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Encyclopedia > Urdu
Urdu
اُردو 
Pronunciation: ['ʊrd̪uː]
Spoken in: India, Pakistan, U.A.E., U.S.A., U.K., Canada, Fiji 
Region: South Asia (Indian subcontinent)
Total speakers: 100–130 million native
250 million total 
Ranking: 19–21 (native speakers), in a near tie with Italian and Turkish
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   Central zone
    Urdu 
Writing system: Urdu alphabet (Nasta'liq script
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Pakistan Pakistan ;
Flag of India India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh);
Flag of Fiji Fiji (as Hindustani)
Regulated by: National Language Authority,
National Council for Promotion of Urdu language[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ur
ISO 639-2: urd
ISO 639-3: urd

Urdu (pronunciation , اردو, trans. Urdū, historically spelled Ordu) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. It developed under Persian and to a lesser degree Arabic and Turkic influence on apabhramshas during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1526–1858 AD) in South Asia.[2] UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Central Zone cricket team is a first-class cricket team that represents central India in the Duleep Trophy. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Example of writing in the alphabet- Zabān-e-UrdÅ«-e-moalla Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Chalipa panel, Mir Emad. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Delhi. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... The National Language Authority (Muqtadra Qaumi Zaban - مقتدرہ قومی زبان) (or Urdu Language Authority[1]) is an autonomous regulatory institution established in 1979 to support the advancements and promotion of Urdu which is the national language of Pakistan. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Hi-Urdu. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The term Apabhramsha refers to the dialects of North India before the rise of modern North Indian languages. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Urdu is a standardised register of Hindustani[3] termed khaṛībolī, that emerged as a standard dialect.[4] The grammatical description in this article concerns this standard Urdū. In general, the term "Urdū" can encompass dialects of Hindustani other than the standardised versions. In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... Hindustani redirects here. ... Khariboli (also Khadiboli, Khadi-Boli, or Khari dialect), (Hindi: खड़ी बोली; Urdu: كهڑى بولى, khaṛī bolÄ«; lit. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...


Standard Urdu has approximately the twentieth largest population of native speakers, among all languages. It is the national language of Pakistan as well as one of the 23 official languages of India. A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... Indian constitution recognizes 22 languages as National languages 1. ...


Urdu is often contrasted with Hindi, another standardised form of Hindustani. The main differences between the two are that Standard Urdu is conventionally written in Nastaliq calligraphy style of the Perso-Arabic script and draws vocabulary more heavily from Persian and Arabic than Hindi, while Standard Hindi is conventionally written in Devanāgarī and draws vocabulary from Sanskrit comparatively more heavily. Linguists nonetheless consider Urdu and Hindi to be two standardized forms of the same language.[5] Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Nastaliq (نستعليق) is a specific style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

Contents

Speakers and geographic distribution

The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla ("The language of the exalted camp") written in Nasta'liq script.

Urdu is spoken in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, UAE, Saudi-Arabia, Mauritius, Canada, Germany, USA, Iran, Afganistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Maledives, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, South Africa, Oman, Australia, Fiji, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Botswana, Ireland and United Kingdom. There are between 60 and 80 million native speakers of standard Urdu (Khari Boli). According to the SIL Ethnologue (1999 data), Hindi/Urdu is the fifth most spoken language in the world. According to Comrie (1998 data[6]), Hindi-Urdu is the second most spoken language in the world, with thirty million native speakers, after Mandarin and possibly English. Because of Urdu's similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can usually understand one another, if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary. Indeed, linguists sometimes count them as being part of the same language diasystem. However, Urdu and Hindi are socio-politically different, and people who self-describe as being speakers of Hindi would question their being counted as native speakers of Urdu, and vice-versa. Image File history File links Zaban_urdu_mualla. ... Image File history File links Zaban_urdu_mualla. ... Nastaliq (نستعليق) is a specific style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... // The Relationship between Hindi, Urdu, and Hindustani/Hindi-Urdu Hindustani (or the Hindustani language) is a term used by linguists to describe a closely related series of languages or dialects stretching across the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... In linguistics, in the field of structural dialectology, a diasystem is a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ...


In Pakistan, Urdu is spoken and understood by a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Abbottabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Multan, Peshawar, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Sukkur and Sargodha. Urdu is used as the official language in all provinces of Pakistan. It is also taught as a compulsory language up to high school in both the English and Urdu medium school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu speakers whose mother tongue is one of the regional languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Hindku, Sindhi, Pashto, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Balochi, Siraiki, and Brahui. Urdu is the lingua franca of Pakistan and is absorbing many words from regional languages of Pakistan. The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary. There are millions of Pakistanis whose mother tongue is not Urdu but since they have studied in Urdu medium schools they can read and write Urdu but can only speak their mother tongue. Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins (such as Pathan, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu. A very large number of newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan).   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation). ... Abbottabad (Urdu: ایبٹ آباد) is the principal city of Abbottabad District in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Urdu: حيدر آباد) is located in the Sindh province of Pakistan (formerly known as Neroon Kot نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh and known as the city of perfumes, it is now a regional headquarter of the district of Hyderabad. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Gujranwala (Urdu: گوجرانوالہ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a city population of 1,132,509 (1998 census). ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: سیالکوٹ ) is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... Sukkur (Urdu:سکر, Sindhi: سکھر) is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River (Pakistan) in Sukkur District. ... Sargodha (Urdu: ) is the capital city of Sargodha District in Punjab province, Pakistan, it is located in northeast Pakistan, to the west-northwest of Lahore on the lower Jhelum Canal. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Hindku is a minority living in the province of kohat in the north west frontiers in Pakistan. ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... Siraiki (Urdu: سراییکی ) is a language mostly spoken in the provinces of Sindh and the Punjab in central Pakistan by about 1. ... The Brahui (بروہی) or Bravi (براوِ) language, spoken by the Brahui, is mainly spoken in Balochistan, Pakistan, although it is also spoken in Afghanistan and Iran. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... The Daily Jang () is the largest Urdu language newspaper. ... Nawa-i-Waqt (Urdu: روزنامہ نواے وقت) is an Urdu language daily newspaper in Pakistan. ... Millat (Urdu: روزنامہ ملت) is a Urdu daily newspaper in Pakistan. ... Below is a list of newspapers published in Pakistan. ...


