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Encyclopedia > Urinary system

The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The analogous organ in invertebrates is the nephridium. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... The excretory system is the system of an organisms body that performs the function of excretion, the bodily process of discharging wastes. ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... Nephridia are invertebrate organs which function similarly to kidneys. ...

Contents

Physiology

Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed
Main article: Kidney

Typically, every human has two kidneys. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of a bar of poo. The kidneys lie in the abdomen, posterior or retroperitoneal to the organs of digestion, around or just below the ribcage and close to the lumbar spine. The kidneys are surrounded by what is called peri-nephric fat, and situated on the superior pole of each kidney is an adrenal gland. The kidneys receive their blood supply of 1.25 L/min (25% of the cardiac output) from the renal arteries which are fed by the Abdominal aorta. This is important because the kidneys' main role is to filter water soluble waste products from the blood. The other attachment of the kidneys are at their functional endpoints the ureters, which lies more medial and runs down to the trigone of the bladder. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Dry kidney beans The kidney bean is a medium-sized variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with dark red skin. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... Retroperitoneal is an anatomical term that refers to the relationship of the contents of the abdominal cavity to the peritoneal space. ... A typical lumbar vertebra The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and can be distinguished by the absence of a foramen (hole) in the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a ventricle in a minute. ... AORTA can also mean always-on real-time access, referring to WAN computer networks. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... The trigone is a smooth triangular region of the internal urinary bladder formed by the two ureteral orifices and the internal urethral orifice. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ...


Functionally the kidney performs a number of tasks. In its role in the urinary system it concentrates urine, plays a crucial role in regulating electrolytes, and maintains acid-base homeostasis. The kidney excretes and re-absorbs electrolytes (e.g. sodium, potassium and calcium) under the influence of local and systemic hormones. pH balance is regulated by the excretion of bound acids and ammonium ions. In addition, they remove urea, a nitrogenous waste product from the metabolism of proteins from amino acids. The end point is a hyperosmolar solution carrying waste for storage in the bladder prior to urination. This illustration demonstrates the normal kidney physiology. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... The body is very sensitive to its pH level. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Titratable acid is a term to describe acids such as phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid which are involved in renal physiology. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... In chemistry, the osmole (Osm) is a non-SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of a chemical compound that contribute to a solutions osmotic pressure. ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ...


Humans produce about 1.5 liters of urine over 24 hours, although this amount may vary according to circumstances. Because the rate of filtration at the kidney is proportional to the glomerular filtration rate, which is in turn related to the blood flow through the kidney, changes in body fluid status can affect kidney function. Hormones exogenous and endogenous to the kidney alter the amount of blood flowing through the glomerulus. Some medications interfere directly or indirectly with urine production. Diuretics achieve this by altering the amount of absorbed or excreted electrolytes or osmalites, which causes a diuresis. This article is about modern humans. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... This article is about proportionality, the mathematical relation. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... In chemistry, the osmole (Osm) is a non-SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of a chemical compound that contribute to a solutions osmotic pressure. ... Diuresis is the production of urine by the kidney. ...


Bladder

Main article: Bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ shaped like a balloon. It is located in the anterior pelvis. The bladder stores urine; it swells into a round shape when it is full and gets smaller when empty. In the absence of bladder disease, it can hold up to 500 mL (17 fl. oz.) of urine comfortably for two to five hours. The epithelial tissue associated with the bladder is called transitional epithelium. This article is about the urinary bladder. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ...


Normally the bladder is sterile. Sterility is the quality or state of being unable to reproduce. ...


Sphincters (circular muscles) regulate the flow of urine from the bladder. The bladder itself has a muscular layer (detrusor muscle) that, when contracted, increases pressure on the bladder and creates urinary flow. Look up Sphincter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made up of smooth muscle fibers arranged in inner and outer longitudinal layers and a middle circular layer. ...


Urination is a conscious process, generally initiated by stretch receptors in the bladder wall which signal to the brain that the bladder is full. This is felt as an urge to urinate. When urination is initiated, the sphincter relaxes and the detrusor muscle contracts, producing urinary flow. Manneken Pis of Brussels. ...


Urethra

Main article: Urethra

The endpoint of the urinary system is the urethra. Typically the urethra in humans is colonised by commensal bacteria below the external urethral sphincter. The urethra emerges from the end of the penis in males and between the clitoris and the vagina in females. In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... In ecology, commensalism is an interaction between two living organisms, where one creature benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. ...


Role in disease

Kidney diseases are normally investigated and treated by nephrologists, while the specialty of urology deals with problems in the other organs. Gynecologists may deal with problems of incontinence in women. A nephrologist is a physician who has been trained in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, by regulating blood pressure, regulating electrolytes, balancing fluids in the body, and administering dialysis. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ...


