FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Urban renewal
1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicago's now demolished Cabrini-Green housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts.

Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in British English) is a process of land re-development in areas of previous moderate to high density urban land use. In Europe and the United States this process began an intense phase in the late 1940s and continued at least through the 1980s. It has had a major impact on the urban landscape of many cities and continues to do so in the present day. It has played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world, including; Beijing, China, Melbourne, Victoria; Saint John, New Brunswick; Glasgow, Scotland; Boston, Massachusetts; San Francisco, California; and Bilbao, Spain. Commonly cited examples include Canary Wharf, in London, and Cardiff in Wales. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x817, 166 KB) Summary This image was found at the Library of Congress HAER archive entry with the original caption: 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x817, 166 KB) Summary This image was found at the Library of Congress HAER archive entry with the original caption: 1. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Cabrini-Green is one of the most notorious and infamous housing projects in the world. ... Public housing describes a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... “Peking” redirects here. ... The City of Melbournes coat of arms The central business district of Melbourne, viewed from the north Alternate meanings: Melbourne (disambiguation) Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia, with a population of 52,117 in the Central... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Boston redirects here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Cardiff Bay Cardiff Bay (Welsh: Bae Caerdydd) is the regeneration area created by the Cardiff Barrage which impounded two rivers (Taff and Ely) to form a new 500 acre freshwater lake around the former dockland area south of the city centre of Cardiff in south Wales. ... This article is about the country. ...


Urban renewal is often controversial and sometimes involves the use of eminent domain (known as Compulsory Purchase in the UK), a legal instrument to reclaim private property for civic projects. The redevelopment process is envisioned as a way to redevelop residential slums, blighted commercial and industrial areas.[1][2][3]. Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner... In law, eminent domain is the power of the state to appropriate private property for its own use without the owners consent. ... Slums in Delhi, India. ... Symptoms of urban blight: graffiti-covered abandoned and deteriorating buildings and garbage-strewn vacant lots. ...


In the second half of the 20th century, renewal often resulted in the creation of urban sprawl and vast areas of cities being demolished and replaced by freeways and expressways, housing projects, and vacant lots, some of which still remain vacant at the beginning of the 21st century.[4] (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, California: a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition) A freeway, also known as a highway, superhighway, autoroute, autobahn, autostrada, dual carriageway, expressway, Autosnelweg or motorway, depending on the country of discussion, is a type of road designed for safer high-speed operation of motor vehicles... Public housing describes a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... 20XX redirects here. ...


While renewal projects have revitalized many cities, it has often been at a high cost to existing communities, and in many cases simply resulted in the destruction of vibrant—if run-down —neighborhoods. Urban renewal in its original form has been called a failure by many urban planners and civic leaders, and has since been reformulated with a focus on redevelopment of existing communities. However, many cities link the revitalization of the central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal programs. Over time, urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, and today is an integral part of many local governments, often combined with small and big business incentives. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A small business may be defined as a business with a small number of employees. ... Big Business or big business is a term used to describe large corporations, individually or collectively. ...

Contents

History

Although urban renewal goes back at least to the rebuilding of Rome by Augustus, modern attempts can be said to have started with late-19th century Paris and Baron Haussmann. By the end of the Second Empire, Paris was the cultural center of Europe and one of the world's most developed cities. Nevertheless, the physical infrastructure of the city was failing in the face of increasingly rapid growth—as the effects of the Industrial Revolution took hold and combined with the economic impacts of war and social upheaval. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... The canonical example of Second Empire style is the Opéra Garnier, in which Neo-Baroque meets Neo-Renaissance. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


From the 1850s into the 1870s, Haussmann supervised a program which demolished large areas of slums and narrow cross-streets, replacing them with new neighborhoods, plazas and traffic circles, and the broad, tree-lined boulevards that are still the hallmark of Paris. His program also rebuilt other infrastructure and services in the city: railroad lines, removal of garbage, and large parks. It also led to large numbers of the working class and the poor being forced to move to the suburban areas of Paris; 20th century redevelopment in Paris also has been criticized for favouring the wealthy and pushing poor and minorities out of the central area.[5] // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ...