In India, Urdu is spoken in places where there are large Muslim minorities or cities which were bases for Muslim Empires in the past. These include parts of Uttar Pradesh (namely Lucknow), Delhi, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mysore, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.[7] Some Indian schools teach Urdu as a first language and have their own syllabus and exams. Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdu. India has more than 29 daily Urdu newspapers. Newspapers such as Sahara Urdu Daily Salar, Hindustan Express, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, Munsif Daily and Inqilab are published and distributed in Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai (see List of newspapers in India). , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... Hyderabad   or Haydarābād // ( Urdu:حیدر آباد), (Telugu:హైదరాబాదు) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... , Ajmer   (Hindi: अजमेर ) is a city in Ajmer District in Indias Rajasthan state. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Below is a list of newspapers published in India. ...


Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centers of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia. Urdu is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centers of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Norway and Australia. Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Countries with large numbers of native Urdu speakers:

Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ...

Official status

Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and is spoken and understood throughout the country. It shares official language status with English. It is used in education, literature, office and court business (it should be noted that in the lower courts in Pakistan, despite the proceedings taking place in Urdu, the documents are in English. In the higher courts, ie, the High Courts and the Supreme Court both the proceedings and documents are in English.), media, and in religious institutions. It holds in itself a repository of the cultural, religious and social heritage of the country.[18] Although English is used in most elite circles, and Punjabi has a plurality of native speakers, Urdu is the lingua franca and is expected to prevail. An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore The society of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان), although relatively diverse depending on which one of Pakistans provinces, has been greatly influenced by the cultures of Central Asia and the Middle East. ... Motto اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam(Urdu) Unity, Discipline and Faith Anthem Qaumi Tarana Capital Islamabad Largest city Karachi Official languages Urdu (national), English (official)[1] Demonym Pakistani Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Pervez Musharraf  -  Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz Formation  -  Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared August 14, 1947   -  Islamic... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Urdu is also one of the officially recognized state languages in India[19] and has official language status in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh, and the national capital, Delhi. While the government school system in most other states emphasizes Standard Hindi, at universities in cities such as Lucknow, Aligarh and Hyderabad, Urdu is spoken, learned, and regarded as a language of prestige. Andhra redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... , Aligarh   (Hindi: अलीगढ़, Urdu: علی Ú¯Ú‘Ú¾) is a city in Aligarh District in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Hyderabad   or Haydarābād // ( Urdu:حیدر آباد), (Telugu:హైదరాబాదు) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ...


Classification and related languages

Urdu is a member of the Indo-Aryan family of languages (i.e., those languages descending from Sanskrit), which is in turn a branch of the Indo-Iranian group (which comprises the Indo-Aryan and the Iranian branches), which itself is a member of the Indo-European linguistic family. Urdu (along with Hindi) is considered to be a part of a dialect continuum which extends across eastern Iran, Afghanistan and modern Pakistan[20]—right into eastern India. These idioms all have similar grammatical structures and share a large portion of their vocabulary. Punjabi, for instance, is very similar to Urdu; Punjabi written in the Shahmukhi script can be understood by speakers of Urdu with little difficulty, but spoken Punjabi has a very different phonology (pronunciation system) and can be harder to understand for Urdu speakers. The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Shahmukhi (شاہ Ù…Ú©Ú¾ÛŒ) is a script used to record the Punjabi language. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


Dialects

Urdu has four recognised dialects: Dakhini, Pinjari, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdu (based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi region). Sociolinguists also consider Urdu itself one of the four major variants of the Hindi-Urdu dialect continuum. In recent years, the Urdu spoken in Pakistan has been evolving and has acquired a particularly Pakistani flavour of its own having absorbed many of that country's indigenous words and proverbs. Many Pakistani speakers of Urdu have begun to emphasize and encourage their own unique form of Urdu to distinguish it from that spoken in India. Linguist point out that the Pakistani dialect of Urdu is gradually being pulled closer to the Iranic branch of the Indo-European family tree as well as acquiring many local words from Pakistan's several native languages and is evolving into a distinctive form from that being spoken in India.[21] Dakkhini, also known as Deccani is a dialect of the Urdu language spoken in the Deccan region of southern India, centered on the city of Hyderabad, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Rekhta is the highly Persianized form of Urdu, a language that combines Arabic, Persian, and Hindi. ... Khariboli (also Khadiboli, Khadi-Boli, or Khari dialect), (/ /; Hindi: खड़ी बोली; Urdu: كهڑى بولى, khaṛī bolÄ«; lit. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


Modern Vernacular Urdu is the form of the language that is least widespread and is spoken around Delhi, Lucknow and the Pakistani variant of the language spoken in Karachi and Lahore, it becomes increasingly divergent from the original form of Urdu as it loses some of the complicated Persian and Arabic vocabulary used in everyday terms. For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


Dakhini (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Maharashtra state in India and around Hyderabad and other parts of Andhra Pradesh. It has fewer Persian and Arabic words than standard Urdu. Dakhini is widely spoken in all parts of Karnatka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India. A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states. Dakkhini, also known as Deccani is a dialect of the Urdu language spoken in the Deccan region of southern India, centered on the city of Hyderabad, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Andhra redirects here. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Andhra redirects here. ...


In addition, Rekhta (or Rekhti), the language of Urdu poetry, is sometimes counted as a separate dialect. Rekhta is the highly Persianized form of Urdu, a language that combines Arabic, Persian, and Hindi. ...


Grammar

Main article: Hindi-Urdu grammar

Hindī-Urdū grammar (Hindī: हिन्दी-उर्दू व्याकरण hindī-urdū vyākaraṇ, Urdū: ہندی-اردو قواعد, hindī-urdū qavāid), also known as Hindustānī grammar, is the grammar of the Hindī-Urdū (Hindustānī) language. ...

Levels of formality in Urdu

The order of words in Urdu is not as rigidly fixed as it is thought to be by traditional grammarians. However, usually (but not invariably) an Urdu sentence begins with a subject and ends with a verb. That is why Urdu is often called an SOV language (e.g. Subject-Object-Verb language). However, Urdu speakers or writers enjoy considerable freedom in placing words in an utterance to achieve stylistic effects, see Bhatia and Koul (2000, pp. 34–35).


Urdu in its less formalised register has been referred to as a rekhta (ریختہ, [reːxt̪aː]), meaning "rough mixture". The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes referred to as zabān-e-Urdu-e-mo'alla (زبانِ اردوِ معلہ, [zəba:n e: ʊrd̪uː eː moəllaː]), the "Language of Camp and Court". In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... Rekhta is the highly Persianized form of Urdu, a language that combines Arabic, Persian, and Hindi. ...


