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Encyclopedia > Urinary catheterization

In urinary catheterization, a urinary catheter (such as a Foley catheter) is a plastic tube which is either inserted through a patient's urinary tract into their bladder or attached to a male patient's penis. A balloon located at the end of the catheter is usually inflated with sterile water to prevent the catheter from slipping out. In this manner, the patient's urine is collected and contained for various medical purposes. The procedure of catheterization will usually be done by a clinician, often a nurse, although self-catheterization is possible as well. Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. ... Diagram of a foley catheter Foley catheters are flexible (usually latex) tubes that are passed through the urethra during urinary catheterization and into the bladder to drain urine. ... The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Clinician is a term used generically to describe a wide range of medical professionals See Doctor, Medicine Category: ... This article is about the occupation. ...

Contents

Types of catheterization

Catheters come in a large variety of sizes; materials (latex, silicone, PVC, or Teflon); and types (Foley catheter, straight catheter, or coude tip catheter). In the case of internal catheters, those inserted into the urethra, the smallest size is usually recommended, although a larger size is sometimes needed to control leakage of urine around the catheter. A large size can also become necessary when the urine is thick, bloody or contains large amounts of sediment. Larger internal catheters, however, are more likely to cause damage to the urethra. Some people have developed allergies or sensitivities to latex after long-term latex catheter use. In such cases, silicone or Teflon types should be used. This article is about the typesetting system. ... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... Teflon is a trademark of DuPont and is commonly used for the chemical compound polytetrafluoroethylene. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Proper catheter use can also often be determined by the length of time for which the process is necessary: long-term (often called indwelling) or short-term use:


Short-term use

In some situations, incontinent patients are catheterized to reduce their cost of care. A condom catheter, which fits on the outside of the penis using adhesive, can be used for short-term cathaterization in males. However, long-term catheterization is not recommended because chronic use carries a significant risk of urinary tract infection.. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ...


Long-term use

A catheter that is left in place for a period of time may be attached to a drainage bag to collect the urine. There are two types of drainage bags: The first is a leg bag, a smaller drainage device that attaches by elastic bands to the leg. A leg bag is usually worn during the day, as it fits discreetly under pants or skirts, and is easily emptied into a toilet. The second type of drainage bag is a larger device called a down drain that may be used during the night. This device is usually hung on the patient's bed or placed on the floor nearby. The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ...


During long-term use, the catheter may be left in place during the entire time, or a patient may be instructed on a procedure for placing a catheter just long enough to empty the bladder and then removing it (known as clean intermittent self-catheterization). Patients undergoing major surgery are often catheterized and may remain so for some time. “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


Long-term catheterization can expose patients to an increased risk of infection. Long-term catheterization as a remedy for incontinence is not appropriate, as the risks outweigh the benefits.


Sex differences

In males, the catheter tube is inserted into the urinary tract through the penis. A condom catheter can also be used. In females, the catheter is inserted into the urethral meatus, after a cleansing using betadine. The procedure can be complicated in females due to varying layouts of the genitalia (due to age, obesity, Female genital cutting, childbirth, or other factors), but a good clinician should rely on anatomical landmarks and patience when dealing with such a patient. The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Betadine is a povidone-iodine solution, used as a broad spectrum topical microbicide. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Female genital cutting (FGC), female genital mutilation (FGM), or female circumcision (FC), is the excision or tissue removal of any part of the female genitalia for cultural, religious or other non-medical reasons. ... Parturition redirects here. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Possible causes and effects

Common indications to catheterize a patient include acute or chronic urinary retention, orthopedic procedures that may limit a patient's movement, the need for accurate monitoring of input and output (such as in an ICU), benign prostatic hypertrophy, incontinence, and the effects of various surgical interventions involving the bladder and prostate. Urinary retention also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate. ... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ...


For many patients the insertion and removal of a catheter can cause severe pain, so a topical anesthetic can be used. Catherization should be performed as a sterile medical procedure and should only be done by trained, qualified personnel, using equipment designed for this purpose. Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... A medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of patients, used by medical or paramedical personnel. ...


Complications of catheter use may include: urinary tract or kidney infections, blood infections (sepsis), urethral injury, skin breakdown, bladder stones, and blood in the urine (hematuria). After many years of catheter use, bladder cancer may also develop. The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... In medicine, hematuria (or haematuria) is the presence of blood in the urine. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ...


See also

Diagram of a foley catheter Foley catheters are flexible (usually latex) tubes that are passed through the urethra during urinary catheterization and into the bladder to drain urine. ... The French catheter scale is commonly used to measure the outside circumference of cylindrical medical instruments including catheters. ...

External links

  • Male self-catheterization, illustrated instructions, from Ohio State University
  • Female self-catheterization, illustrated instructions, from Ohio State University

  Results from FactBites:
 
Urinary Catheters (542 words)
In the process of urinary catheterization, a urinary catheter is used to collect and store the urine so that it may be studied for medical purposes.
Urinary catheters that are going to be inserted into the urethra are typically small in size though in some cases a slightly larger size might be required to control the urine leakage from around the catheter.
Chronic usage of short-term catheterization is risky because of the danger of the patient contracting urinary tract infection.
Catheterization, Male: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health (1921 words)
Urinary catheterization is the procedure of inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to remove urine.
Intermittent catheterization is recommended to obtain a sterile urine specimen, to relieve urinary retention, for urologic surgery or surgery on contiguous structures, for critically ill patients requiring accurate measurement of intake and output, and for temporary obstruction of the bladder opening due to injury.
Indwelling catheterization is recommended for continuous drainage of urine when the bladder outlet obstruction can not be corrected by medical or surgical intervention; in cases of intractable skin ulceration caused or exacerbated by exposure to urine; and as palliative care for terminally ill or severely impaired incontinent patients.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Sally Stevens
17th June 2010
My mother requires a Female Catheter . I needed to learn how to insert one so I could help her at home. The people at the company we use for her supplies, www.180medical.com were very knowledgeable and answered every question I had.

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