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Encyclopedia > Urdu language
ə This article contains nonstandard pronunciation information which should be rewritten using the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation) for help.
Urdu
اُردو
Spoken in: Pakistan, India 
Region: South Asia
Total speakers: 61 million native,
104 million total 
Ranking: 19-21 (native speakers), in a near tie with Italian and Turkish
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   Urdu 
Writing system: Persian alphabet 
Official status
Official language of: Pakistan;
India (Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh).
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ur
ISO 639-2: urd
ISO/DIS 639-3: urd 
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...
The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu
The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu

Urdu (اُردو) is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... South Asia is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. ... This is a list of languages ordered by number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... It has been suggested that Persian language#Arabic Alphabet be merged into this article or section. ... Andhra Pradesh : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, Hindi: आंध्र प्रदेश; Ä€ndhra Prādesh), is a state in South India but is also debated as Central India as well. ... It has been suggested that Indian Administrated Kashmir be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Delhi. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश, Urdu: اتر پردیش), also popularly known by its abbreviation UP, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Created by me. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia. ... Image File history File links Zaban_urdu_mualla. ... Image File history File links Zaban_urdu_mualla. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... The Sanskrit language (Skt. ... South Asia is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ...


Taken by itself, Urdu is approximately the twentieth most populous natively spoken language in the world, and is the national language of Pakistan as well as one of the 24 national languages of India. India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. ...


Urdu also refers to a standardised register of Hindustani that was made one of the official languages of Pakistan and India. The grammatical description in this article concerns this standard Urdu. In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ...


Urdu is often contrasted with Hindi, another standardised form of Hindustani that is the official language of India. The primary differences between the two are that Standard Urdu is written in Nastaliq script and draws heavily on Persian and Arabic vocabulary, while standard Hindi is written in Devanāgarī and has supplemented some of its Persian and Arabic vocabulary with words from Sanskrit . The term "Urdu" also includes dialects of Hindustani other than the standardised languages. Other than these, linguists consider Urdu and Hindi to be the same language. Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is the official language of the central government of India. ... Nastaliq (نستعليق) is a specific style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ... DevanāgarÄ« (Sanskrit: —, pronounced , in English pronounced ) is an abugida writing system used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several North Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Nepali from Nepal and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...

Contents


Speakers and geographic distribution

There are between 60 and 80 million native Urdu speakers. Overall, besides the more than 160 million who speak Urdu in Pakistan, there is a considerable Indian population who communicate in Urdu everyday.


In Pakistan, Urdu is spoken and understood by a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Multan, Peshawar, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Sukkur and Sargodha. Urdu is used as the official language in all provinces of Pakistan. It is also taught as a compulsory language up to high school in both the English and Urdu medium school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu speakers whose mother tongue is one of the regional languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Balochi, Siraiki, and Brahui. Urdu is the lingua franca of Pakistan and is absorbing many words from regional languages of Pakistan. The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary. Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins (such as Pakhtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu. Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... Faisalabad (Urdu: فیصل آباد ) is located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Hyderabad may refer to: Hyderabad, India, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India Hyderabad District, India Hyderabad state, the pre-1956 Indian state Hyderabad, Pakistan, the city in Sindh, Pakistan Hyderabad District, Pakistan External Links Hyderabad Portal This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... Peshāwar (Urdu:پیشاور) is the provincial capital of Pakistans North-West Frontier Province. ... Gujranwala (Urdu: گجرانوالہ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a population of more than 3. ... Sialkot (Urdu: سیالکوٹ ) is a city in the north of Pakistan situated under the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir and near the Chenab river. ... Sukkur (Urdu: سکھر) (Sindhi:سکر) is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River (Pakistan) in Sukkur District. ... Sargodha (Urdu: سرگودھا) is located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Sindhi (سنڌي، सिन्धी sindhÄ«) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Gujarati can mean two distinct things: The Gujarati language is a language spoken in India and Pakistan, mostly in and around the Gujarat state. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Siraiki is an old language spoken in central Pakistan. ... The Brahui language is mainly spoken in Balochistan, Pakistan, although also in Afghanistan and Iran. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ...


In India, Urdu is spoken in places where there are large Muslim majorities or cities which were bases for Muslim Empires in the past. These include parts of Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Bhopal, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Bangalore, and Mysore. Some Indian schools teach Urdu as a first language and have their own syllabus and exams, Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdu. India has more than 2900 daily Urdu newspapers. Newspapers such as Daily Salar, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, Munsif Daily and Inqilab are published and distributed in Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai. Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश, Urdu: اتر پردیش), also popularly known by its abbreviation UP, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Territory of Delhi be merged into this article or section. ... Bhopāl (Hindi: भोपाल, Urdu: بھوپال) is a city in central India. ... Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ; Urdu: لکھنو Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... The Vidhana Soudha is the seat of Karnatakas Legislative assembly Bangalore (Kannada: ; (?) in Kannada and // in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Mysore (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು) is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Vidhana Soudha is the seat of Karnatakas Legislative assembly Bangalore (Kannada: ; (?) in Kannada and // in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Mysore (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು) is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Hyderabad may refer to: Hyderabad, India, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India Hyderabad District, India Hyderabad state, the pre-1956 Indian state Hyderabad, Pakistan, the city in Sindh, Pakistan Hyderabad District, Pakistan External Links Hyderabad Portal This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई) (pronounced ), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)[1]. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, off the west coast of Maharashtra. ...


Urdu is also spoken in Kashmir and urban Afghanistan. Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of workers in the major urban centers of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia. Urdu is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centers of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Norway and Australia. Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Countries with large numbers of Urdu speakers:

Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian: مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ...

Official status

Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. It shares official language status with English. Although English is used in most elite circles, and Punjabi has a plurality of native speakers, Urdu is the lingua franca and is expected to prevail. Urdu is also one of the official languages of India, and in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh, Urdu has official language status. While the government school system in most other states emphasises Standard Hindi, at universities in cities such as Lucknow, Aligarh and Hyderabad, Urdu is spoken and learned and is regarded as a language of prestige. An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Andhra Pradesh : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, Hindi: आंध्र प्रदेश; Āndhra Prādesh), is a state in South India but is also debated as Central India as well. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Territory of Delhi be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Indian Administrated Kashmir be merged into this article or section. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश, Urdu: اتر پردیش), also popularly known by its abbreviation UP, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ; Urdu: لکھنو Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Victoria gate, a part of Aligarh University campus Aligarh (Hindi: अलीगढ़) is a city in Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... Hyderabad may refer to: Hyderabad, India, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India Hyderabad District, India Hyderabad state, the pre-1956 Indian state Hyderabad, Pakistan, the city in Sindh, Pakistan Hyderabad District, Pakistan External Links Hyderabad Portal This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated...