The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is. For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between پانی pānī and آب āb, both meaning "water" for example, or between آدمی ādmi and مرد mard, meaning "man". The former in each set is used colloquially and has older Hindustani origins, while the latter is used formally and poetically, being of Persian origin. Etymologies redirects here. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


If a word is of Persian or Arabic origin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grand. Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand. If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal. Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Izafat (also Izafah) (Farsi: اضافہ) is a Farsi language grammatical construct which links two words together. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Politeness

Urdu is supposed to be very subtle and a host of words are used to show respect and politeness. This emphasis on politeness, which is reflected in the vocabulary, is known as aadaab and to some extent as takalluf in Urdu. These words are generally used when addressing elders, or people with whom one is not acquainted. For example, the English pronoun 'you' can be translated into three words in Urdu the singular forms tu (informal, extremely intimate, or derogatory) and tum (informal and showing intimacy called "apna pun" in Urdu) and the plural form āp (formal and respectful). Similarly, verbs, for example, "come," can be translated with degrees of formality in three ways:

  1. آ‏ئے āiye/[aːɪje] or آ‏ئیں āen/[aːẽː] (formal and respectful)
  2. آ‏و āo/[aːo] (informal and intimate with less degree)
  3. آ ā/[aː] (extremely informal, intimate and potentially derogatory).

Example in a sher by the poet Daag Dehlvi: Sher can have a variety of meanings: Sher or Sher (Arabic: شعر) is the common word for poem in Arabic and Persian. ...

Transileration
ranj kii jab guftaguu hone lagii
āp se tum tum se tuu hone lagii

Gloss
Grief/distress of when conversation started happening
You(formal) to you(informal), you(informal) to you(intimate) started happenning

Vocabulary

Urdu has a vocabulary rich in words with Indian and Middle Eastern origins. The borrowings are dominated by words from Persian and Arabic. There are also a small number of borrowings from Turkish, Portuguese, and more recently English. Many of the words of Arabic origin have different nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Most Used Words

ka (کا) along with its other variants ki,kay,ko (کی، کے، کو) is the most used word in written Urdu. It is true that like English, Urdu borrowed heavily from other languages but its most used words: nouns, pronouns, numbers, body parts and many other words are its own. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Writing system

Main article: Urdu alphabet
Further information: Hindustani orthography
Further information: Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization
The Urdu Nasta’liq alphabet, with names in the Devanāgarī and Latin alphabets
The Urdu Nasta’liq alphabet, with names in the Devanāgarī and Latin alphabets

Nowadays, Urdu is generally written right-to left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Urdu is associated with the Nasta’liq style of Arabic calligraphy, whereas Arabic is generally written in the modernized Naskh style. Nasta’liq is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdu newspapers were hand-written by masters of calligraphy, known as katib or khush-navees, until the late 1980s. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Perso-Arabic script. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Nastaliq (نستعليق) is a specific style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Naskh (نسخ, also known as Naskhi or by its Turkish name Nesih) is a specific calligraphic style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ...


Historically, Urdu was also written in the Kaithi script. A highly-Persianized and technical form of Urdu was the lingua franca of the law courts of the British administration in Bengal, Bihar, and the North-West Provinces & Oudh. Until the late 19th century, all proceedings and court transactions in this register of Urdu was written officially in the Persian script. In 1880, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengal and Bihar and ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdu and Hindi[22] Kaithi's association with Urdu and Hindi was ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script was definitively linked to Urdu. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Sir Ashley Eden (13 November 1831-8 July 1887) was an Anglo-Indian official and diplomatist, third son of Robert John Eden, 3rd Lord Auckland and bishop of Bath and Wells. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


More recently in India, Urdū speakers have adopted Devanagari for publishing Urdu periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdū in Devanagari as distinct from Hindi in Devanagari[23] The popular Urdū monthly magazine, महकता आंचल (Mahakta Anchal), is published in Delhi in Devanagari in order to target the generation of Muslim boys and girls who do not know the Persian script. Such publishers have introduced new orthographic features into Devanagari for the purpose of representing Urdū sounds. One example is the use of अ (Devanagari a) with vowel signs to mimic contexts of ع (‘ain). To Urdū publishers, the use of Devanagari gives them a greater audience, but helps them to preserve the distinct identity of Urdū when written in Devanagari. or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ...


The Daily Jang was the first Urdu newspaper to be typeset digitally in Nasta’liq by computer. There are efforts underway to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers and the Internet. Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programs. The Daily Jang () is the largest Urdu language newspaper. ...


A list of the Urdu alphabet and pronunciation is given below. Urdu contains many historical spellings from Arabic and Persian, and therefore has many irregularities. The Arabic letters yaa and haa are split into two in Urdu: one of the yaa variants is used at the ends of words for the sound [i], and one of the haa variants is used to indicate the aspirated consonants. The retroflex consonants needed to be added as well; this was accomplished by placing a superscript ط (to'e) above the corresponding dental consonants. Several letters which represent distinct consonants in Arabic are conflated in Persian, and this has carried over to Urdu. In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ...

Letter Name of letter Phonemic representation (in IPA)
ا alif /ə/, /ɑ/ after a consonant; silent when initial.
ب /b/
پ /p/
ت dental /t̪/
ٹ ṭé retroflex /ʈ/
ث /s/
ج jīm /dʒ/
چ /tʃ/
ح baṛī hé /h/
خ khé /x/
د dāl dental /d̪/
ڈ ḍāl retroflex /ɖ/
ذ zāl /z/
ر dental /rʃ/
ڑ ṛé retroflex /ɽ/
ز /z/
ژ zhé /ʒ/
س sīn /s/
ش shīn /ʃ/
ص su'ād /s/
ض zu'ād /z/
ط to'é /tʃ/
ظ zo'é /z/
ع ‘ain /ɑ/ after a consonant; otherwise /ʔ/, /ə/, or silent.
غ ghain /ɣ/ (voiced version of /x/)
ف /f/
ق qāf /q/
ک kāf /k/
گ gāf /g/
ل lām /l/
م mīm /m/
ن nūn /n/ or a nasal vowel
و vā'o /v/, /u/, /ʊ/, /o/, /ow/
ہ, ﮩ, ﮨ choṭī hé /ɑ/ at the end of a word, otherwise /h/ or silent
ھ doe cashmī hé indicates that the preceding consonant is aspirated (/pʰ/, /tʰ/, /tʃʰ/, /kʰ/) or murmured (/bʱ/, /dʱ/, /dʒʱ/, /gʱ/).
ء hamzah /ʔ/ or silent
ی choṭī yé /j/, /i/, /e/, /ɛ/
ے baṛī yé /eː/

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through nose as well as the mouth. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ...

