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Encyclopedia > Uridine triphosphate
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate
Chemical structure of ATP
Chemical name




5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-oxolan-2-yl
methoxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl
oxy-hydroxy-phosphory oxyphosphonic acid
Abbreviations ATP
Chemical formula C10H16N5O13P3
Molecular mass 507.181 g mol-1
Melting point 1000°C
Density

67 g/cm3 Download high resolution version (3718x2067, 19 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ...

pKa  ?
CAS number 56-65-5
EINECS 200-283-2
PubChem 5957

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in biochemistry as the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer. In this role ATP transports chemical energy within cells. It is produced as an energy source during the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. The structure of this molecule consists of adenine bonded to a sugar ribose, which is connected to an unstable chain of three phosphates. ATP is also one of four monomers required for the synthesis of ribonucleic acids. Furthermore, in signal transduction pathways, ATP is used to provide the phosphate for protein kinase reactions. In chemistry and biochemistry, acid dissociation constant, the acidity constant, or the acid-ionization constant (Ka) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that indicates the extent of dissociation of hydrogen ions from an acid(I.E how well it splits H+ Ions). ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The EINECS number (for European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances) is a registry number given to each chemical substance commercially available in the European Union between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules . ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of life, a bridge between biology and chemistry that studies how complex chemical reactions give rise to life. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special forces. ... It has been suggested that extracellular be merged into this article or section. ... Leaf. ... Cellular respiration is the process in which the chemical bonds of energy-rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ... A protein kinase is an enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). ...

Contents


Chemical properties

ATP consists of adenosine and three phosphate groups (triphosphate). The phosphoryl groups, starting with that on AMP, are referred to as the alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ) phosphates. ATP is extremely rich in chemical energy, in particular between the second and third phosphate groups. The net change in energy of the decomposition of ATP into ADP and an inorganic phosphate is -12 kCal / mole in vivo (inside of a living cell) and -7.3 kCal / mole in vitro (in laboratory conditions). This massive release in energy makes the decomposition of ATP extremely exothermic, and hence useful as a means for chemically storing energy. The chemical structure of adenosine Adenosine is a nucleoside comprised of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... In inorganic chemistry, a phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Exothermic means to release energy in the form of heat. ...


Synthesis

ATP can be produced by various cellular processes: Under aerobic conditions, the majority of the synthesis occurs in mitochondria during oxidative phosphorylation and is catalyzed by ATP synthase and, to a lesser degree, under anaerobic conditions by fermentation. In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Oxidative phosphorylation is a biochemical process in cells. ... An ATP synthase (EC 3. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

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3D model of ATP
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3D model of ATP

The main fuels for ATP synthesis are glucose and triglycerides. The fuels that result from the breakdown of triglycerides are glycerol and fatty acids. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1534x1100, 453 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Adenosine triphosphate User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1534x1100, 453 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Adenosine triphosphate User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1615x1100, 272 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Adenosine triphosphate User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1615x1100, 272 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Adenosine triphosphate User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is one of the most important carbohydrates. ... It has been suggested that Medium Chain Triglycerides be merged into this article or section. ... Glycerol, also well known as glycerin and glycerine, and less commonly as propane-1,2,3-triol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ...


First, glucose and glycerol are metabolised to pyruvate in the cytosol using the glycolyitic pathway. This generates some ATP through substrate phosphorylation catalyzed by two enzymes: PGK and Pyruvate kinase. Pyruvate is then oxidized further in the mitochondrion. Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... ÃThe cytosol (as opposed fatty cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. ... Glycolysis is a series of biochemical reactions by which a molecule of glucose (Glc) is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ... Substrate-level phosphorylation is a type of chemical reaction that results in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the direct transfer of a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from a reactive intermediate. ... Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme involved in glycolysis. ... This article contains material from the Science Primer published by the NCBI, which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain at http://www. ...


In the mitochondrion, pyruvate is oxidized by pyruvate dehydrogenase to acetyl-CoA, which is fully oxidized to carbon dioxide by the Krebs cycle. Fatty acids are also broken down to acetyl CoA by beta-oxidation and metabolised by the Krebs cycle. Every turn of the Krebs cycle produces an ATP equivalent (GTP) through substrate phosphorylation catalyzed by Succinyl-CoA synthetase as well as reducing power as NADH. The electrons from NADH are used by the electron transport chain to generate a large amount of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation coupled with ATP synthase. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | Thiols ... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. ... Beta oxidation is the process by which fats, in the form of Acyl-CoA molecules, are broken down in the mitochondria to generate Acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the Krebs Cycle. ... Substrate-level phosphorylation is a type of chemical reaction that results in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the direct transfer of a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from a reactive intermediate. ... Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase catalyzes the formation of succinyl-CoA, a 4-carbon metabolite, from succinate and coenzyme-A. Johnson et al. ... The Electron Transport Chain. ... Oxidative phosphorylation is a biochemical process in cells. ...