Classification and related languages

Urdu is a member of the Indo-Aryan family of languages (i.e., those languages descending from Sanskrit), which is in turn a branch of the Indo-Iranian branch (which comprises the Indo-Aryan and the Iranian branch), which itself is a branch of the Indo-European linguistic family. If Hindi and Urdu are considered to be same language (Hindustani (or Hindi-Urdu)), then Urdu can be considered to be a part of a dialect continuum which extends across eastern Iran, Afghanistan and modern Pakistan [citation needed]—right into north India. These idioms all have similar grammatical structures and share a large portion of their vocabulary. Punjabi, for instance, is very similar to Urdu: Punjabi written in the Shahmukhi script can be understood by speakers of Urdu with little difficulty, but spoken Punjabi has a very different phonology (pronunciation system) and can be harder to understand for Urdu speakers. The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... See also: Hindustani classical music. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Shahmukhi (شاہ Ù…Ú©Ú¾ÛŒ) is a script used to record the Punjabi language. ... The vowels of modern (Standard) Arabic and (Israeli) Hebrew from the phonological point of view. ...


Dialects

Urdu has four recognised dialects: Dakhini, Pinjari, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdu (based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi region). Sociolinguists also consider Urdu iself one of the four major variants of the Hindi-Urdu dialect continuum. [10] Dakkhini, also known as Deccani is a dialect of the Urdu language spoken in the Deccan region of southern India, centered on the city of Hyderabad, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Khariboli (also Khadiboli or Khari dialect) is the variation of Urdu/Hindi language that is Indias national language, spoken in Western Uttar Pradesh. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in Devanāgarī), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is the official language of the central government of India. ...


Modern Vernacular Urdu is the form of the language that is least widespread and is spoken around Delhi, Lucknow, Karachi and Lahore, it becomes increasingly divergent from the original form of Urdu as it loses some of the complicated Persian and Arabic vocabulary used in everyday terms. It has been suggested that National Capital Territory of Delhi be merged into this article or section. ... Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ; Urdu: لکھنو Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ...


Dakhini (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Maharashtra state in India and around Hyderabad. It has fewer Persian and Arabic words than standard Urdu. Dakkhini, also known as Deccani is a dialect of the Urdu language spoken in the Deccan region of southern India, centered on the city of Hyderabad, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Maharashtra (Devanagari: महाराष्ट्र, literally: Great Nation)( ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ...


In addition, Rekhta (or Rekhti), the language of Urdu poetry, is sometimes counted as a separate dialect.


Grammar

Despite Urdu and English both being Indo-European languages, Urdu grammar can be very complex and is different in many ways from what English speakers are used to. Most notably, Urdu is a subject-object-verb language, meaning that verbs usually fall at the end of the sentence rather than before the object (as in English). Urdu also shows mixed ergativity so that, in some cases, verbs agree with the object of a sentence rather than the subject. Unlike English, Urdu has no definite article (the). The numeral ek might be used as the indefinite singular article (a/an) if this needs to be stressed.


In addition, Urdu uses postpositions (so called because they are placed after nouns) where English uses prepositions. Other differences include gender, honourifics, interrogatives, use of cases, and different tenses. While being complicated, Urdu grammar is fairly regular, with irregularities being relatively limited. Despite differences in vocabulary and writing, Urdu grammar is nearly identical with Hindi. Urdu also has a unique punctuation system. Periods are sometimes used to end a sentence, though the traditional "full stop" (a vertical line "-") is more generally used. After a heading, a colon followed by a dash (-:) is used. Colons are used in almost the same way as in English. Semi-colon and ellipsis are not generally used in Urdu. However, we can see their use sometimes because Urdu is still evolving and is influenced by English. Urdu punctuation sometimes uses western conventions for commas, exclamation points, and question marks. An adposition is a term in grammar used for a wide variety of particles and affixes which are attached to a noun phrase to modify it or to show its relation to another concept or situation in the same clause. ...


Genders

In Urdu as well as Hindi, there are only two genders for nouns. All male human beings and male animals (or those animals and plants which are perceived to be "masculine") are masculine. All female human beings and female animals (or those animals and plants which are perceived to be "feminine") are feminine. Things, inanimate articles and abstract nouns are also either masculine or feminine according to convention, which must be memorised by non-Urdu speakers if they wish to learn correct Urdu. While this is similar to Hindi and most other Indo-European languages such as French, it is a very challenging learning requirement for native speakers of speakers of native languages who do not have such gender inflection. It is also a challenge for those who are used to only the English language, which although an Indo-European language, has nearly dropped all of its gender inflection. It has been suggested that natural gender be merged into this article or section. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The ending of a word, if a vowel, usually helps in this gender classification. If a word of Hindi origin ends in long ā, it is normally masculine. If a word ends in ī, i, or iyā, it is normally feminine. Similarly, the gender is also tried to be preserved for words borrowed from Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit and other gender-based languages. The categorisation of Urdu words directly borrowed from English (which are numerous) is very arbitrary—but could be influenced by the ending. Adjectives ending in long [α:] must get inflected to agree with the gender of the noun. Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is the official language of the central government of India. ... Inflection or inflexion refers to a modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) so that it reflects grammatical (i. ...


Interrogatives

Besides the standard interrogative terms of who (کؤن kaun), what (کیا kyā), why (کیوں kyon), when (کب kab), where (کہاں kahān), how and what type (کیسا kaisā), how many (کِتنا kitnā), etc, the Urdu word (کیا kyā) can be used as a generic interrogative often placed at the beginning of a sentence to turn a statement into a Yes/No question. This makes it clear when a question is being asked. Questions can also be formed simply by modifying intonation, exactly as some questions are in English.


Pronouns

Urdu has pronouns in the first, second and third person, all for one gender only. Thus, unlike English, there is no difference between he or she. More strictly speaking, the third person of the pronoun is actually the same as the demonstrative pronoun (this / that). The verb, upon conjugation, usually indicates the difference in the gender. The pronouns have additional cases of accusative and genitive. There may also be multiple ways of inflecting the pronoun, which are given in parentheses. Note that for the second person of the pronoun you, Urdu has three levels of honourifics: The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ...