Transliteration

Urdu is occasionally also written in the Roman script. Roman Urdu has been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman movable type for printing presses. The use of Roman Urdu was common in contexts such as product labels. Today it is regaining popularity among users of text-messaging and Internet services and is developing its own style and conventions. Habib R. Sulemani says, "The younger generation of Urdu-speaking people around the world are using Romanised Urdu on the Internet and it has become essential for them, because they use the Internet and English is its language. A person from Islamabad chats with another in Delhi on the Internet only in Roman Urdū. They both speak the same language but with different scripts. Moreover, the younger generation of those who are from the English medium schools or settled in the west, can speak Urdu but can’t write it in the traditional Arabic script and thus Roman Urdu is a blessing for such a population."[24] Roman Urdu is the name used for Urdu written in Roman (English) script. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... Habib R. Sulemani (born June 5, 1971, Gulmit, Gojal, Hunza) is a young poet, writer and journalist, living in Pakistan. ...


Roman Urdū also holds significance among the Christians of North India. Urdū was the dominant native language among Christians of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan in the early part of 1900s and is still used by some people in these Indian states. Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdū. Thus Roman Urdū was a common way of writing among Indian Christians in these states up to the 1960s. The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdū Bibles which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today). Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdū. However, the usage of Roman Urdū is declining with the wider use of Hindi and English in these states. The major Hindi-Urdu South Asian film industries, Bollywood and Lollywood, are also noteworthy for their use of Roman Urdū for their movie titles. Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... // The Relationship between Hindi, Urdu, and Hindustani/Hindi-Urdu Hindustani (or the Hindustani language) is a term used by linguists to describe a closely related series of languages or dialects stretching across the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. ... South Asian cinema refers to the cinema of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ...


Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages commonly written in the Latin alphabet. It should be noted that a comprehensive system has emerged with specific notations to signify non-English sounds, but it can only be properly read by someone already familiar with Urdu, Persian, or Arabic for letters such as:ژ خ غ ط ص or ق and Hindi for letters such as ڑ. This script may be found on the Internet, and it allows people who understand the language but without knowledge of their written forms to communicate with each other. In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


Examples

English Urdu Transliteration Notes
Hello السلام علیکم assalāmu ‘alaikum lit. "Peace be upon you." اداب [aˈdaːb] would generally be used to give respect و علیکم السلام [ˈwaɭikum ˈaʔsaɭam] is the correct response.
Hello آداب عرض ہے ādāb arz hai "Regards to you" (lit "Regards are expressed"), a very formal secular greeting.
Good Bye خدا حافظ khudā hāfiz Khuda is Persian for God, and hāfiz is from Arabic hifz "protection". So lit. "May God be your Guardian." Standard and commonly used by Muslims and non-Muslims, or al vida formally spoken all over
yes ہاں n casual
yes جی formal
yes جی ہاں jī hān confident formal
no نا casual
no نہیں، جی نہیں nahīn, jī nahīn formal;jī nahīn is considered more formal
please مہربانی meharbānī
thank you شکریہ shukrīā
Please come in تشریف لائیے tashrīf laīe lit. "Bring your honour"
Please have a seat تشریف رکھیئے tashrīf rakhīe lit. "Place your honour"
I am happy to meet you اپ سے مل کر خوشی ہوئی āp se mil kar khvushī (khushī) hūye lit. "Meeting you has made me happy"
Do you speak English? کیا اپ انگریزی بولتے ہیں؟ kya āp angrezī bolte hain? lit. "Do you speak English?"
I do not speak Urdu. میں اردو نہیں بولتا/بولتی main urdū nahīn boltā/boltī boltā is masculine, boltī is feminine
My name is ... میرا نام ۔۔۔ ہے merā nām .... hai
Which way to Lahore? لاھور کس طرف ہے؟ lāhaur kis taraf hai?
Where is Lucknow? لکھنئو کہاں ہے؟ lakhnau kahān hai
Urdu is a good language. اردو اچھی زبان ہے urdū acchī zubān hai

This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Farsi redirects here. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ...

Sample text

See also: Hindi#Sample_Text

The following is a sample text in zabān-e urdū-e muʻallā (formal Urdu), of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations): Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Urdu text

دفعہ 1: تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوۓ ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہی۔ اسلۓ انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہیۓ۔

Transliteration (ALA-LC)

Dafʻah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʻizzat ke iʻtibār se barābar paidā hu’e heṇ. Unheṇ z̤amīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī he. Isli’e unheṇ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī chāre kā sulūk karnā chāhi’e.

Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...

Gloss (word-for-word)

Article 1: All humans free[,] and rights and dignity *('s) consideration from equal born are. To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another *('s) brotherhood *('s) treatment do must.

Translation (grammatical)

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Note: *('s) represents a possessive case which when written is preceded by the possessor and followed by the possessed, unlike the English 'of'.


Common difficulties faced in learning Urdu

  • The phonetic mechanism of some sounds peculiar to Urdu (eg. ṛ, dh etc): The distinction between aspirated and unaspirated consonants will be difficult for English speakers. In addition, the distinction between dental and alveolar (or retroflex) consonants will also pose problems. English speakers will find that they need to carefully distinguish between four different d-sounds and four different t-sounds.
  • Pronunciation of vowels: In English, unstressed vowels tend to have a "schwa" quality. The pronunciation of such vowels in English is changed to an "uh" sound; this is called reducing a vowel sound. The second syllable of "unify" is pronounced /ə/, not i. The same for the unstressed second syllable of "person" which is also pronounced /ə/ rather than "oh." In Urdu, English-speakers must constantly be careful not to reduce these vowels.
    • In this respect, probably the most important mistake would be for English speakers to reduce final "ah" sounds to "uh." This can be especially important because an English pronunciation will lead to misunderstandings about grammar and gender. In Urdu, وہ بولتا ہے voh boltā hai is "he talks" whereas وہ بولتی ہے voh boltī hai is "she talks." A typical English pronunciation in the first sentence would be "voh boltuh hai," which will be understood as "she talks" by most Urdu-native speakers.
  • The 'a' ending of many gender-masculine words of native origin, due to romanisation, is highly confused by non-native speakers, because the short 'a' is dropped in Urdu (i.e. ہونا honā).
  • The verbal concordance: Urdu exhibits split ergativity; see Ergative-absolutive language for an example.
  • Relative-correlative constructions: In English interrogative and relative pronouns are the same word. In "Who are you?" the word "who" is an interrogative, or question, pronoun. In "My friend who lives in Sydney can speak Urdu," the word "who" is not an interrogative, or question-pronoun. It is a relative, or linking-pronoun. In Urdu, there are different words for each. The interrogative pronoun tends to start with the "k" sound:" kab = when?, kahān = where?, kitnā = how much? This is similar to the 'W' in English, which is used for the same purpose. The relative pronouns are usually very similar but start with "j" sounds: jab = when, jahān = where, jitnā = how much.

Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Look up Concordance on Wiktionary, the free dictionary see Concordance system for usage in politics. ... Split ergativity is shown by languages that have a partly ergative behaviour, but employ another syntax or morphology (usually accusative) in some contexts. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or simply ergative) is one that treats the agent of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ...