Another story of urban renewal was the work of Robert Moses in the redevelopment of New York City and New York State from the 1930s into the 1970s. Moses directed the construction of new bridges, highways, housing projects, and public parks. Moses was a controversial figure, both for his single-minded zeal and for its impact on New York City, as sweeping as Haussmann's was in Paris. Moses is responsible for most major traffic arteries in the city and for its largest parks, except Central Park and Prospect Park. This is about the urban planner; for other uses, see Robert Moses (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Public housing describes a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... Prospect Park is a 526 acre (2. ...


Urban Renewal in the United States

Redlining and segregation

Main article: Redlining

Redlining began with the National Housing Act of 1934 which established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to improve housing conditions and standards, and later led to the formation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). While it was designed to develop housing for poor residents of urban areas, that act also required cities to target specific areas and neighborhoods for different racial groups, and certain areas of cities were not eligible to receive loans at all. This meant that ethnic minorities could only secure mortgages in certain areas, and resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation in the United States. For the automotive term, see redline. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... The National Housing Act of 1934 was passed during the Great Depression in order to make housing and home mortgages more affordable. ... The FHAs logo The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is a United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. ... The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, often abbreviated HUD, is a Cabinet department of the United States government. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... This article is about the legal mechanism used to secure property in favor of a creditor. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation...


This was followed by the Housing Act of 1937, which created the U.S. Housing Agency and the nation's first public housing program—the Low Rent Public Housing Program. This program began the large public housing projects that later became one of the hallmarks of urban renewal in the United States: it provided funding to local governments to build new public housing, but required that slum housing be demolished prior to any construction.


Postwar problems and suburban growth

In 1944, the GI Bill (officially the Serviceman's Readjustment Act) guaranteed Veterans Administration (VA) mortgages to veterans under favorable terms, which fueled suburbanization after the end of World War II, as places like Levittown, New York, Warren, Michigan and the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles were transformed from farmland into cities occupied by tens of thousands of families in a few short years. The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. ... The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for administering programs of veterans benefits for veterans, their families, and survivors. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Levittown, a suburb of New York City, is a hamlet and unincorporated political subdivision of New York State located on Long Island in Nassau County, New York. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Macomb Incorporated 1957 Government  - Type Council-Strong Mayor  - Mayor Mark A. Steenbergh Area  - City  34. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...


Housing Act of 1949

Title One of the Housing Act of 1949 kickstarted the "urban renewal" program that would reshape American cities. The Act provided federal funding to cities to cover the cost of acquiring areas of cities perceived to be "slums." (The Federal government paid 2/3 of the cost of acquiring the site, called the "write down," while local governments paid the remaining 1/3.) Those sites were then given to private developers to construct new housing. The phrase used at the time was "urban redevelopment." "Urban renewal" was a phrase popularized with the passage of the 1954 Housing Act, which made these projects more enticing to developers, by among other things, providing FHA-backed mortgages.


Urban destruction

Under the powerful influence of multimillionaire R.K. Mellon, Pittsburgh became the first major city to undertake a modern urban-renewal program in May 1950. Pittsburgh was infamous around the world as one of the dirtiest and most economically depressed cities, and seemed ripe for urban renewal. A large section of downtown at the heart of the city was demolished, converted to parks, office buildings, and a sports arena and renamed the Golden Triangle in what was universally recognized as a major success. Other neighborhoods were also subjected to urban renewal, but with mixed results. Some areas did improve, while other areas, such as East Liberty and Lower Hill declined following ambitious projects that shifted traffic patterns, blocked streets to vehicular traffic, isolated or divided neighborhoods with highways, and removed large numbers of ethnic and minority residents. Richard King Mellon (June 19, 1899–June 3, 1970), commonly known as R.K., was an American financier from Ligonier, Pennsylvania. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Downtown Pittsburgh, sometimes called the Golden Triangle, is located at the precise confluence of the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River. ... The following places are named East Liberty: East Liberty, Ohio East Liberty, Pennsylvania, a neighborhood of Pittsburgh Category: ...


In 1956, the Federal-Aid Highway Act gave state and federal government complete control over new highways, and often they were routed directly through vibrant urban neighborhoods—isolating or destroying many—since the focus of the program was to bring traffic in and out of the central cores of cities as expeditiously as possible and nine out of every ten dollars spent came from the federal government. This resulted in a serious degradation of the tax bases of many cities, isolated entire neighborhoods, and meant that existing commercial districts were bypassed by the majority of commuters. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act, was enacted on June 29, 1956, when a hospitalized Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law. ... A tax is a compulsory charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... Commuting is the process of travelling from a place of residence to a place of work. ...