  • آپ āp/[αːp]: Formal and respectable form for you. Has no difference between the singular and the plural. Used in all formal settings and speaking to persons who are senior in job or age. Plural could be stressed by saying you people (آپ لوگ āp log)) or you all (آپ سب āp sab).
  • تُم tum/[tum]: Informal form of you. Has no difference between the singular and the plural. Used in all informal settings and speaking to persons who are junior in job or age. Plural could be stressed by saying you people (تُم لوگ tum log) or you all (تُم سب tum sab).
  • تُو tū/[tuː]: Extremely informal form of you, as thou. Strictly singular, its plural form would be تُم tum. Except for children, very close friends, or poetic language (either with God or with lovers), its use could be perceived as offensive in Pakistan or India.

Imperatives (requests and commands) correspond in form to the level of honourific being used, and the verb inflects to show the level of respect and politeness desired. Because imperatives can already include politeness, the word مہربانی "meharbānī", which can be translated as "please", is much less common than in spoken English; it is generally only used in writing or announcements.


Word order

The standard word order in Urdu is, in general, Subject Object Verb, but where different emphasis or more complex structure is needed, this rule is very easily set aside (provided that the nouns/pronouns are always followed by their postpositions or case markers). More specifically, the standard order is 1. Subject 2. Adverbs (in their standard order) 3. Indirect object and any of its adjectives 4. Direct object and any of its adjectives 5. Negation term or interrogative, if any, and finally the 6. Verb and any auxiliary verbs. (Snell, p93) The standard order can be modified in various ways to impart emphasis on particular parts of the sentence. Negation is formed by adding the word نہیں nahīn, meaning "no", in the appropriate place in the sentence, or by utilizing ن na or مت mat in some cases. Note that in Urdu, the adjectives precede the nouns they qualify. The auxiliaries always follow the main verb. Also, Urdu speakers or writers enjoy considerable freedom in placing words to achieve stylistic and other socio-psychological effects, though not as much freedom as in heavily inflected languages. In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...


Tense and aspect of Urdu verbs

Urdu verbal structure is focused on aspect with distinctions based on tense usually shown through use of the verb to be (ہونا honā) as an auxiliary. There are three aspects: habitual (imperfect), progressive (also known as continuous) and perfective. Verbs in each aspect are marked for tense in almost all cases with the proper inflected form of honā. Urdu has four simple tenses, present, past, future (presumptive), and subjunctive (referred to as a mood by many linguists). Verbs are conjugated not only to show the number and person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) of their subject, but also its gender. Additionally, Urdu has imperative and conditional moods. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... // Introduction The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), emotion, possibility, judgment, necessity and statements that are contrary to fact. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... The conditional mood (sometimes described as the conditional tense) is a verb form in many languages (not in English). ...


Case

Urdu is a weakly inflected language for case; the relationship of a noun in a sentence is usually shown by postpositions (i.e., prepositions that follow the noun). Urdu has three cases for nouns. The Direct case is used for nouns not followed by any postpositions, typically for the subject case. The Oblique case is used for any nouns that is followed by a postposition. Adjectives modifying nouns in the oblique case will inflect that same way. Some nouns have a separate Vocative case. Urdu has two numbers: singular and plural—but they may not be shown distinctly in all declinations. Inflection or inflexion refers to a modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) so that it reflects grammatical (i. ... An oblique case (Lat. ...


Also see Hindi Grammar Hindi grammar (Hindi: ) is the grammar of Hindi language. ...


Levels of formality in Urdu

The order of words in Urdu is not as rigidly fixed as it is thought to be by traditional grammarians. Although usually (but not invariably) an Urdu sentence begins with a subject and the ends with a verb. That is why Urdu is often called as SOV language (e.g. Subject-Object-Verb language). However, Urdu speakers or writers enjoy considerable freedom in placing words in an utterance to achieve stylistic effects, see Bhatia and Koul (2000, pp. 34-35).


Urdu in its less formalised register has been referred to as a rekhta (ریختہ, [reːxt̪aː]), meaning "rough mixture". The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes referred to as zabān-e-urdu-e-mo'alla (زبانِ اردوِ معلہ, [zəba:n e: ʊrd̪uː eː moəllaː]), the "Language of Camp and Court". In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ...


The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is. For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between پانی pānī and آب āb, both meaning "water" for example, or between آدمی ādmi and مرد mard, meaning "man". The former in each set is used colloquially and has Hindi origins, while the latter is used formally and poetically, being of Persian origin. Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is the official language of the central government of India. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


If a word is of Persian or Arabic origin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grand. Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand. If a word is of Hindi or Sanskrit origin, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal. The grammar constucts based on Hindi are prevalent in the language used on a day to day basis. Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Izafat (also Izafah) (Farsi: اضافہ) is a Farsi language grammatical construct which links two words together. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is the official language of the central government of India. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


Politeness

A host of words are used to show respect and politeness. This emphasis on politeness, which is reflected in the vocabulary, is known as takalluf in Urdu. These words are generally used when addressing elders, or people with whom one is not acquainted. For example, the English pronoun 'you' can be translated into three words in Urdu the singular forms tu (informal, extremely intimate, or derogatory) and tum (informal and showing intimacy called "apna pun" in Urdu) and the plural form āp (formal and respectful). Similarly, verbs, for example, "come," can be translated with degrees of formality in three ways:

  1. آ‏ئے āye/[aːje] or آ‏یں āen/[aːẽn] (nasalised n) ( formal and respectful)
  2. آ‏و āo/[aːo] (informal and intimate with less degree)
  3. آ ā/[aː] (extremely informal, intimate and often derogatory).

Vocabulary

Urdu has a vocabulary rich in words with Indian and Middle Eastern origins. The borrowings are dominated by words from Hindi, Persian, and Arabic. There are also a small number of borrowings from Sanskrit, Turkish, Portuguese and more recently English. Many of the words of Arabic origin have different nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic. In fact, Urdu is the classical example of the Muslim empire's curiosity. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Writing System

The Urdu Nasta’liq alphabet, with names in the Devanagari and Latin alphabets
The Urdu Nasta’liq alphabet, with names in the Devanagari and Latin alphabets