Literature

Urdu has only become a literary language in recent centuries, as Persian and Arabic were formerly the idioms of choice for "elevated" subjects. However, despite its late development, Urdu literature boasts some world-recognised artists and a considerable corpus.


Prose

Religious

Urdu holds the largest collection of works on Islamic literature and Sharia after arabic and persian. These include translations and interpretation of Qur'an, commentary on Hadith, Fiqh, history, spirituality, Sufism and metaphysics. A great number of classical texts from Arabic and Persian, have also been translated into Urdu. Relatively inexpensive publishing, combined with the use of Urdu as a lingua franca among Muslims of South Asia, has meant that Islam-related works in Urdu far outnumber such works in any other South Asian language.[citation needed] Popular Islamic books, originally written in Urdu, include Fazail-e-Amal, Bahishti Zewar the Bahar-e-Shariat. This article is about Islamic religious law. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... An Urdu edition of the Fazail-e-Amal. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Bahar-e-Shariat (1939) is a voluminous encyclopedia of Islamic fiqh consisting of twenty books. ...


Literary

Secular prose includes all categories of widely known fiction and non-fiction work, separable into genres.


The dāstān, or tale, a traditional story which may have many characters and complex plotting. This has now fallen into disuse.


The afsāna, or short story, probably the best-known genre of Urdu fiction. The best-known afsāna writers, or afsāna nigār, in Urdu are Saadat Hasan Manto, Qurratulain Hyder (Qurat-ul-Ain Haider), Munshi Premchand, Ismat Chughtai, Krishan Chander, Ghulam Abbas, Banu Qudsia and Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi. Munshi Premchand, became known as a pioneer in the afsāna, though some contend that his were not technically the first as Sir Ross Masood had already written many short stories in Urdu. This article is in need of attention. ... Saadat Hasan Manto Saadat Hasan Manto (Urdu: ‏‏سعادت حسن منٹو) (May 11, 1912-1955) was a Urdu short story writer of Kashmiri ancestry who was born in the Punjab. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Qurratulain Haider. ... Premchand redirects here. ... Ismat Chughtai1 (1915 – 1991) was an eminent Indian Urdu writer. ... Krishan Chander was an afsaana nigaar, or short story writer. ... Ghulam Abbas was an afsaana nigaar, or short story writer. ... Banu Qudsia was an afsaana nigaar, or short story writer. ... Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi (Born 1916) is an Urdu language Pakistani poet, journalist, literary critic and short story writer. ...


Novels form a genre of their own, in the tradition of the English novel. This article is about the literary concept. ...


Other genres include saférnāma (i.e: Odyssey, lit: travel story), mazmoon (essay), sarguzisht, inshaeya, murasela, and khud navvisht (i.e: Autobiography).


Poetry

Main article: Urdu poetry
Mirza Ghalib (1796–1869), a respected poet of Urdu.
Mirza Ghalib (1796–1869), a respected poet of Urdu.

Urdu has been the premier language of poetry in South Asia for two centuries, and has developed a rich tradition in a variety of poetic genres. The 'Ghazal' in Urdu represents the most popular form of subjective poetry, while the 'Nazm' exemplifies the objective kind, often reserved for narrative, descriptive, didactic or satirical purposes. Under the broad head of the Nazm we may also include the classical forms of poems known by specific names such as 'Masnavi' (a long narrative poem in rhyming couplets on any theme: romantic, religious, or didactic), 'Marsia' (an elegy traditionally meant to commemorate the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Hussain Alla hiss salam, grandson of Prophet Muhammad Sal lal laho allaha wa allahe wa sallam, and his comrades of the Karbala fame), or 'Qasida' (a panegyric written in praise of a king or a nobleman), for all these poems have a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded. However, these poetic species have an old world aura about their subject and style, and are different from the modern Nazm, supposed to have come into vogue in the later part of the nineteenth century. Urdu poetry (Urdu: اردو شاعری, Urdu Shayari) is one of the most dominant and prominent poetries of times and has many different colours & types. ... Image File history File links Ghalib. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Masnavi or Masnavi-I Manavi (Persian: مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of both Sufism and Persian literature. ... Marsiya (Marsia, Marsiya-Khwani, or Soazkhwani) (Persian: مرثیہ) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ...

Foreign forms such as the sonnet, azad nazm (a.k.a Free verse) and haiku have also been used by some modern Urdu poets. Diwan (Persian دیوان), also transliterated as Deewan or Divan, is a Persian word used also in to Arabic (Arabic: الدیوان) and Turkish, and was borrowed also at an earlier date into Armenian. ... Doha (Hindi: दोहा, Persian: دوہا ) is a form of self-contained rhyming couplet in poetry. ... Geet (Hindi: गीत, Urdu: گیت ) is a word in several Indo-Aryan languages, deriving from the Sanskrit word geeta, which means a song or a poem. ... This article is about the poetic form. ... Mohammed Taqi (Urdu: محمد تقی) (b. ... Mirza Asadullah Beg Khan Ghalib1 (also known as Mirza Ghalib) (December 27, 1797 - February 15, 1869) was an Indian poet who wrote in Urdu and Persian. ... Mount Damavand in winter, Iran A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Faiz Ahmed Faiz (January 7, 1910 - 1984), is considered by many to be a poet in the great tradition of Urdu poets like Ghalib and Iqbal. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Makhdoom (Urdu: مخدوم ) is a popular family name in Pakistan. ... A hamd (حمد) is a poem or song in praise of God. ... Kalam (Arabic: کلام ) means discussion. In Persian and Urdu poetry, Kalam refers to total poetic work of a poet. ... Kulyat (Persian: کلیات ) is a collection poetry of a poet. ... Marsiya (Marsia, Marsiya-Khwani, or Soazkhwani) (Persian: مرثیہ) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala. ... The Masnavi or Masnavi-I Manavi (Persian: مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of both Sufism and Persian literature. ... Musaddas is a genre of Urdu poetry in which each unit consists of 6 lines (misra). ... Mukhammas(cinquain or pentastich) refers to a type of Persian or Urdu poetry with Sufi connections based on a pentameter. ... A Naat (Persian: نعت ) is poetry that specifically praises Muhammad. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Noha (Urdu: نوحہ) is a genre of Punjabi, Farsi, or Urdu prose depicting the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. ... Qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ... The rubai (plural rubaiyat) is a Persian and Urdu verse form. ... In the Indian Muslim Traditions, especially in Gangatic plains and Hyderabad (Deccan), there is a social ritual where the sisters of the groom sing a song in praise of the groom and pray to God for his future wedded life. ... Soz may refer to Soz (rapper) Rap/Hip Hop recording artist from the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be... For the operating system, see Haiku (operating system). ...


