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Encyclopedia > Urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
Urinary system.
Bladder
Latin vesica urinaria
Gray's subject #255 1227
Artery Superior vesical artery
Inferior vesical artery
Umbilical artery
Vaginal artery
Vein Vesical venous plexus
Nerve Vesical nervous plexus
Lymph external iliac lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes
Precursor urogenital sinus
MeSH Bladder
Dorlands/Elsevier v_07/12855244


In anatomy, the urinary bladder, (a.k.a Ross' pouch), is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. It is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Look up bladder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Illu_urinary_system. ... Image File history File links Illu_bladder. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... The superior vesical artery supplies numerous branches to the upper part of the bladder. ... The inferior vesical artery frequently arises in common with the middle hemorrhoidal, and is distributed to the fundus of the bladder, the prostate, and the vesiculæ seminales. ... Umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta in the umbilical cord. ... The vaginal artery usually corresponds to the inferior vesical in the male; it descends upon the vagina, supplying its mucous membrane, and sends branches to the bulb of the vestibule, the fundus of the bladder, and the contiguous part of the rectum . ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The vesical plexus envelops the lower part of the bladder and the base of the prostate and communicates with the pudendal and prostatic plexuses. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The Vesical Plexus arises from the forepart of the pelvic plexus. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... The external iliac lymph nodes, from eight to ten in number, lie along the external iliac vessels. ... The internal iliac lymph nodes (or hypogastric) surround the hypogastric vessels, and receive the lymphatics corresponding to the distribution of the branches of the hypogastric artery, i. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The urogenital sinus (also known as the persistent cloaca) is a part of the human body while it is an embryo. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is composed of muscle fibers of the levator ani, the coccygeus, and associated connective tissue which span the area underneath the pelvis. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ...


In males, the bladder is superior to the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation. The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Between the rectum and the bladder the peritoneal cavity forms, in the male, a pouch, the rectovesical excavation (or rectovesical pouch), the bottom of which is slightly below the level of the upper ends of the vesiculae seminales—i. ...


In females, the bladder is separated from the rectum by the rectouterine excavation, and it is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation. The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... The rectouterine pouch (or rectouterine excavation, or rectovaginal) is the extension of the peritoneal cavity between the rectum and back wall of the uterus in the female human body. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The peritoneum over the rectum and the bladder is continued over the intestinal surface and fundus of the uterus on to its vesical surface, which it covers as far as the junction of the body and cervix uteri, and then to the bladder, forming here a second, but shallower, pouch...

Contents

Regions

  • Trigone of urinary bladder: The ureters enter the bladder diagonally from its dorsolateral floor in an area called the trigone, which is a triangular shaped area on the postero-inferior wall of the bladder. The urethra exits at the lowest point of the triangle of the trigone.
  • Apex: The Median umbilical ligament connects to the apex of the bladder.
  • Neck: The Neck is connected to the pubic bone by the pubovesical ligament in women, and by the puboprostatic ligament in men.

The trigone is a smooth triangular region of the internal urinary bladder formed by the two ureteral orifices and the internal urethral orifice. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... The trigone is a smooth triangular region of the internal urinary bladder formed by the two ureteral orifices and the internal urethral orifice. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... The median umbilical ligament is a structure in human anatomy. ... The ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis -- called the pubic bone. ...

Wall

The wall of the urinary bladder consists of three layers:

When the urinary bladder is relaxed, the epithelium is 5-6 cell layers thick and the superficial cells bulge into the lumen. Thick rigid areas of the plasma membrane fold down within the cytoplasm are called fusiform vesicles. The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... The lamina propria is a thin vascular layer of connective tissue beneath the epithelium of an organ. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ...


When the urinary bladder is extended, the epithelium is 3-4 layers thick and has squamous epithelial cells without vesicles. The vesicles have been reinserted in the plasma membrane.


Detrusor muscle

The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in spiral, longitudinal, and circular bundles. When the bladder is stretched, this signals the parasympathetic nervous system to contract the detrusor muscle. This encourages the bladder to expel urine through the urethra. Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made up of smooth muscle fibers arranged in inner and outer longitudinal layers and a middle circular layer. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ...


For the urine to exit the bladder, both the autonomically controlled internal sphincter and the voluntarily controlled external sphincter must be opened. Problems with these muscles can lead to incontinence. Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating energy needed to cope with stressful... Look up Sphincter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term somatic refers to the body, as distinct from some other entity, such as the mind. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


The urinary bladder usually holds 400–620 mL of urine, but it can hold twice this without rupturing if, for example, the outflow is obstructed.