Segregation continued to increase as communities were displaced and many African Americans and Latinos were left with no other option than moving into public housing while Whites moved to the suburbs in ever-greater numbers. For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ...


In Boston, one of the country's oldest cities, almost a third of the old city was demolished—including the historic West End—to make way for a new highway, low- and moderate-income high-rises (which eventually became luxury housing), and new government and commercial buildings. Later, this would be seen a tragedy by many residents and urban planners, and one of the centerpieces of the redevelopment—Government Center—is still considered an example of the excesses of urban renewal. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... The West End of Boston, Massachusetts is a neighborhood bounded generally by Cambridge Street to the south, the Charles River to the west and northwest, Martha Road and Lomasney Way on the north and northeast, and Staniford Street on the west. ... Government Center circa 2000 Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ...


Reactions against urban renewal

In 1961, Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of Great American Cities, one of the first—and strongest—critiques of contemporary large-scale urban renewal. However, it would still be a few years before organized movements began to oppose urban renewal. Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs, OC, O.Ont (May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-born Canadian urbanist, writer and activist. ... The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs, is arguably the most influential book written on urban planning in the 20th century. ...


In 1964, the Civil Rights Act removed racial deed restrictions on housing. This began desegregation of residential neighborhoods, but redlining continued to mean that real estate agents continued to steer ethnic minorities to certain areas. The riots that swept cities across the country from 1965 to 1967 damaged or destroyed additional areas of major cities—most drastically in Detroit during the 12th Street Riot. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... The riot featured on the cover of the August 4, 1967 edition of Time magazine. ...


By the 1970s many major cities developed opposition to the sweeping urban-renewal plans for their cities. In Boston, community activists halted construction of the proposed Southwest Expressway—but only after a three-mile long stretch of land had been cleared. In San Francisco, Joseph Alioto was the first mayor to publicly repudiate the policy of urban renewal, and with the backing of community groups, forced the state to end construction of highways through the heart of the city. Between 1956 and 1966, more than 12% of the people in Atlanta lost their homes to urban renewal [citation needed], expressways, and a downtown building boom turned the city into the showcase of the New South in the 1970s and 1980s. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Southwest Corridor or Southwest Expressway was a project designed to bring an eight-lane highway into the City of Boston from a direction southwesterly of downtown. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Joseph Lawrence Alioto (b. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... New South is a term that has been used intermittently since the American Civil War to describe the American South, in whole or in part. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


From "urban renewal" to "community development"

Some of the policies around urban renewal began to change under President Lyndon Johnson and the War on Poverty, and in 1968, the Housing and Urban Development Act and The New Communities Act of 1968 guaranteed private financing for private entrepreneurs to plan and develop new communities. Subsequently, the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 established the Community Development Block Grant program (CDBG) which began in earnest the focus on redevelopment of existing neighborhoods and properties, rather than demolition of substandard housing and economically depressed areas. Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), one of the longest-running programs of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, funds local community development activities such as affordable housing, anti-poverty programs, and infrastructure development. ...


Currently, a mix of renovation, selective demolition, commercial development, and tax incentives is most often used to revitalize urban neighborhoods. Though not without its critics—gentrification is still controversial, and often results in familiar patterns of poorer residents being priced out of urban areas into suburbs or more depressed areas of cities—urban renewal in its present form is generally regarded as a great improvement over the policies of the middle part of the 20th century. Some programs, such as that administered by Fresh Ministries and Operation New Hope in Jacksonville, Florida attempt to develop communities, while at the same time combining highly favorable loan programs with financial literacy education so that poorer residents may still be able to afford their restored neighborhoods. Other programs, such as that in Castleford in the UK and known as The Castleford Project [1] seek to establish a process of urban renewal which enables local citizens to have greater control and ownership of the direction of their community and the way in which it overcomes market failure. This supports important themes in urban renewal today, such as participation,sustainability and trust - and government acting as advocate and 'enabler', rather than an instrument of command and control. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Fresh Ministries is a non-profit charity based in Jacksonville, Florida. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... Arms of the former Castleford Borough Council Castleford is one of the five towns in the Wakefield borough, in the county of West Yorkshire, England, near to Pontefract, with a population of 37,525 according to the 2001 Census. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ...