Probably the most widely recited, and memorised genre of contemporary Urdu poetry is nāt—panegyric poetry written in praise of the Prophet Muhammad Sal lal laho allaha wa allahe wa sallam. Nāt can be of any formal category, but is most commonly in the ghazal form. The language used in Urdu nāt ranges from the intensely colloquial to a highly Persianised formal language. The great early twentieth century scholar Imam Ahmad Raza Khan, who wrote many of the most well known nāts in Urdu, epitomised this range in a ghazal of nine stanzas (bayt) in which every stanza contains half a line each of Arabic, Persian, formal Urdu, and colloquial Hindi. The same poet composed a salām—a poem of greeting to the Prophet Muhammad Sal lal laho allaha wa allahe wa sallam, derived from the unorthodox practice of qiyam, or standing, during the mawlid, or celebration of the birth of the Prophet—Mustafā Jān-e Rahmat, which, due to being recited on Fridays in some Urdu speaking mosques throughout the world, is probably the more frequently recited Urdu poems of the modern era. A Naat (Persian: نعت ) is poetry that specifically praises Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ahmad Raza Khan was a great scholor of Islamic World ... Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad. ...


Another important genre of Urdu prose are the poems commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Hussain Allah hiss salam and Battle of Karbala, called noha (نوحہ) and marsia. Anees and Dabeer are famous in this regard. Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... Noha (Urdu: نوحہ) is a genre of Punjabi, Farsi, or Urdu prose depicting the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. ... Marsiya (Marsia, Marsiya-Khwani, or Soazkhwani) (Persian: مرثیہ) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala. ... Mir Babar Ali Anis (1803-1874) was born in Faizabad in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Urdu poetry terminology

Ash'ār (اشعار) (Couplet). It consists of two lines, Misra (مصرعہ); first line is called Misra-e-oola (مصرع اولی) and the second is called 'Misra-e-sānī' (مصرعہ ثانی). Each verse embodies a single thought or subject (sing) She'r (شعر).


Urdu poetry example

As in Ghalib's famous couplet where he compares himself to his great predecessor, the master poet Mir:[25] Mirza Asadullah Beg Khan Ghalib1 (also known as Mirza Ghalib) (December 27, 1797 - February 15, 1869) was an Indian poet who wrote in Urdu and Persian. ... Mohammed Taqi (Urdu: محمد تقی) (b. ...

ریختا کے تم ہی استاد نہیں ہو غالب
کہتے ہیں اگلے زمانے میں کوئی میر بھی تھا

Transliteration
Rekhta ke tumhin ustād nahīn ho Ghālib
Kahte hainn agle zamāne meinn ko'ī Mīr bhī thā

Translation
You are not the only master of poetry O'Ghalib,
They say, in the past; was also someone Mir

History

Main article: History of Urdu

Urdu developed as local Indo-Aryan dialects came under the influence of the Muslim courts that ruled South Asia from the early thirteenth century. The official language of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, and their successor states, as well as the cultured language of poetry and literature, was Persian, while the language of religion was Arabic. Most of the Sultans and nobility in the Sultanate period were Persianised Turks from Central Asia who spoke Turkish as their mother tongue. The Mughals were also from Persianized Central Asia, but spoke Turkish as their first language; however the Mughals later adopted Persian. Persian became the preferred language of the Muslim elite of north India before the Mughals entered the scene. Babur's mother tongue was Turkish and he wrote exclusively in Turkish. His son and successor Humayun also spoke and wrote in Turkish. Muzaffar Alam, a noted scholar of Mughal and Indo-Persian history, suggests that Persian became the lingua franca of the empire under Akbar for various political and social factors due to its non-sectarian and fluid nature.[26] The mingling of these languages led to a vernacular that is the ancestor of today's Urdu. Dialects of this vernacular are spoken today in cities and villages throughout Pakistan and northern India. Cities with a particularly strong tradition of Urdu include Hyderabad, Karachi, Lucknow and Lahore. The history of Urdu (اردو) is a fascinating story involving history, linguistics, ethnicity, religion, and national identity. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


The name Urdu

The term Urdu came into use when Shah Jahan built the Red Fort in Delhi. The word Urdu itself comes from a Turkic word ordu, "tent" or "army", from which English also gets the word "horde". Hence Urdu is sometimes called "Lashkarī zabān" or the language of the army. Furthermore, armies of India often contained soldiers with various native tongues. Hence, Urdu was the chosen language to address the soldiers as it abridged several languages. Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... There used to be a redirect from the Red Fort in Delhi to Agra Fort in Agra. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


Wherever Muslim soldiers and officials settled, they carried Urdu with them. Urdu enjoyed commanding status in the literary courts of late Muslim rulers and Nawabs, and flourished under their patronage, partially displacing Persian as the language of elite in the then Indian society. Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


Urdu continued as one of many languages in Northwest India. In 1947, Urdu was established as the national language of Pakistan in the hope that this move would unite and homogenise the various ethnic groups of the new nation. Urdu suddenly went from a language of a minority to the language of the majority. It also became the official language of some of the various states of India. Today, Urdu is taught throughout Pakistani schools and spoken in government positions, and it is also common in much of Northern India. Urdu's sister language, Hindi, is the official language of India. Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar...


Urdu and Hindi

Because of their great similarities of grammar and core vocabularies, many linguists do not distinguish between Hindi and Urdu as separate languages—at least not in reference to the informal spoken registers. For them, ordinary informal Urdu and Hindi can be seen as variants of the same language (Hindustani) with the difference being that Urdu is supplemented with a Perso-Arabic vocabulary and Hindi a Sanskritic vocabulary. Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari. The standard, "proper" grammars of both languages are based on Khariboli grammar — the dialect of the Delhi region. So, with respect to grammar, the languages are mutually intelligible when spoken, and can be thought of as the same language. The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Khariboli (also Khadiboli, Khadi-Boli, or Khari dialect), (/ /; Hindi: खड़ी बोली; Urdu: كهڑى بولى, khaṛī bolÄ«; lit. ...