The desire to urinate usually starts when the bladder reaches around 75% of its working volume. If the subject is distracted the desire can fade and return with more urgency as the bladder continues to fill. Manneken Pis of Brussels. ...


Fundus

The fundus of the urinary bladder is the bottom of the bladder. It is lymphatically drained by the external iliac lymph nodes. The human lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... The external iliac lymph nodes, from eight to ten in number, lie along the external iliac vessels. ...


Clinical Significance

  • Cystitis cystica is a chronic cystitis glandularis accompanied by the formation of cysts. This disease can cause chronic urinary tract infections.
  • Interstitial cystitis is a bladder disease of unknown etiology characterized by a bladder wall infiltrated by inflammatory cells resulting in ulcerated mucosa and scarring, spasm of the detrusor muscle, hematuria, urgency, increased frequency, and pain on urination.
  • The bladder may rupture if overfilled and not emptied. This can occur in the case of binge drinkers who have consumed large quantities, but are not conscious due to stupor of the need to urinate. This condition is very rare in women, but does occur. Symptoms include localized pain and uraemia (poisoning due to reabsorbed waste).[1]

Drinking too much alcohol may qualify as binge drinking if it leads to at least two days of inebriation and the drinker neglects usual responsibilities The British Medical Association states that there is no consensus on the definition of binge drinking. ... Uremia is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure, when kidney function is compromised and urea, a waste product normally excreted in the urine, is retained in the blood. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "If you thought a hangover was bad ...: A new report says binge drinking has increased to such an extent that cases of 'exploding bladders' are on the rise in the UK." report of article in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) by Lucy Atkins in The Guardian November 20, 2007

The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...

See also

An artificial bladder is an artificial bladder organ. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... Bladder sphincter dyssynergia ... In medicine, hematuria (or haematuria) is the presence of blood in the urine. ... “Bladder stone” redirects here. ... Dysfunction of the urinary bladder due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of micturition. ... A ureterocele is a congenital abnormality found in the urinary bladder. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Medical tests | Urology ... The mucous membrane immediately behind the internal urethral orifice presents a slight elevation, the uvula of urinary bladder, caused by the middle lobe of the prostate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU or just Kansas) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. ... The University of California, Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, is one of the ten campuses of the University of California, and was established as the University Farm in 1905. ... The University of Iowa, also commonly called Iowa or locally UI, is a major coeducational research university located on a 1,900 acre (8 km²) campus in Iowa City, Iowa, US, on the banks of the Iowa River in East Central Iowa. ... The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ...

Additional images

List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Excretory system. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... The mucous membrane immediately behind the internal urethral orifice presents a slight elevation, the uvula of urinary bladder, caused by the middle lobe of the prostate. ... The trigone is a smooth triangular region of the internal urinary bladder formed by the two ureteral orifices and the internal urethral orifice. ... The detrusor urinae muscle is a muscle of the urinary bladder wall. ... In mammals the flow of urine from the urinary bladder is controlled by a group of muscles collectively called the urethral sphincter, named for their proximity to the urethra. ... The external sphincter muscle of urethra (or sphincter urethrae membranaceae) surrounds the whole length of the membranous portion of the urethra, and is enclosed in the fasciæ of the urogenital diaphragm. ... The internal sphincter muscle of urethra is a muscle which constricts the internal urethral orifice in males. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bladder Cancer - Patient Guide - UrologyChannel (444 words)
Bladder cancer accounts for approximately 90% of cancers of the urinary tract (renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra).
Urine is produced by the kidneys, carried to the bladder by the ureters, and discharged from the bladder through the urethra.
Bladder cancer usually originates in the bladder lining, which consists of a mucous layer of surface cells that expand and deflate (transitional epithelial cells), smooth muscle, and a fibrous layer.
XI. Splanchnology. 3b. 3. The Urinary Bladder. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (2320 words)
The peritoneum is carried by it from the vertex of the bladder on to the abdominal wall to form the middle umbilical fold.
The vertex of the bladder is joined to the umbilicus by the remains of the urachus which forms the middle umbilical ligament, a fibromuscular cord, broad at its attachment to the bladder but narrowing as it ascends.
The nerves of the bladder are (1) fine medullated fibers from the third and fourth sacral nerves, and (2) non-medullated fibers from the hypogastric plexus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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