During the 1990s the concept of culture-led regeneration gained ground. Examples most often cited as successes include Temple Bar in Dublin where tourism was attracted to a bohemian 'cultural quarter', Barcelona where the 1992 Olympics provided a catalyst for infrastructure improvements and the redevelopment of the water front area, and Bilbao where the building of a new art museum was the focus for a new business district around the city's derelict dock area. The approach has become very popular in the UK due to the availability of lottery funding for capital projects and the vibrancy of the cultural and creative sectors. However, while the arrival of Tate Modern in the London borough of Southwark may be heralded as a catalyst to economic revival in its surrounding neighborhood, some civic authorities in the UK - for instance Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Gateshead have been accused of investing in cultural facilities at the cost of other programs and projects. Temple Bar (Barra an Teampaill in Irish) is an area on the south bank of the River Liffey in central Dublin, Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... Tate Modern from the Millennium Bridge Tate Modern from St Pauls Cathedral. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ... , Newcastle upon Tyne (usually shortened to Newcastle) is a large city in Tyne and Wear, England. ... This article is about Gateshead, England. ...


Long-term implications

While urban renewal never lived up to the hopes of its original proponents, it has played an undeniably important role in cities throughout the United States, England, and many other nations. It has been hotly debated by politicians, urban planners, civic leaders, and current and former residents of the areas where urban renewal took place in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. It has brought economic and cultural development to many cities, but often at a great cost to low-income and minority communities living in them. It has also played a role in the economic devastation faced by many of the major industrial cities in the United States since the 1940s. Urban renewal continues to evolve as successes and failures are examined and new models of development and redevelopment are tested and implemented. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ...


See also

Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Part of the old steel mill serves as a statue in central park This article describes a recently developed mixed-use neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... A view of Torontos Distillery District The Distillery District is a historic district to the east of the downtown core of Toronto, Canada, spanning 13 acres (52,000 square metres) and comprised of more than 40 heritage buildings and 10 streets. ... , Regent Park Boundaries Regent Park in Winter Alternate uses: Regents Park (disambiguation) Regent Park is a neighbourhood located in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... For other projects of the same name, see Big Dig. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ... The Millennium Dome and Canary Wharf from the Royal Victoria Dock. ... Southbank, across the Yarra from Melbourne City Southbank is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia in the state of Victoria. ... The Melbourne Docklands is a new inner city suburb and Urban renewal project in Melbourne, Australia. ... This article is about the Chicago community area. ... This is a list of planned cities (sometimes known as planned communities or new towns) by country. ... List of urban planners chronological by initial year of plan. ... A new town, planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... Any piece of real estate can be the subject of a Phase I ESA. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is a report prepared for a real estate holding which identifies potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Centre City San Diego at night, as seen from the north. ... Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ... Broadly, Urban Economics is the economic study of urban areas. ... An Urban planner is a professional who works in the field of urban planning. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... The West End of Boston, Massachusetts is a neighborhood bounded generally by Cambridge Street to the south, the Charles River to the west and northwest, Martha Road and Lomasney Way on the north and northeast, and Staniford Street on the west. ...

General Bibliography

  1. ^ The story of urban renewal: In East Liberty and elsewhere, Pittsburgh's dominant public policy tool didn't work out as planned Sunday, May 21, 2000, By Dan Fitzpatrick, Post-Gazette Staff Writer
  2. ^ Urban Renewal: How Corruption Operates locally
  3. ^ Harsh urban renewal in New Orleans: Poor, black residents cannot afford to return, worry city will exclude them
  4. ^ [http://www.villagevoice.com/news/9911,lobbia,4486,5.html Bowery Bummer: Downtown Plan Will Make and Break History, J. A. Lobbia March 17, 1999
  5. ^ Paris in Construction, Leonard Downie Jr., 1972

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Urban renewal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2170 words)
Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in British English) is a function of urban planning that in the United States reached its peak from the late 1940s through to the early 1970s.
Urban renewal is controversial, as it often implies the use of eminent domain law to enforce reclaiming private property for civic projects.
Urban renewal continues to evolve as successes and failures are examined and new models of development and redevelopment are tested and implemented.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m