Urdu is written in a derivative of the Persian alphabet, which is itself derivative of the Arabic alphabet. Like Semitic Languages, Urdu script is written from right to left. Urdu is similar in appearance and letters to Arabic, Sindhi, Persian, and Pashto. In their modern incarnation, Urdu differs in appearance from Arabic in that it typically uses the more complex and sinuous Nasta’liq style of script, whereas Arabic is more commonly written in the modernised Naskh style. Nasta’liq is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdu newspapers were made from hand-written masters (a.k.a katib or khush-navees) until the late 1980s. The daily Jang was the first Urdu newspaper composed in Nasta’liq on computer. There are efforts underway to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers and the Internet. Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programs. Urdu can also be written in the Devanagari script. This often occurs in India as many Indians speak Urdu but are not literate in it (i.e. Lucknow). Instead they use the more common Devanagari script. Urdu ghazals are also frequently written in the Devanagari script. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x775, 204 KB) Summary hand made urdu alphabets File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x775, 204 KB) Summary hand made urdu alphabets File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... It has been suggested that Persian language#Arabic Alphabet be merged into this article or section. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Sindhi (سنڌي، सिन्धी sindhÄ«) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Nastaliq (نستعليق) is a specific style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Naskh - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The daily Jang () is the largest Urdu language newspaper of the world, simultaneously publishing from Pakistans main cities: Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Quetta and Multan; while it is being published from London (UK) as well and is circulated throughout Europe. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ; Urdu: لکھنو Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages commonly written in the Latin alphabet. It should be noted that a reasonably comprehensive system has emerged with specific notations to signify non-English sounds, but it can only be properly read by someone already familiar with Urdu, Persian, or Arabic for letters such as:ژ خ غ ط ص or ق and Hindi for letters such as ڑ. This script may be found on the Internet, and it allows people who understand the language but without knowledge of their written forms to communicate with each other. In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is the official language of the central government of India. ...


A list of the Urdu alphabet and pronunciation is given below. Urdu contains many historical spellings from Arabic and Persian, and therefore has many irregularities. The Arabic letters yaa and haa are split into two in Urdu: one of the yaa variants is used at the ends of words for the sound [i], and one of the haa variants is used to indicate the aspirated consonants. The retroflex consonants needed to be added as well; this was accomplished by placing a superscript ط (to'e) above the corresponding dental consonants. Several letters which represent distinct consonants in Arabic are conflated in Persian, and this has carried over to Urdu. See: Aspiration (phonetics) Aspiration (medicine) Aspiration (long-term hope) - see for example, Robert Goddards response to the ridicule by the New York Times, 1920: Every vision is a joke until the first man accomplishes it; once realized, it becomes commonplace. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ...

Letter Name of letter Pronunciation in the IPA
ا alif [ə, ɑ] after a consonant; silent when initial. Close to an English long a as in Mask.
ب be [b] English b.
پ pe [p] English p.
ت te dental [t̪] Close to French t as in trois.
ٹ ṭe retroflex [ʈ] Close to English T.
ث se [s] Close to English s
ج jīm [dʒ] Same as English j
چ cīm/ce [tʃ] Same as English ch, not like Scottish ch
ح baṛī he [h] voicleless h, partially an Alveolar consonant
خ khe [x] Slightly rolled version of Scottish "ch" as in loch
د dāl dental [d̪]
ڈ ḍāl retroflex [ɖ]
ذ zāl [z]
ر re dental [r]
ڑ aṛ retroflex [ɽ]
ز ze [z]
ژ zhe [ʒ]
س sīn [s]
ش shīn [ʃ]
ص su'ād [s]
ض zu'ād [z]
ط to'e [t]
ظ zo'e [z]
ع ‘ain [ɑ] after a consonant; otherwise [ʔ], [ə], or silent.
غ ghain [ɣ]
ف fe [f]
ق qāf [q]
ک kāf [k]
گ gāf [g]
ل lām [l]
م mīm [m]
ن nūn [n] or a nasal vowel
و vā'o [v, u, ʊ, o, ow]
ہ, ﮩ, ﮨ choṭī he [ɑ] at the end of a word, otherwise [h] or silent
ھ do cashmī he indicates that the preceding consonant is aspirated (p, t, c, k) or murmured (b, d, j, g).
ی choṭī ye [j, i, e, ɛ]
ے baṛī ye [eː]
ء hamzah [ʔ] or silent

Urdu is occasionally also written in the Roman script. Roman Urdu has been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman movable type for printing presses. The use of Roman Urdu was common in contexts such as product labels. Today it is regaining popularity among users of text-messaging and Internet services and is developing its own style and conventions. Habib R. Sulemani says, "The younger generation of Urdu-speaking people around the world are using [Romanised Urdu] on the Internet and it has become essential for them, because they use the Internet and English is its language. A person from Islamabad chats with another in Delhi on the Internet only in Roman Urdu. They both speak almost the same language but with different scripts. Moreover, the younger generation of those who are from the English medium schools or settled in the west, can speak Urdu but can’t write it in the traditional Arabic script and thus Roman Urdu is a blessing for such a population." Roman Urdu also holds significance among the Christians of North India. Urdu was the dominant native language among Christians of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan in the early part of 1900s and is still used by some people in these Indian states. Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdu. Thus Roman Urdu was a common way of writing among Indian Christians in these states up to the 1960s. The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdu Bibles which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today). Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdu. However, the usage of Roman Urdu is declining with the wider use of Hindi and English in these states. The major South Asian film industries, Bollywood and Lollywood, are also noteworthy for their use of Roman Urdu for their movie titles. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the mouth and the nose. ... See: Aspiration (phonetics) Aspiration (medicine) Aspiration (long-term hope) - see for example, Robert Goddards response to the ridicule by the New York Times, 1920: Every vision is a joke until the first man accomplishes it; once realized, it becomes commonplace. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... Roman Urdu is the name used for Urdu written in Roman (English) script. ... The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ... Movable Type is a proprietary weblog publishing system developed by California-based Six Apart. ... Habib R. Sulemani (born June 5, 1971, Gulmit, Gojal, Hunza) is a young poet, writer and journalist, living in Pakistan. ... A map showing North India North India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... Movie poster of one of the most popular films—Sholay (1975) Bollywood (Hindi: बॉलीवुड, Urdu: بالیوُڈ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi language film industry in India. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ...


Also see Roman Urdu. Roman Urdu is the name used for Urdu written in Roman (English) script. ...


