman to direct her urine stream. Some women use one or both hands to focus the direction of the urine stream, which is more easily achieved while in the squatting position. The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs of the female, including the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of the vestibule, vestibule of the vagina, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and vaginal orifice. ... This box:      Surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...


Some women prefer to not sit all the way down on a toilet seat, to avoid contact with the toilet. This technique is called hovering but is also known as squatting in some areas. These alternative choices are sometimes made due to the perceived or actual unsanitary conditions. However, the resultant loss of accuracy often increases the presence of urine on the toilet seat and leads to a positive feedback loop. This approach could even be considered an example of the tragedy of the commons. Hovering means that a machine can levitate over the ground using a force that operate opposite the gravity force. ... For other uses, see squat. ... Sanitation vehicle in New York City. ... Positive feedback is a type of feedback. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ...


Women who wear pants/trousers/shorts will need to lower the garment to facilitate urination. Women wearing skirts or dresses only need to raise them to their waists to urinate, just lowering the underpants. While urinating in the squatting position, pants are often just lowered to the midst of the thighs, and some women lift the midst of the lowered underpants up.[citation needed] Some women hold the front of their underpants or bikinipants to the side, hence not having to pull them down.


It is possible for many women to urinate standing while spreading the legs. This technique for urinating while standing can be common when women often wear a sarong, skirt, or other such open bottomed garments, and either wear no underwear, or remove it. It is considered normal for women to urinate like this in many parts of Africa, whereas in contrast, it is not completely accepted in countries such as India where it also occurs in some areas.[citation needed] In Africa, even signs which forbid public urination often show a picture of a woman urinating while standing. [13]. It is mostly in West Africa, like Ghana and Nigeria, that it is considered normal for a female to urinate standing up.[citation needed]In many other parts it mostly occurs in the countryside or not at all.[citation needed] A sarong or sarung is a large sheet of fabric, often wrapped around the waist and worn as a skirt by men and women throughout much of south Asia and southeast Asia, parts of Africa, and on many Pacific islands. ... A skirt is a traditionally feminine tube- or cone-shaped garment which is worn from the waist and covers the legs. ... A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Sign (disambiguation). ...


Though uncommon, it is possible for women to urinate standing up in a way similar to that of men. This may be done by spreading the labia minora open in a certain way and orienting the pelvis at an angle and rapidly forcing the urine stream out. [14] An alternative method is to use a tool known as a female urination device to assist. The womans' bladder is smaller than mens'. The pelvis (pl. ... A female urination device or female urination aid is a small funnel which enables a woman to urinate while standing upright. ...


Urination after injury

Occasionally, if a male's penis is damaged or removed, or a female's genitals/urinary tract is damaged, other urination techniques must be used. Most often in such cases, doctors will reposition the urethra to a location where urination can still be accomplished, usually in a position that would only promote urination while seated/squatting, though a permanent urinary catheter may rarely be used in some cases. Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. ...


Social factors

Toilet training

Babies have no socialized control over urination within societies that do not practice elimination communication and instead use diapers. Toilet training is the process of learning to restrict urination to socially approved times and situations. Many young children suffer from nocturnal enuresis.[15] The term baby can refer to: an infant a very early computer—the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed Baby a musician – Brian Williams – who performs under the name Baby. ... Elimination communication (EC) is a form of nurturing in which a caregiver uses timing, signals, cues, and intuition to help an infant address his or her elimination needs, partially or completely avoiding the use of diapers (nappies). ... This article is about the garment. ... Toilet training (or potty training) is the process of weaning a young child off diapers (or nappies in the British Isles and many Commonwealth countries) and training the child to use the toilet for urination and defecation. ... Bedwetting (or enuresis) is involuntary urination while asleep in bed. ...


Toilets

Toilet outside the Philadelphia City Hall
Toilet outside the Philadelphia City Hall

It is socially more accepted and more hygienic for adults and older children to urinate in a toilet. In some countries, public toilets are separated for men and women, and may be partitioned for reasons of cultural modesty. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... Philadelphia City Hall is the seat of government for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Urinals

Main article: urinal

Public restrooms may have urinals for men. Urinals for women, though rare, allow females to urinate while standing through the use of a special tool [16] or through the finger-assist method [17]. Urinals for either sex may have partitions between them in order to increase privacy. People with a mild form of paruresis, or "shy bladder syndrome," may have difficulty urinating in the presence of others and will consequently avoid using urinals directly adjacent to another person. Alternatively, they may opt for the privacy of a stall or simply avoid public restrooms altogether. Urinals redirects here. ... Urinals redirects here. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Paruresis (IPA ), also known as pee shyness, shy kidney, bashful bladder, stage fright, or shy bladder syndrome is a type of social anxiety disorder, that can affect both men and women, in which the sufferer is unable to urinate in the (real or imaginary) presence of others, such as in...


Social transgressions

Urinating gargoyle
Urinating gargoyle

A common transgression is urinating in the street (except at a public urinal). Often this is done after the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the alcohol causes production of additional urine as well as a reduction of inhibitions. In most places, public urination is punishable by fine, though attitudes vary widely by country. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Gargoyles redirects here. ... Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ... Social Inhibition is what keeps humans from involving in potentially objectionable actions and/or expressions in a social setting. ...


Urination can also be seen as a sign of disrespect or contempt for someone or something. In popular culture, signs of a cartoon figure (sometimes Calvin) urinating on another object (usually a car brand) are common. Calvin in a yelling mood. ...