The whole process of oxidizing glucose to carbon dioxide is known as cellular respiration and is more than 40% efficient at transferring the chemical energy in glucose to the more useful form of ATP. Cellular respiration is the process in which the chemical bonds of energy-rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes. ...


ATP is also synthesized through several so-called "replenishment" reactions catalyzed by the enzyme families of NDKs (nucleoside diphosphate kinases), which use other nucleoside triphosphates as a high-energy phosphate donor, and the ATP:guanido-phosphotransferase family, which uses creatine. Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases (NDKs, also nucleoside diphosphate kinases and nucleoside diphosphokinases) are enzymes which catalyzes the exchange of phosphate groups between different nucleoside diphosphates. ... Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that naturally occurs in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to muscle cells. ...

ADP + GTP to ATP + GDP

In plants, ATP is synthesized in chloroplasts during the light reactions of photosynthesis. Some of this ATP is then used to power the Calvin cycle, which synthesizes triose sugars. Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is also known as guanosine-5-triphosphate. ... The inside of a chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Leaf. ... Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation The Calvin cycle (or Calvin-Benson cycle or carbon fixation) is a series of biochemical reactions that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ...


If a clot causes a decrease in oxygen delivery to the cell, the amount of ATP produced in the mitochondria will decrease. Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... A cell is a single unit or compartment, enclosed by a border or wall. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ...


Function

ATP energy is released when hydrolysis of the phosphate-phosphate bonds is carried out. This energy can be used by a variety of enzymes, motor proteins, and transport proteins to carry out the work of the cell. Also, the hydrolysis yields free inorganic Pi and ADP, which can be broken down further to another Pi and AMP. ATP can also be broken down to AMP directly, with the formation of PPi. This last reaction has the advantage of being an effectively irreversible process in aqueous solution. Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... High energy phosphate can mean one of a couple things: It can mean the phosphate-phosphate bonds formed when compounds such as adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate are created. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ... This is a list of gene families or gene complexes, that is sets of genes which occur across a number of different species which often serve similar biological functions. ... A transport protein is a protein involved in facilitated diffusion. ... In inorganic chemistry, a phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ... In chemistry, pyrophosphate, or PPi is an anion observed in living systems, usually formed by the hydrolysis of ATP into AMP. The hydrolysis is called pyrophosphorolysis. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of one or more substances, known as solutes, dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. ...


A few examples of the use of ATP include the active transport of molecules across cell membranes, the synthesis of macromolecules (Eg. proteins), muscle contractions, endocytosis, and exocytosis.


ATP in the human body

The total quantity of ATP in the human body is about 0.1 mole. The energy used by human cells requires the hydrolysis of 200 to 300 moles of ATP daily. This means that each ATP molecule is recycled 2000 to 3000 times during a single day. ATP cannot be stored, hence its consumption must closely follow its synthesis. On a per-hour basis, 1 kilogram of ATP is created, processed and then recycled in the body. The mole and its simple conversions into different units of measurements. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ...


Other uses

There is talk of using ATP as a power source for nanotechnology and implants. Artificial pacemakers could become independent of batteries. ATP is also present as a neurotransmitter independent from its energy-containing function. Receptors that utilise ATP as their ligand are known as purinoceptors. In physics, power (symbol: P) is the amount of work done per unit of time. ... Nanotechnology comprises technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0. ... This article is about a medical device which electrically stimulates the heart. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ligand (biochemistry). ...


See also

Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ... Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ... ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion. ... This is the reaction by which chemical energy that has been stored and transported in the high-energy phosphodiester bonds in ATP is released, for example in the muscles, to produce work. ... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. ... The phosphagens are energy storage compounds, also known as high energy phosphate compounds, are chiefly found in muscular tissue in animals. ... Reference Stryer, Lubert (1988). ... Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
5-METHYLURIDINE (RIBOSYLTHYMINE) (1017 words)
Uridine Triphosphate (UTP): a nucleotide, the 5'-triphosphate of uridine; acting as a precursor in the synthesis of ribonucleic acid and of UDP-linked intermediates.
Deoxyuridine Diphosphate (dUDP): a nucleotide, the 5'-phosphate of deoxyuridine; an intermediate in the synthesis of deoxythymidine triphosphate.
Deoxyuridine Triphosphate (dUTP): a nucleotide, the 5'-triphosphate of deoxyuridine; an intermediate in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides.
Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Polarized Light Microscopy Gallery - Uridine (265 words)
Uridine is one of four nucleosides used in genetic coding for RNA, and its complement is the nucleoside adenosine.
Each molecule of uridine is comprised of 9 carbons, 12 hydrogens, 2 nitrogens, and 6 oxygen atoms, resulting in a molecular weight of 244.20.
When certain uridine derivatives are, for instance, utilized with organ transplant procedures, the likelihood of organ rejection by the recipient is reduced due to immune system repression.
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