Examples

English Urdu Transliteration Notes
Hello السلام علیکم assalāmu ‘alaikum اداب [aˈdaːb] would generally
be used to give respect.
و علیکم السلام [ˈwaɭikum ˈaʔsaɭam]
is the correct response.
Hello اداب عرض ہے ādāb arz hai "Regards to you"
(lit Regards are expressed),
a very formal secular greeting.
Good Bye خدا حافظ khudā hāfiz Khuda is Persian for God,
and hāfiz is from Arabic hifz "protection".
So lit. "May God be your Guardian."
Standard and commonly used
by Muslims and non-Muslims OR al vida formally spoken all over
yes ہاں n casual
yes جی formal
yes جی ہاں jī hān confident formal
no نا casual
no نہیں, جی نہیں nahīn OR jī nahīn formal
please مہربانی meharbānī
thank you شکریہ shukrīā OR jazakallah
Please come in تشریف لائیے tashrīf laīe lit. Bring your honour
Please have a seat تشریف رکھیئے tashrīf rakhīe lit. Place your honour
I am happy to meet you اپ سے مل کر خوشی ہوی āp se mil kar khvushī (khushī) hūye lit. It is a pleasure to have met you
Do you speak English? کیا اپ انگریزی بولتے ہیں؟ kya āp angrezī (English) bolte hain?
I do not speak Urdu. میں اردو نہیں بولتا main Urdu nahīn boltā (male) bolti (female)
My name is ... میرا نام ۔۔۔ ہے merā nām .... hai
Which way to Lahore لاھور کس طرف ہے؟ Lāhaur kis taraf hai?
Where is Lucknow? لکھنو کہاں ہے؟ Lakhnau kahān hai
Urdu is a good language. اردو ایک اچھی زبان ہے Urdu ek acchī zabān hai

This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ; Urdu: لکھنو Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ...

Common difficulties faced in learning Urdu

  • the phonetic mechanism of some sounds peculiar to Urdu (eg. ṛ, dh etc) The distinction between aspirated and unaspirated consonants will be difficult for English speakers. In addition, the distinction between dental and alveoloar (or retroflex) consonants will also pose problems. English speakers will find that they need to carefully distinguish between four different d-sounds and four different t-sounds.
  • pronunciation of vowels: In English, unstressed vowels tend to have a "schwa" quality. The pronunciation of such vowels in English is changed to an "uh" sound; this is called reducing a vowel sound. The second syllable of "unify" is pronounced /ə/, not i. The same for the unstressed second syllable of "person" which is also pronounced /ə/ rather than "oh." In Urdu, English-speakers must constantly be careful not to reduce these vowels.
    • In this respect, probably the most important mistake would be for English speakers to reduce final "ah" sounds to "uh." This can be especially important because an English pronunciation will lead to misunderstandings about grammar and gender. In Urdu, وہ بولتا ہے voh boltā hai is "he talks" whereas وہ بولتی ہے voh boltī hai is "she talks." A typical English pronunciation in the first sentence would be "voh boltuh hai," which will be understood as "she talks" by most Urdu-native speakers.
  • The 'a' ending of many gender-masculine words of native origin, due to romanisation, is highly confused by non-native speakers, because the short 'a' is dropped in Urdu (i.e. ہونا honā).
  • the Verbal concordance; Urdu exhibits split ergativity; see Ergative-absolutive language for an example.
  • Relative-correlative constructions. In English interrogative and relative pronouns are the same word. In "Who are you?" the word "who" is an interrogative, or question, pronoun. In "My friend who lives in Sydney can speak Urdu," the word "who" is not an interrogative, or question-pronoun. It is a relative, or linking-pronoun. In Urdu, there are different words for each. The interrogative pronoun tends to start with the "k" sound:" kab = when?, kahān = where?, kitnā = how much? The relative pronouns are usually very similar but start with "j" sounds: jab = when, jahān = where, jitnā = how much.

Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Look up Concordance on Wiktionary, the free dictionary see Concordance system for usage in politics. ... Split ergativity is shown by languages that have a partly ergative behaviour, but employ another syntax or morphology (usually accusative) in some contexts. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or simply ergative) is one that treats the agent of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ...

Literature

Urdu has only become a literary language in recent centuries, as Persian and Arabic were formerly the idioms of choice for "elevated" subjects. However, despite its late development, Urdu literature boasts some world-recognised artists and a considerable corpus.


Prose

Religious

After Arabic and Persian, Urdu holds the largest collection of work on Islamic literature and Sharia. These include translations and interpretation of Qur'an, commentary on Hadith, Fiqh, history, spirituality, Sufism and metaphysics. A great number of classical texts from Arabic and Persian, have also been translated into Urdu. Relatively inexpensive publishing, combined with the use of Urdu as a lingua franca among Muslims of South Asia, has meant that Islam-related works in Urdu far outnumber such works in any other South Asian language. Two of the most popular Islamic books, originally written in Urdu, are the Fazail-e-Amal and the Bahar-e-Shariat. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other senses of this word, see history (disambiguation). ... Image:Maharishi. ... Important Note - The relation between Islam and Sufism has led to a lot of controversy ( Sufism, controversy and debate) which has led to this article being tagged disputed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Fazail-e-Amal (also named فضائلِ اعمال, in Persian فضاءلﹺ عمال, or by various other transliterations, including Fazael-e-Amal, Fazal-e-amal and Fadhaail-e-Aamaal), is an Islamic religious text written by the Indian scholar Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi. ... Bahar-e-Shariat (1939) is a voluminous encyclopedia of Islamic fiqh consisting of twenty books. ...


Literary

Secular prose includes all categories of widely known fiction and non-fiction work, separable into genres.


The daastaan, or tale, a traditional story which may have many characters and complex plotting. This has now fallen into disuse.


The afsaana, or short story, probably the best-known genre of Urdu fiction. The best-known afsaana writers, or afsaana nigaar, in Urdu are Saadat Hasan Manto, Qurat-ul-Ain Haider, Munshi Premchand, Ismat Chughtai,Krishan Chander, Ghulam Abbas, Banu Qudsia and Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi. Munshi Premchand, became known as a pioneer in the afsaana, though some contend that his were not technically the first as Sir Ross Masood had already written many short stories in Urdu. This article is in need of attention. ... Saadat Hasan Manto Saadat Hasan Manto (Urdu: ‏‏سعادت حسن منٹو) (May 11, 1912-1955) was a Urdu short story writer of Kashmiri ancestry who was born in the Punjab. ... Qurat-ul-Ain Haider was one of the most celebrated litrary name in Urdu. ... Munshi Premchand (July 31, 1880-October 8, 1936) (pen name: Premchand) was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi and Urdu literature. ... Ismat Chughtai1 (1915 – 1991) was an eminent Indian Urdu writer. ... Krishan Chander was an afsaana nigaar, or short story writer. ... Ghulam Abbas was an afsaana nigaar, or short story writer. ... Banu Qudsia was an afsaana nigaar, or short story writer. ... Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi (Born 1916) is an Urdu language Pakistani poet, journalist, literary critic and short story writer. ...


Novels form a genre of their own, in the tradition of the English novel. Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe; title page of 1719 newspaper edition A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended fictional narrative in prose. ...