In many countries and in many social classes even mentioning the need to urinate is seen as a social transgression, although the need is universal. Until recently in the UK many children were taught to say "I need a tidy" or "I need attention" when they needed to be taken to urinate. The abbreviations "tidy" or "tenny" were often used. Other euphemisms, such as 'Spending a penny" (a reference to coin-operated pay toilets); 'Going to see my aunt'; or 'Going to see a man about a dog' were used by adults. Even today adults may avoid stating that they need to urinate. In India, especially school students, raise their little finger to indicate the need to pass urine. They may also say they need to go for number "one". This appears to be a universal practice in India. A freestanding, coin-operated pay toilet stall in Paris. ...


Urination in art can be seen as controversial.[citation needed]


In 2006 several men were caught on film urinating on the Canadian War Memorial in Ottawa, Canada. The pictures led to public outcry and a denunciation by Prime Minister Stephen Harper. Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Alternatives to toilets

Stacked chamber pots
Stacked chamber pots

Sometimes urination is done in a container such as a bottle, urinal, bedpan or chamber pot, also known as a gazunder, e.g., in case of lying sick in bed, in the case that the urine has to be examined (for medical reasons, or for a drug test), or in the case that there is no toilet or it is inconvenient to go there, and no other possibility to dispose of the urine right away. See also Bedpan use and output measurement. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 526 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1328 × 1513 pixel, file size: 954 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) fr: Pot de chambre blanc sur pot de chambre décoré en: a white chamber pot with a decorated chamber pot File links The following pages... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 526 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1328 × 1513 pixel, file size: 954 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) fr: Pot de chambre blanc sur pot de chambre décoré en: a white chamber pot with a decorated chamber pot File links The following pages... Urinals redirects here. ... Stacked chamber pots A chamber pot (also a john, a chamberpot, a jordan, a po (from French pot de chambre) or simply a potty) consists of a bowl-shaped container with a handle kept in the bedroom under a bed or in the cabinet of a nightstand and used as... In sports, doping refers to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly those that are forbidden by the organizations that regulate competitions. ... // Nursing assistant skills are the set of learned tasks used in helping residents or patients with activities of daily living (ADLs) and providing bedside care--including basic nursing procedures--under the supervision of a Registered Nurse (RN) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). ...


For the latter application a more expensive solution (hence for special occasions while traveling etc.) is a special disposable bag containing absorbent material that solidifies the urine in 5 to 10 seconds, making it convenient and safe to keep. It can also be used for vomiting. As well, it is not uncommon for people who do not have access to toilets to simply urinate on the ground. The local flora such as a tree or bush can be used for added privacy. Heaving redirects here. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ...


Urination fetishes

Some pornography depicts urination. Porn redirects here. ...

See also: Urolagnia, Urophagia, and Omorashi

Golden shower redirects here. ... For the sexual attraction to urine, see Urolagnia. ... Omorashi ) is a fetish subculture recognized predominantly in Japan, in which participants experience arousal from having a full bladder or a sexual attraction to someone else experiencing the feeling of a full bladder. ...

Animals

Reindeer

Throughout the animal kingdom, urination often serves a utilitarian purpose. In dogs and other animals, urination can mark territory or express submissiveness. In small rodents such as rats and mice, it marks familiar paths. Image File history File links Reindeer_urinating. ... Image File history File links Reindeer_urinating. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... For other uses, see Utility (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Territorial marking is behavior used by animals to identify their territory. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ...


Animals usually kneel, lift or spread legs to complete full urination. For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Kneeling is a human position in which the weight is distributed on the knees and feet, typically on the ground. ... Diagram of an insect leg A leg is the part of an animals body that supports the rest of the animal above the ground and is used for locomotion. ...


See also

This article is about the urinary bladder. ... In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek ουρήθρα - ourethra) is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... Anatomy of the anus and rectum For the death metal band Defecation, see Defecation (band). ... Micturition syncope is a neurally reflex-mediated form of syncope that occurs as a result of micturition. ...

References

  1. ^ have a slash - Dictionary of sexual terms
  2. ^ Urinary Incontinence – Part 2 - Boston Spinal Cord
  3. ^ Serotoninergic, noradrenergic, and peptidergic inn...[J Comp Neurol. 1992] - PubMed Result
  4. ^ a b c d e Neurophysiology of Lower Urinary Tract Function and Dysfunction
  5. ^ Reflexes to sacral parasympathetic neurones concer...[J Physiol. 1969] - PubMed Result
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Look up Urination in
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Physiology of urination


  Results from FactBites:
 
urination: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (3608 words)
Urination, also called micturition, is the process of disposing urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
This reflex occurs in the spinal cord, specifically in the sacral region that is modified by the higher centers in the brain: the pons and cerebrum.
There are three major types of bladder dysfunction due to neural lesions: (1) the type due to interruption of the afferent nerves from the bladder; (2) the type due to interruption of both afferent and efferent nerves; and (3) the type due to interruption of facilitatory and inhibitory pathways descending from the brain.
Urination - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3482 words)
The initiation of urination is caused by the stretch in the wall of the bladder.
In New Orleans, urination on the street is sometimes referred to as a "New Orleans Piss".
Urination is often referred to as "Peeing", a euphemism for "Piss" which is considered vulgar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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