Diseases of other bodily systems also have a direct effect on urogenital function. For instance it has been shown that protein released by the kidneys in diabetes mellitus sensitises the kidney to the damaging effects of hypertension [1]. For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ...


Diabetes also can have a direct effect in micturition due to peripheral neuropathies which occur in some individuals with poorly controlled diabetics. Urination, also called micturition, is the process of disposing urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. ... Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. ...


Kidney disease

Renal failure is defined by functional impairment of the kidney. Renal failure can be acute or chronic, and can be further broken down into categories of pre-renal, intrinsic renal and post-renal. Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rapid loss of renal function due to damage to the kidneys, resulting in retention of nitrogenous (urea and creatinine) and non-nitrogenous waste products that are normally excreted by the kidney. ... Chronic renal failure (CRF, or chronic kidney failure, CKF, or chronic kidney disease, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years and defined as an abnormally low glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum. ...


Pre-renal failure refers to impairment of supply of blood to the functional nephrons including renal artery stenosis. Intrinsic renal diseases are the classic diseases of the kidney including drug toxicity and nephritis. Post-renal failure is outlet obstruction after the kidney, such as a renal stone or prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. Renal failure may require medication, dietary and lifestyle modification and dialysis. Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of the renal artery. ... Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ... “Bladder stone” redirects here. ... Urinary retention also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ...


Primary renal cell carcinomas as well as metastatic cancers can affect the kidney.


Non-renal urinary tract disease

The causes of diseases of the body are common to the urinary tract. Structural and or traumatic change can lead to hemorrhage, functional blockage or inflammation. Colonisation by bacteria, protozoa or fungi can cause infection. Uncontrolled cell growth can cause neoplasia. For example: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal proliferation of cells in a tissue or organ. ...

The term "uropathy" refers to a disease of the urinary tract, while "nephropathy" refers to a disease of the kidney. A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... Interstitial cystitis (commonly abbreviated to IC) is a urinary bladder disease of unknown cause characterised by urinary frequency (as often as every 10 minutes), urgency, pressure and/or pain in the bladder and/or pelvis. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For other uses of the acronym BPH, see BPH (disambiguation). ... Prostatitis is any form of inflammation of the prostate gland. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is sudden and abnormal growth in a tissue or organ. ... Nephropathy refers to damage to or disease of the kidney. ...


Testing

Biochemical blood tests determine the amount of typical markers of renal function in the blood serum, for instance serum urea and serum creatinine. Biochemistry can also be used to determine serum electrolytes. Special biochemical tests (arterial blood gas) can determine the amount of dissolved gases in the blood, indicating if pH imbalances are acute or chronic. Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ...


Urinalysis is a test that studies the content of urine for abnormal substances such as protein or signs of infection. A urinalysis (or UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. ...

  • A Full Ward Test, also known as dipstick urinalysis, involves the dipping of a biochemically active test strip into the urine specimen to determine levels of tell-tale chemicals in the urine.
  • Urinalysis can also involve MC&S microscopy , culture and sensitivity

Urodynamic tests evaluate the storage of urine in the bladder and the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra. It may be performed in cases of incontinence or neurological problems affecting the urinary tract. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... Antibiotic sensitivity is the microbial susceptibility of microorganisms such as bacteria to antibiotics. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Medical tests | Urology ...


Ultrasound is commonly performed to investigate problems of the kidney and/or urinary tract. Medical ultrasonography (sonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize muscles and internal organs, their size, structures and possible pathologies or lesions. ...


Radiology: Image A: A normal chest X-ray. ...

KUB is a TLA for Katholieke Universiteit Brussel In medical ultrasonography, a KUB is an X-ray of the abdomen and pelvis; the acronym stands for kidney, ureter and bladder. ... “Bladder stone” redirects here. ... An intravenous pyelogram (also known as IVP, pyelography, intravenous urogram or IVU) is a radiological procedure used to visualise disturbances of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ...

Development

In prenatal development, the urinary and reproductive organs are developed from the intermediate mesoderm. ...

See also

The urothelium is the lining of the ureters, urethra, and urinary bladder. ... The major systems of the human body consist of: Circulatory system Digestive system Endocrine system Immune system Integumentary system Lymphatic system Muscular system Nervous system Reproductive system Respiratory system Skeletal system Urinary system Category: ...

References

  1. ^ Baba T, Murabayashi S, Tomiyama T, Takebe K; Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with a rapid progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria and preserved renal function. Tohoku J Exp Med 1990 Aug;161(4):311-8 PMID 2256104

  Results from FactBites:
 
Urinary system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (715 words)
The kidney is one of the various organs (together with the lungs, intestine and skin) that participates in the elimination of the wastes of the organism.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs), interstitial cystitis, incontinence (involuntary loss of urine), benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) and urinary retention (inability to pass urine).
KUB is plain radiography of the urinary system, e.g.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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