Other genres include saférnama (i.e: Odyssey, lit: travel story), Mazmoon (i.e: Essay), sarguzisht, inshaeya, murasela, and khud navvisht (i.e: Autobiography).


Poetry

Main article: Urdu poetry
Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869), a respected poet of Urdu.
Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869), a respected poet of Urdu.

Urdu has been the premiere language of poetry in South Asia for two centuries, and has developed a rich tradition in a variety of poetic genres. The 'Ghazal' in Urdu represents the most popular form of subjective poetry, while the 'Nazm' exemplifies the objective kind, often reserved for narrative, descriptive, didactic or satirical purposes. Under the broad head of the Nazm we may also include the classical forms of poems known by specific names such as 'Masnavi' (a long narrative poem in rhyming couplets on any theme: romantic, religious, or didactic), 'Marsia' (an elegy traditionally meant to commemorate the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Hussain, grandson of Prophet Muhammad, and his comrades of the Karbala fame), or 'Qasida' (a panegyric written in praise of a king or a nobleman), for all these poems have a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded. However, these poetic species have an old world aura about their subject and style, and are different from the modern Nazm, supposed to have come into vogue in the later part of the nineteenth century. Like other languages, the history of Urdu poetry does not have a firm starting point and shares origins and influences with other linguistic traditions within the Urdu-Hindi-Hindustani mix. ... Image File history File links Ghalib. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bold textItalic text Headline text The Masnavi or Masnavi-I Manavi ((Persian:مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of both Sufism and Persian literature. ... Marsia is a poem written to commemorate the martyrdom of Ahl al-Bayt, Imam Hussain and Battle of Karbala. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Karbalā (Arabic: ; also transliterated as Kerbala, Kerbela, or Karbila) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ...

Foreign forms such as the sonnet, azad nazm (a.k.a Free verse) and haiku have also been used by some modern Urdu poets. Diwan (Arabic: دیوان ), also transliterated as Deewan or Divan, is a term for a collection of poems of a single author; it may be a selected works, or the whole body of work of an Urdu, Persian or Ottoman Turkish poet. ... Doha (Hindi: दोहा, Persian: دوہا ) is a form of self-contained rhyming couplet in poetry. ... Geet (Hindi: गीत, Urdu: گیت ) is a word in several Indo-Aryan languages, deriving from the Sanskrit word geeta, which means a song or a poem. ... In poetry (and as the lyrics in songs), the ghazal (Arabic: غزل; Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain. ... Mir Taqi Mir was the leading Urdu poet of the eighteenth century, and one of the pioneers who gave shape to the Urdu language itself. ... Mirza Asadullah Beg Khan Ghalib1 (also known as Mirza Ghalib) (December 27, 1797 - February 15, 1869) was an Indian poet who wrote in Urdu and Persian. ... Faiz Ahmed Faiz (January 7, 1910 - 1984), is considered by many to be a poet in the great tradition of Urdu poets like Ghalib and Iqbal. ... A hamd (حمد) is a poem or song in praise of God. ... Kalam (Arabic: کلام ) means discussion. In Persian and Urdu poetry, Kalam refers to total poetic work of a poet. ... Kulyat (Persian: کلیات ) is a collection poetry of a poet. ... Marsia is a poem written to commemorate the martyrdom of Ahl al-Bayt, Imam Hussain and Battle of Karbala. ... Bold textItalic text Headline text The Masnavi or Masnavi-I Manavi ((Persian:مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of both Sufism and Persian literature. ... Musaddas is a genre of Urdu poetry in which each unit consists of 6 lines (misra). ... A Naat (Persian: نعت ) is poetry that specifically praises the prophet Muhammad. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Noha (Urdu: نوحہ)) is a genre of Urdu prose depicting the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. ... A qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ... Qata or Qatã (Arabic: قطعہ ) means stanza, piece or fragment of poetry. ... The rubai (plural rubaiyat) is a Persian and Urdu verse form. ... In the Indian Muslim Traditions, especially in Gangatic plains and Hyderabad (Deccan), there is a social ritual where the sisters of the groom sing a song in praise of the groom and pray to God for his future wedded life. ... Soz (Persian: سوز ) is a genre of poetry in Persian and Urdu. ... Francesco Petrarca or Petrarch, one of the best-known of the early Italian sonnet writers For the Saab automobile, see Saab Sonett. ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers can perceive to be... Haiku ) is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ...


Probably the most widely recited, and memorised genre of contemporary Urdu poetry is naat—panegyric poetry written in praise of the Prophet Muhammad. Naat can be of any formal category, but is most commonly in the ghazal form. The language used in Urdu naat ranges from the intensely colloquial to a highly Persianised formal language. The great early twentieth century scholar Imam Ahmad Raza Khan, who wrote many of the most well known naats in Urdu, epitomised this range in a ghazal of nine stanzas (bayt) in which every stanza contains half a line each of Arabic, Persian, formal Urdu, and colloquial Hindi. The same poet composed a salaam—a poem of greeting to the Prophet Muhammad, derived from the unorthodox practice of qiyam, or standing, during the mawlid, or celebration of the birth of the Prophet—Mustafa Jan-e Rahmat, which, due to being recited on Fridays in some Urdu speaking mosques throughout the world, is probably the more frequently recited Urdu poems of the modern era. A Naat (Persian: نعت ) is poetry that specifically praises the prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ahmad Raza Khan was a great scholor of Islamic World ... Mawlid, Mawlid an-Nabi or Milad al-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam; also known as The Seal of the Prophets. Sunni Muslims celebrate this day on the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal in the Islamic calendar; whereas Twelver Shia...


Another important genre of Urdu prose are the poems commemorating the martyrdom of imam Hussain and Battle of Karbala, called noha (نوحہ) and marsia. Anees and Dabeer are famous in this regard. Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Combatants Umayyads Forces of Husayn ibn Ali Commanders Yazid I Husayn ibn Ali Strength 4500 or less 72 Casualties unknown 72 The Battle of Karbala was a military engagement that took place on 10 Muharram, 61 AH (October 10, 680) in Karbala, in present day Iraq, between the Islamic prophet... Noha (Urdu: نوحہ)) is a genre of Urdu prose depicting the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. ... Marsia is a poem written to commemorate the martyrdom of Ahl al-Bayt, Imam Hussain and Battle of Karbala. ... Mir Babar Ali Anis (1803-1874) was born in Faizabad in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Urdu poetry terminology

Ash'ar (اشعار) (Couplet). It consists of two lines, Misra (مصرعہ); first line is called Misra-e-aala (مصرعہ اعلی) and the second is called 'Misra-e-sani' (مصرعہ ثانی). Each verse embodies a single thought or subject (sing) She'r (شعر).