Despite their similar grammars, however, Standard Urdu and Standard Hindi are distinct languages in regards to their very different vocabularies, their writing systems, and their political and sociolinguistic connotations. Put simply, in the context of everyday casual speech, Hindi and Urdu can be considered dialects of the same language. In terms of their mutual intelligibility in their formal or "proper" registers, however, they are much less mutually intelligible and can be considered separate languages—they have basically the same grammar but very different vocabularies. There are two fundamental distinctions between them:

  • The source of vocabulary (borrowed from Persian or inherited from Sanskrit): In colloquial situations in much of the Indian subcontinent, where neither learned vocabulary nor writing is used, the distinction between the Urdu and Hindi is very small.
  • The most important distinction at this level is in the script: if written in the Perso-Arabic script, the language is generally considered to be Urdu, and if written in Devanagari it is generally considered to be Hindi. Since the Partition of India, the formal registers used in education and the media in India have become increasingly divergent from Urdu in their vocabulary. Where there is no colloquial word for a concept, Standard Urdu uses Perso-Arabic vocabulary, while Standard Hindi uses Sanskrit vocabulary. This results in the official languages being heavily Sanskritised or Persianised, and unintelligible to speakers educated in the other standard (as far as the formal vocabulary is concerned).

Hindustani is the name often given to the language as it developed over hundreds of years throughout India (which formerly included what is now Pakistan). In the same way that the core vocabulary of English evolved from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) but includes a large number of words borrowed from French and other languages (whose pronunciations often changed naturally so as to become easier for speakers of English to pronounce), what may be called Hindustani can be said to have evolved from Sanskrit while borrowing many Persian and Arabic words over the years, and changing the pronunciations (and often even the meanings) of those words to make them easier for Hindustani speakers to pronounce. Therefore, Hindustani is the language as it evolved organically. Farsi redirects here. ... This article is under construction. ... Hindustani redirects here. ...


Linguistically speaking, Standard Hindi is a form of colloquial Hindustani, with lesser use of Persian and Arabic loanwords, while inheriting its formal vocabulary from Sanskrit; Standard Urdu is also a form of Hindustani, de-Sanskritised, with its a significant part of formal vocabulary consisting of loanwords from Persian and Arabic. The difference, thus is in the vocabulary, and not the structure of the language. The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ...


The difference is also sociolinguistic: When people speak Hindustani (i.e., when they are speaking colloquially) speakers who are Muslims will usually say that they are speaking Urdu, and those who are Hindus will typically say that they are speaking Hindi, even though they are speaking essentially the same language.


The two standardised registers of Hindustani — Hindi and Urdu — have become so entrenched as separate languages that often nationalists, both Muslim and Hindu, claim that Hindi and Urdu have always been separate languages. However, there are unifying forces. For example, it is said that Indian Bollywood films are made in "Hindi", but the language used in most of them is almost the same as that of Urdu speakers. The dialogue is frequently developed in English and later translated to an intentionally neutral Hindustani which can be easily understood by speakers of most North Indian languages, both in India and in Pakistan. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ...


Also see Hindi. Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


Urdu and Bollywood

A typical 1970s Bollywood poster
A typical 1970s Bollywood poster

The Indian film industry based in Mumbai is often called Bollywood (بالی وڈ). The dialogues in Bollywood movies are written using a vocabulary that could be understood by Urdu and Hindi speakers alike. The film industry wants to reach the largest possible audience, and it cannot do that if the vocabulary of the dialogues is too one-sidedly Sanskritized or Persianized. This rule is broken only for song lyrics, which use elevated, poetic language. Often, this means using poetic Urdu words (of Arabic and Persian origin) or poetic Hindi words (of Sanskrit origin). A few films, like Umrao Jaan, Pakeezah, and Mughal-e-azam, have used vocabulary that leans more towards Urdu, as they depict places and times when Urdu would have been used.[27]. Hindi movies that are based on Hindu mythological stories always use Sanskritized Hindi. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Umrao Jaan (Urdu: امراؤ جان, Hindi: उमराव जान) is a Bollywood film released in 1981. ... Pakeezah (Hindi: पाक़ीज़ा, Urdu: پاکیزہ، lit. ... Mughal-e-Azam (Urdu: مغلِ اعظم, Hindi: मुग़ल-ए आज़म) is an Indian romance film, a product of the Bollywood movie industry. ...


From the 1950s through the 1970s, Bollywood films displayed the name of the film in Hindi, Urdu, and Roman scripts. Most Bollywood films today present film titles in the Roman alphabet, although some also include the Devanagari and Nasta`liq scripts. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Dakkhini Urdu

Dakkhini Urdu is a dialect of the Urdu language spoken in the Deccan region of southern India. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Telugu, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Turkish that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. In terms of pronunciation, the easiest way to recognize a native speaker is their pronunciation of the letter "qāf" (ﻕ) as "kh" (ﺥ). The majority of people who speak this language are from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mysore and parts of Chennai. Dakkhin Urdu mainly spoken by the Muslims living in these areas can also be divided into 2 dialects, North Dakkhini spoken in a wide range from South Maharashtra, Gulbarga and mainly Hyderabad while the South Dakkhini is spoken along Central Karnataka, Bangalore, North Tamil Nadu extending uptil Chennai and Nellore in Andhra Pradesh. For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Hyderabad   or Haydarābād // ( Urdu:حیدر آباد), (Telugu:హైదరాబాదు) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... , Madras redirects here. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Gulbarga is a town in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Madras redirects here. ... Andhra redirects here. ...



Distinct words, very typical of Dakkhini dialect of Urdu:


Nakko (instead of Nahi in Traditional Urdu) =No


Hau (instead of Han in Traditional Urdu) =Yes


Kaiku (instead of Kyun in Traditional Urdu) =Why


Mereku (North Dakkhini), Manje (South Dakkhin) (instead of Mujhe in Traditional Urdu) = For me


Tereku (North Dakkhini), Tuje (South Dakkhini) (instead of Tujhe in Traditional Urdu) =For you


Also see: Dakkhini Dakkhini, also known as Deccani is a dialect of the Urdu language spoken in the Deccan region of southern India, centered around the city of Hyderabad, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ The Council. National Council for Promotion of Urdu language. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  2. ^ A Historical Perspective of Urdu. National Council for Promotion of Urdu language. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  3. ^ North Carolina State University: About Hindi-Urdu by Afroz Taj
  4. ^ Language in India: Hindustani as an Anxiety between Hindi-Urdu Commitment by S. Imtiaz Hasnain, Ph.D. and K. S. Rajyashree, Ph.D.
  5. ^ UC Davis University of California: Hindi-Urdu Program, Middle East & South Asia Studies, UC Davis
  6. ^ Most Widely Spoken Languages. Saint Ignatius. Retrieved on 2007-06-23.
  7. ^ India Travelite: Holy Places - Ajmer
  8. ^ Ethnologue Report for India. SIL Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  9. ^ Ethnologue Report for Pakistan. SIL Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  10. ^ Ethnologue Report for Bangladesh
  11. ^ Ethnologue Report for Saudi Arabia
  12. ^ Ethnologue Report for South Africa
  13. ^ Canada: Language Profile
  14. ^ Statistics Norway
  15. ^ Pakistan Link: Desi Salsa in Barcelona
  16. ^ Answers.com: Demographics of Sweden
  17. ^ Ethnologue Report for Urdu
  18. ^ Zia, Khaver (1999), "A Survey of Standardization in Urdu". 4th Symposium on Multilingual Information Processing, (MLIT-4), Yangon, Myanmar. CICC, Japan
  19. ^ see Urdu at Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia
  20. ^ Phukan, 2000.
  21. ^ Ethnologue report for Hindi
  22. ^ King, 1994.
  23. ^ Ahmad, R., 2006.
  24. ^ The News, Karachi, Pakistan: Roman Urdu by Habib R Sulemani
  25. ^ Columbia University: Ghazal 36, Verse 11
  26. ^ Alam, Muzaffar. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349.
  27. ^ Hindi? Urdu? Hindustani? Hindi-Urdu?