History

Main article: History of Urdu

Urdu developed as local Indo-Aryan dialects came under the influence of the Muslim courts that ruled South Asia from the early thirteenth century. The official language of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, and their successor states, as well as the cultured language of poetry and literature, was Persian, while the language of religion was Arabic. Most of the Sultans and nobility in the Sultanate period were Persianised Turks from Central Asia who spoke Turkish as their mother tongue. The Mughals were also Turks from Central Asia and spoke Persian as a second language. The mingling of these languages led to a vernacular that is the ancestor of today's Urdu. Dialects of this vernacular are spoken today in cities and villages throughout Pakistan and northern India. Cities with a particularly strong tradition of Urdu include Hyderabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, and Lucknow. The history of Urdu (اردو) is a fascinating story involving history, linguistics, ethnicity, religion, and national identity. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Sultan in Disneys Aladdin A Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The vernacular is the native language of a country or locality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد, abode of Islam), is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ; Urdu: لکھنو Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


The birthplace of the Urdu language is not known with certainty. Urdu literature has a long Arabic history, however, and because of this it has strong middle eastern roots. The word Urdu itself comes from the Turkish word ordu, "tent" or "army", from which we get the word "horde". Hence Urdu is sometimes called "Lashkari zaban" or the language of the army. Furthermore, armies of India often contained soldiers with various native tongues. Hence, Urdu was the chosen language to address the soldiers as it abridged several languages.


Wherever Muslim soldiers and officials settled, they carried Urdu with them. Urdu (along with Persian) enjoyed commanding status in the literary courts of Muslim rulers and Nawabs, and flourished under their patronage, partially displacing Sanskrit as the language of religious intellectuals in Indian society. The prestige bestowed upon Urdu at the expense of Sanskrit was a source of irritation for many religious Hindus, and to this day there remains religiously motivated conflict between the languages that sometimes makes dialogue difficult. Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ...


Urdu continued as one of many languages in Northwest India. In 1947, Urdu was established as the national language of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in the hope that this move would unite and homogenise the various ethnic groups of the new nation. Urdu suddenly went from a language of a minority to the language of the majority. Today, Urdu is taught throughout Pakistani schools and spoken in government positions, and it is also common in much of Northern India. Urdu's sister language, Hindi, is the official language of India.


Urdu and Hindi

Technically, linguists do not distinguish between Hindi and Urdu as separate languages. For them, Urdu and Hindi can be seen as variants of the same spoken language (Hindustani) with Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script and with a heavy Persian and Arabic vocabulary (cf. Webster's New World Dictionary). Both these languages are based on the Khariboli dialect—the dialect of the Delhi region. However, Standard Urdu and Standard Hindi are definitely distinct languages—for the purpose of politics and sociolinguistics-although in terms of mutual intelligibility, they would still be considered dialects of the same language. There are two fundamental distinctions between them: The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ...

  1. The source of borrowed vocabulary (Persian or Sanskrit), and the script used to write them (an adaptation of the Persian script written in Nasta'liq style, or the Devanagari alphabet). In colloquial situations in much of the Indian subcontinent, where neither learned vocabulary nor writing is used, the distinction between the Urdu and Hindi tends to zero. In other dialect areas, the distinction may become even more pronounced even in colloquial speech, for "Hindi" in such cases will often refer to the local dialect.
  2. The most important distinction at this level is in the script: if written in the Perso-Arabic script, the language is generally considered to be Urdu, and if written in Devanagari it is generally considered to be Hindi. Since the Partition of India, the formal registers used in education and the media in India have become increasingly divergent from Urdu in their vocabulary. Where there is no colloquial word for a concept, Standard Urdu uses Perso-Arabic vocabulary, while Standard Hindi uses Sanskrit vocabulary. This results in the official languages being heavily Sanskritised or Persianised, and unintelligible to speakers educated in the other standard (as far as the formal vocabulary is concerned).

Note that for the purpose of linguistics, neither of above two arguments qualify for the purpose of considering Hindi and Urdu to be separate languages. For example, English has about 80-90% of its technical and formal vocabulary coming from Latin (mostly through French). But this fact does not make English a Romance language (i.e., languages descending from Latin)—English is always considered to be a Germanic language, because its "common and everyday vocabulary" and grammar is based upon Old German. Script never causes distinction between languages, because linguistics deals with language as it is "spoken," regarding script as but choice construction. Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Nastaliq (نستعليق) is a specific style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ...


It can be argued that Standard Hindi is a form of colloquial Hindustani, intentionally de-Persianised and de-Arabicised, with its formal vocabulary borrowed instead from Sanskrit. Similarly, it can also be argued that Standard Urdu is also a form of Hindustani, intentionally de-Sanskritised, with its formal vocabulary borrowed instead from Persian and Arabic. The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ...


These two standardised registers of Hindustani have become so entrenched as separate languages that often nationalists, both Muslim and Hindu, claim that Hindi and Urdu have always been separate languages. However, there are unifying forces. For example, it is said that Indian Bollywood films are made in "Hindi", but the language used in most of them is almost the same as that of Urdu speakers. The dialogue is frequently developed in English and later translated to an intentionally neutral Hindustani which can be easily understood by speakers of most speakers of most North Indian languages, both in India and in Pakistan. Movie poster of one of the most popular films—Sholay (1975) Bollywood (Hindi: बॉलीवुड, Urdu: بالیوُڈ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi language film industry in India. ...


Also see Hindi. Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in Devanāgarī), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is the official language of the central government of India. ...


Urdu and Bollywood

The Indian film industry based in Mumbai is often called Bollywood. The language used in Bollywood films is often called Hindi, but most dialogues are actually written in Hindustani -- they can be understood by Urdu and Hindi speakers alike. The film industry wants to reach the largest possible audience, and it cannot do that if the dialogue of the film is too one-sidedly Hindi or Urdu.[citation needed] This rule is broken only for song lyrics, which use elevated, poetic language. Often, this means using poetic Urdu words, of Arabic and Persian origin. A few films, like Umrao Jaan, Pakeezah, and Mughal-e-azam, have used vocabulary that leans more towards Urdu, as they depict places and times when Urdu would have been used. Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई) (pronounced ), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)[1]. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, off the west coast of Maharashtra. ... Movie poster of one of the most popular films—Sholay (1975) Bollywood (Hindi: बॉलीवुड, Urdu: بالیوُڈ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi language film industry in India. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Umrao Jaan is a Bollywood film released in 1981. ... Pakeezah (पाक़ीज़ा, lit. ... Mughal-e-Azam is an Indian romance film, a product of the Bollywood movie industry. ...


From the 1950s through the 1970s, Bollywood films displayed the name of the film in Hindi, Urdu, and Roman scripts. Most Bollywood films today present film titles in Roman Urdu, although some also include the Hindi and Urdu scripts. Roman Urdu is the name used for Urdu written in Roman (English) script. ...


Urdenglish

There is a tendency to use English words and expressions in Urdu speech in Pakistan. This mixture is popularly known as Urdenglish. According to Khalid Ahmed of Daily Times [11] : The Daily Times is a Pakistani newspaper. ...

Those who speak Urdu sabotage it with colourless English words. The so-called ‘English-medium’ community does it all the time. So do most politicians. Asked to speak only in Urdu most of us go into contortions of unease. But the unkindest cut of all is that our great creative writers in Urdu too can’t speak Urdu for a minute without plastering us with ordinary not-too-original English expressions.

Footnote

1As in Ghalib's famous couplet[12] where he compares himself to his great predecessor, the master poet Mir : Mirza Asadullah Beg Khan Ghalib1 (also known as Mirza Ghalib) (December 27, 1797 - February 15, 1869) was an Indian poet who wrote in Urdu and Persian. ... Mir Taqi Mir was the leading Urdu poet of the eighteenth century, and one of the pioneers who gave shape to the Urdu language itself. ...

Urdu script

ریختے کے تمہیں استاد نہیں ہو غالب
کہتے ہیں اگلے زمانے میں کوئی میر بھی تھا

Transliteration

Rekhte ke tumhen ustād nahīn ho Ghālib
Kahte hain agle zamāne men ko'ī Mīr bhī thā

Translation

You, alone, are not the only expert of 'Rekhta', Ghalib
It is said that even once there existed someone named Mir

Bibliography/References

Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. (2000). "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course)

  • Asher, R. E. (Ed.). (1994). The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-0803-5943-4.
  • Azad, Muhammad Husain: Ab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Wrks) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001 [In English translation]
  • Azim, Anwar. (1975). Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259).
  • Bhatia, Tej K. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0415110874 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course)
  • Chatterji, Suniti K. (1960). Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Dua, Hans R. (1992). Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-1101-2855-1.
  • Dua, Hans R. (1994b). Urdu. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 4863-4864).
  • Dua, Hans R. (1994a). Hindustani. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 1554).
  • Kelkar, A. R. (1968). Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology. Poona: Deccan College.
  • Khan, M. H. (1969). Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 5). The Hague: Mouton.
  • Narang, G. C.; & Becker, D. A. (1971). Aspiration and nasalization in the generative phonology of Hindi-Urdu. Language, 47, 646-767.
  • Ohala, M. (1972). Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).
  • "A Desertful of Roses", a site about Ghalib's Urdu ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
  • Rai, Amrit. (1984). A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-1956-1643-X.
  • Snell, Rupert Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners. Lincolnwood, IL : NTC

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:

alphabetically arranged Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ...

In poetry (and as the lyrics in songs), the ghazal (Arabic: غزل; Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... // The languages of India Hindi, in Devanagari script, is the primary official language used by the Central Government of the Union of India. ... Most of the languages of Pakistan are part of the family of Indo-European languages and span the Indo-Iranian range of that family with the Indo-Aryan languages predominant in the east and the Iranian languages the most significant in the west as well as Dardic languages in the... Listed below are major Urdu poets, sorted by date of birth. ... See Muhajir page for all Muhajir groups in the world Muhajir or Mohajir (Arabic: مہاجر) is an ethnic group in Pakistan. ... The Persian language was crucial in the formation of a common language of the Central, North and Northwest regions of the [Indian subcontinent]. Following the Mughal conquest of India and the resulting vast Islamic empire, especially in the North and middle areas, a hybrid language of Arabic, Persian, and local... Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... Like other languages, the history of Urdu poetry does not have a firm starting point and shares origins and influences with other linguistic traditions within the Urdu-Hindi-Hindustani mix. ... This is a list of Urdu language writers arranged in order of their birth. ...

External links

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Sites About Urdu

Online Use of Urdu

  • Funny Poetry Urdu Funny Poetry - Fun & Joy Stop in urdu website
  • Urdu Hamd & Naat
  • Urdu Poetry,Funny Poetry: Having Great Resources of Urdu Poetry,Hamd,Naat,Mizah,News etc...
  • Urdu Poetry: One of the largest urdu poetry collection by users and own contibution.
  • Urdu Poetry: User submitted poetry in Roman Urdu
  • Webster's Urdu-English Dictionary
  • Online Dictionary
  • Urdu: Digital Library of Urdu Books. Allama Iqbal Urdu Cyber Library Network
  • Shairy.com: Largest collection of Online Urdu poetry,Urdu Shairee, S[13]Shairy,News,Colums,And every thing who wants By you
  • Al Qamar Online Urdu Network from London
  • UrduWiki
  • Collaborative blog discussing the Urdu language and the affiliated culture
  • Blogging In Urdu
  • List of blogs in Urdu
  • Templates for blogging in Urdu
  • BBC News in Urdu
  • Al-Islam.org in Urdu
  • Roznama Boriat Karachi - Spoof News in Urdu
  • Urdu Public Library - Urdu Public Library
  • Urdu-Poetry: Urdu Poetry books. From funny Urdu poetry to sad Urdu petry, Indian Urdu poetry to Pakistani Urdu poetry and even male/female Urdu poetry. Read now
  • Urdu News Online urdu new paper Updated daily, in graphical form.
  • Sufi Urdu online Magazine
Indo-Iranian languages
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The Nature of the Urdu Language (285 words)
Urdu was the language of poetry and literature of Mughal India and retains a high status even in modern times.
Punjabi is the native language of 60 percent of the population of Pakistan and both Sindi and Paktu, with 12 percent and 11 percent respectively, are the native language of a higher proportion of the population than is Urdu.
Urdu as a written language seems quite different from Hindi because it is written in a Persian-modified Arabic script whereas Hindi is written in the Devanagari script.
Urdu Language - ninemsn Encarta (315 words)
Urdu Language, national language of Pakistan, virtually identical to Hindi, and an officially recognized state language in India.
Despite its official status, Urdu is not the most widely spoken language in Pakistan: in fact it is in fourth or fifth place (depending on the definition of “language”) with only around 10.7 million first-language speakers.
Urdu only acquired official status as a separate language after partition in 1947 (before partition, the term “Hindustani” was used to refer to both Urdu and Hindi).
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