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Encarta Dictionary Technology (to be written) Encarta made use of various Microsoft technologies. ...

References

  • Ahmad, Rizwan. 2006. "Voices people write: Examining Urdu in Devanagari". http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/NWAV/Abstracts/Papr172.pdf
  • Alam, Muzaffar. 1998. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349.
  • Asher, R. E. (Ed.). 1994. The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
  • Azad, Muhammad Husain. 2001 [1907]. Ab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation]
  • Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259).
  • Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course)
  • Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course)
  • Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Hindustani. In Asher, 1994; pp. 1554.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Urdu. In Asher, 1994; pp. 4863–4864.
  • Kelkar, A. R. 1968. Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology. Poona: Deccan College.
  • Khan, M. H. 1969. Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 5). The Hague: Mouton.
  • King, Christopher R. 1994. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
  • Narang, G. C. and D. A. Becker. 1971. Aspiration and nasalization in the generative phonology of Hindi-Urdu. Language, 47, 646–767.
  • Ohala, M. 1972. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).
  • "A Desertful of Roses", a site about Ghalib's Urdu ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
  • Phukan, S. 2000. The Rustic Beloved: Ecology of Hindi in a Persianate World, The Annual of Urdu Studies, vol 15, issue 5, pp. 1–30
  • Rahim, Rizwana. Urdu in India, 3-part review:
  • Rai, Amrit. 1984. A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X.
  • Snell, Rupert Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC
  • URDU Poetry by an Eminent Poet from INDIA - Barq Kadapavi

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Urdu

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... This article is about the poetic form. ... Indian languages redirects here. ... Most of the languages of Pakistan are part of the family of Indo-European languages and span the Indo-Iranian range of that family with the Indo-Aryan languages predominant in the east and the Iranian languages the most significant in the west as well as Dardic languages in the... Listed below are major Urdu poets, sorted by date of birth. ... This is a list of Urdu language writers: Mirza Ghalib Ghazanfar Shakir Nayati Zaheer Hussain Salik Shakir Nayati Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Muhammad Husain Azad Mira Farhatullah Baig Deputy Nazir Ahmad Mohsin-ul-Mulk Altaf Hussain Hali Chiragh Ali Shibli Nomani Abdul Halim Sharar Aga Hashar Kashmiri Premchand (1885-1936... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization scheme was proposed by the late Syed Fasih Uddin and the late Quader Unissa Begum for the Romanization of Urdu-Hindustani. ... Urdu Digest is a famous periodical in Pakistan. ... Urdu Informatics (Urdu: اردو اطلاعیات) relates to the cutting-edge research and efforts in bringing the utilities and usage of Urdu language to the modern information and communication technologies in education and businesses. ... Urdu keyboard refers to the keyboard layout on Urdu computer and typewriter keyboards. ... Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... Urdu poetry (Urdu: اردو شاعری, Urdu Shayari) is one of the most dominant and prominent poetries of times and has many different colours & types. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Urdu edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...

About the language

Research

Professional Publications

  • The Annual of Urdu Studies - the major English-language open access humanities journal dedicated to Urdu
  • Urdustan.com - the oldest Urdu website ( since 1998).

Online dictionaries

Online Urdu script instruction

  • UK India: Learn to Read Urdu
  • Urdu Calligraphy
  • Urdu Alphabet with Devanagari equivalents
  • Urdu Extension Urdu Extension parses the Urdu text in real time and replaces with a matched ligature

News and current affairs

  • Urdu Tech News - First online newspaper providing technology related news & tutorials in Urdu.
  • akhbaar - headlines from popular Urdu newspapers.
  • Hindustan Express Daily Urdu Newspaper
  • Urdu - Worlds Leading Urdu Site
  • Urdu - Poetry, Interview, Travelogue, Multimedia Links.
  • The Inquilab Urdu Daily: India's Leading Urdu Daily
  • Daily Jang: Leading Urdu Newspaper of Pakistan
  • Urdu News - Worlds Largest Urdu News
  • BBC News in Urdu
  • Salar Publications
  • Daily Jasarat Online Urdu newspaper
  • UrduWare News Consolidated Online Urdu News and Links
  • Daily Express Read Urdu News online.

Libraries and literature

  • UrduInn.com Urdu Shair-o-Shairi Collection
  • u4u.com Over 516,000 pages of Urdu Literature
  • Allama Iqbal Urdu cyber library Digital library of Urdu books
  • Kitaab Ghar Free online Urdu Digital Library of Books & Literature
  • FreeUrduBooks.Com Huge Collection of Urdu Books
  • Urdu pages: Urdu educational website
  • UrduArticles.com Read 10,000 Urdu articles by 2010

Urdu Community

  • Free Urdu Blogging Service
  • Urdu Community Forum: Urdu Language
  • Pakistan's bigget Urdu Community (Uni-Code)

Urdu magazines

  • ITMesh magazine - First online urdu IT magazine
  • IBITIANS.com Best Urdu Site, Literature, Columns & Articles
  • Ibtada.com Largest Urdu Magazine
  • Computingpk کمپیوٹنگ: Premier Urdu computing magazine in Pakistan

  Results from FactBites:
 
Urdu alphabet, pronunciation and language (195 words)
Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language with about 104 million speakers, including those who speak it as a second language.
Urdu is also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, the UAE, the UK and Zambia.
Urdu has been written with a version of the Perso-Arabic script since the 12th century and is normally written in Nastaliq style.
ShaikhSiddiqui Urdu (3560 words)
It is a common assumption that Urdu was born in the Mughal camps of Emperor Mohammad Shah Jahan (1628–58 CE) some time during the first half of the seventeenth century.
There is evidence that the Behmani rulers used Urdu as a state language, a factor that greatly contributed to its growth.
Akbar Allahabadi (1846-1921 CE) was the pioneer among the Urdu humorists and satirists.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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